Kämpfer et al. 2006
Wautersiella is a genus of bacteria most closely related to Empedobacter brevis in the family Flavobacteriaceae and the order Flavobacteriales. Originally described in 2006 by Kämpfer et al. based on 26 clinical isolates from Belgium that shared 94-95% homology after 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The species described was named Wautersiella falsenii in honor of contemporary microbiologists Belgian Georges Wauters and Norwegian Enevold Falsen.
The family Flavobacteriaceae is composed of environmental bacteria. Most species are aerobic, while some are microaerobic to anaerobic; for example Ornithobacterium, Capnocytophaga, and Coenonia.
The order Flavobacteriales comprises three families of environmental bacteria.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,688 square kilometres (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.
Wautersiella falsenii is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting, non-motile, oxidase-, urease- and catalase-positive, organism 2–3 um in length. The notable distinction between Wautersiella falsenii and Empedobacter brevis is that the latter is urease negative.
This organism has been isolated from clinical specimens, including blood, respiratory samples, wounds, pleural fluidand the urinary tract. though it is an extremely rare cause of nosocomial infection, it may be significant resistant to many antibiotics, including carbapenems. Recently, it has been found in the context of patient surveillance for carbapenem-resistant organisms with CHROMagar KPC.
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics' structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.
Acinetobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the wider class of Gammaproteobacteria. Acinetobacter species are oxidase-negative, exhibit twitching motility, and occur in pairs under magnification.
Staphylococcus caprae is a Gram-positive, coccus bacteria and a member of the genus Staphylococcus. S. caprae is coagulase-negative. It was originally isolated from goats, but members of this species have also been isolated from human samples.
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections. This class of antibiotics is usually reserved for known or suspected multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta lactam class of antibiotics, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. However, these agents individually exhibit a broader spectrum of activity compared to most cephalosporins and penicillins. Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams.
Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal microbiota of the human colon and is generally commensal, but can cause infection if displaced into the bloodstream or surrounding tissue following surgery, disease, or trauma.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus. It is motile with the help of a single flagellum which is located at the pole of the coccobacillus. Usually, there are one or two more lateral flagella as well. It is part of the normal flora of water and soil of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It produces a natural antibiotic called violacein, which may be useful for the treatment of colon and other cancers. It grows readily on nutrient agar, producing distinctive smooth low convex colonies with a dark violet metallic sheen. Some strains of the bacteria which do not produce this pigment have also been reported. It has the ability to break down tarballs.
Cupriavidus is a genus of bacteria that includes the former genus Wautersia. They are characterized as Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped organisms with oxidative metabolism. They possess peritrichous flagella, are obligate aerobic organisms, and are chemoorganotrophic or chemolithotrophic. Resistance to metals has been described. These organisms have been found in both soil and in clinical isolates.
Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.
Sisomicