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الوطاسيون - al-waṭṭāsīyūn
ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ - Iweṭṭāsen
Map of the Wattasid sultanate (dark red) and its vassal states (light red)
|Status||Ruling dynasty of Morocco|
|Common languages||Berber languages, Arabic|
|Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya|
|Abu Abd Allah al-Burtuqali Muhammad ibn Muhammad|
The Wattasid dynasty (Berber languages : ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen; Arabic : الوطاسيون, al-waṭṭāsīyūn) was a ruling dynasty of Morocco. Like the Marinid dynasty, its rulers were of Zenata Berber descent. The two families were related, and the Marinids recruited many viziers from the Wattasids. These viziers assumed the powers of the Sultans, seizing control of the Marinid dynasty's realm when the last Marinid, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq, who had massacred many of the Wattasids in 1459, was murdered during a popular revolt in Fez in 1465.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related languages spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa. The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.
Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. The capital is Rabat and the largest city Casablanca. Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 35 million.
Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya was the first Sultan of the Wattasid Dynasty. He controlled only the northern part of Morocco, the south being divided into several principalities. The Wattasids were finally supplanted in 1554, after the Battle of Tadla, by the Saadi dynasty princes of Tagmadert who had ruled all of southern Morocco since 1511.
Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya was the first Wattasid Sultan of Morocco and King of Fez between 1472 and 1504.
The Battle of Tadla occurred in September 1554 in Tadla, Morocco, between Ali Abu Hassun, last ruler of the Wattasid dynasty, and Mohammed ash-Sheikh, ruler of the Saadis.
The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty was an Arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.
Morocco endured a prolonged multifaceted crisis in the 15th and early 16th centuries brought about by economic, political, social and cultural issues. Population growth remained stagnant and traditional commerce with the far south was cut off as the Portuguese occupied all seaports. At the same time, the towns were impoverished, and intellectual life was on the decline.
Morocco was in decline when the Amazigh Wattasids assumed power. The Wattasid family had been the autonomous governors of the eastern Rif since the late 13th century, ruling from their base in Tazouta (near present-day Nador). They had close ties to the Marinid sultans and provided many of the bureaucratic elite. While the Marinid dynasty tried to repel the Portuguese and Spanish invasions and help the kingdom of Granada to outlive the Reconquista, the Wattasids accumulated absolute power through political maneuvering. When the Marinids became aware of the extent of the conspiracy, they slaughtered the Wattasids, leaving only Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya alive. He went on to found the Kingdom of Fez and establish the dynasty to be succeeded by his son, Mohammed al-Burtuqali, in 1504.
The Rif or Riff is a mainly mountainous cultural region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Nador is a coastal city and provincial capital in the northeastern Rif region of Morocco with a population of about 161,726. It is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a salt lagoon named Sebkha Bou Areq (Arabic), Bḥar Ameẓẓyan (Berber) or Mar Chica (Spanish) and is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of the Spanish city of Melilla. Nador was founded in the 19th century and was under Spanish rule until Morocco’s independence in 1956. Nador Province has over 600,000 inhabitants, predominantly of Riff-Berber ethnicity. Nador is considered the second largest city in the Oriental East after Oujda.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro. It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held.
The Wattasid rulers failed in their promise to protect Morocco from foreign incursions and the Portuguese increased their presence on Morocco's coast. Mohammad al-Chaykh's son attempted to capture Asilah and Tangier in 1508, 1511 and 1515, but without success.
Asilah, also written Arzeila, is a fortified town on the northwest tip of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about 31 km (19 mi) south of Tangier. Its ramparts and gateworks remain fully intact.
Tangier or Tangiers is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is on the Maghreb coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. The town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco.
In the south, a new dynasty arose, the Saadian dynasty, which seized Marrakesh in 1524 and made it their capital. By 1537 the Saadis were in the ascendent when they defeated the Portuguese Empire at Agadir. Their military successes contrast with the Wattasid policy of conciliation towards the Catholic kings to the north.
Marrakesh is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca, Fez and Tangier. It is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 km (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km (149 mi) south of Casablanca, and 246 km (153 mi) northeast of Agadir.
The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. One of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.
Agadir is a major city in Morocco. Agadir is located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean near the foot of the Atlas Mountains, just north of the point where the Sus River flows into the ocean and 316 miles (509 km) south of Casablanca. It is the capital of the Agadir Ida-U-Tanan Prefecture and of the Sus-Massa economic region. The majority of its inhabitants speak Tashelhit Berber—a variety of the Berber language.
As a result, the people of Morocco tended to regard the Saadians as heroes, making it easier for them to retake the Portuguese strongholds on the coast, including Tangiers, Ceuta and Maziɣen. The Saadians also attacked the Watttasids who were forced to yield to the new power. In 1554, as Wattasid towns surrendered, the Wattasid sultan, Ali Abu Hassun, briefly retook Fez. The Saadis quickly settled the matter by killing him and, as the last Wattasids fled Morocco by ship, they too were murdered by pirates.
Ceuta is an 18.5 km2 Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 km (9 mi) from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 km (4 mi) land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa. It was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga province.
El Jadida or al-Jadida --with former names Cap Soleis, Portus Rutilis, Rusibis, Mazighen ,(p240)(p128)(p71) al-Breyja (Arabic:البريجة), Mazagão, al-Mahdouma (Arabic:المهدومة), and Mazagan -- is a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, located 100 km south of the city of Casablanca, in the province of El Jadida and the region of Casablanca-Settat. It has a population of 194,934.
Ali Abu Hassun, also Abu al Hasan Abu Hasun or Abu Hasun, full name Abu al-Hasan Abu Hasun Ali ibn Muhammad, was a Regent of the Crown of Morocco for the Wattasid dynasty, during the 16th century.
The Wattasid did little to improve general conditions in Morocco following the Reconquista. It was necessary to wait for the Saadians for order to be reestablished and the expansionist ambitions of the kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula to be curbed.
Known Wattasid coins include a few extremely rare gold coins and also square silver dirhams and half dirhams, still following the Almohad Caliphate standard of roughly 1.5 grams.
Part of a series on the
|History of Morocco|
The Zayyanid dynasty or Abd al-Wadids was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, an area of northwestern Algeria, centered on Tlemcen. The territory stretched from Tlemcen to the Chelif bend and Algiers. At its zenith, the kingdom reached the Moulouya river to the west, Sijilmasa to the south, and the Soummam river to the east. The Zayyanid dynasty's rule lasted from 1235 to 1556.
The Marinid Sultanate covered present-day Morocco and, intermittently, parts of North Africa and southern Spain around Gibraltar, from the mid-13th to the 15th century. It was ruled by the Marinid dynasty, or Banu Abd al-Haqq, a Sunni Muslim family of Zenata Berber descent.
Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman was a sultan of the Marinid dynasty who reigned in Morocco between 1331 and 1348. In 1333 he captured Gibraltar from the Castilians, although a later attempt to take Tarifa in 1339 ended in fiasco. In North Africa he extended his rule over Tlemcen and Ifriqiya, which together covered the north of what is now Algeria and Tunisia. Under him the Marinid realms in the Maghreb briefly covered an area that rivaled that of the preceding Almohad Caliphate. However, he was forced to retreat due to a revolt of the Arab tribes, was shipwrecked, and lost many of his supporters. His son Abu Inan Faris seized power in Fez. Abu Al-Hasan died in exile in the High Atlas mountains.
Mawlay Mohammed Al-Sheikh Al-Sharif Al-Hassani Al-Drawi Al-Tagmaderti known as Mohammed Al-Sheikh was the first sultan of the Saadi dynasty ruling over Morocco (1544–57). "Al-Drawi at-Tagmadert" means: the man from the Draa river valley, from Tagmadert. He was particularly successful in expelling the Portuguese from most of their bases in Morocco. He also eliminated the Wattasids and resisted the Ottomans, thereby establishing a complete rule over Morocco.
The imperial cities of Morocco are the four historical capital cities of Morocco: Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes and Rabat.
Turkey–Morocco relations covers relations between Morocco and Turkey, and spanned a period of several centuries, from the early 16th century to the 19th century when Northern Africa was taken over by France, until modern times.
Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Ziyan al-Wattasi (abū zakarīyā' yaḥyā ben ziyān al-waṭṭāsī Arabic: أبو زكرياء يحيى بن زيان الوطاس was a vizier of the Marinid sultan of Fez, regent and effective strongman ruler of Morocco from 1420 until 1448. He is the founder of the Wattasid dynasty of viziers and later sultans, and as such often designated as Yahya I in Wattasid lists. He was also known by his nickname Lazeraque, as found in Portuguese chronicles.
The Treaty of Tadla was a treaty signed in 1527 between the rival Moroccan dynasties of the Marinid Wattasids in the north of the country, and the southern Saadis. The treaty followed an inconclusive military encounter between the two parties at Tadla.
The 1465 Moroccan revolt refers to a popular revolt by local Sharifs in Fes who overthrew the last Marinid sultan. The revolt marked the end of a 215-year reign (1244–1465). The sharifs formed a jihad, against the last Marinid leader, a Jewish vizir, Aaron ben Batash, appointed by Abu Muhammad Abd Al-Haqq. They subsequently put him to death, cutting his throat. Almost all the Jewish community of Fes were also slaughtered in the revolt. As a result of the troubles in Fes, the Portuguese king Afonso V finally managed to take Tangier.
The history of Marrakesh, a city in southern Morocco, stretches back nearly a thousand years. The country of Morocco itself is named after it.
Abu Said Uthman III was Marinid ruler of Morocco from 19 March 1398 to 1420, the last effective ruler of that dynasty. He ascended to the throne at the age of sixteen. He succeeded his brother, Abu Amir Abdallah ibn Ahmad. His forces were involved in an unsuccessful attempt to acquire Gibraltar from the Emirate of Granada in 1410. In 1415 the Portuguese seized the port of Ceuta. Abu Said Uthman III failed in an attempt to recover Ceuta, and was shortly after assassinated. His vizier gained control of the kingdom, establishing the Wattasid dynasty of rulers of Morocco.
Abd al-Haqq II was Marinid Sultan of Morocco from 1420 to 1465. Abd al-Haqq II was made sultan in 1420 under the regency of a Wattasid vizier, and later was nominal sultan under Wattasid control until 1465.
The Principality of Debdou was an autonomous hereditary viceroyalty that existed in eastern Morocco from 1430 to 1563, with its capital at Debdou. It was governed by the Ouartajin, a dynasty of Berber descent, related to the Marinids and the Wattasids.
Muhammad al-Burtuqali, Muhammad al-Burtuqali, succeeded his father Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya to become the second Wattasid Sultan in 1504. He died in 1526 and was succeeded by his son Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad.
— Royal house —
House of Banu Wattas
| Ruling house of Morocco |
1472 – 1554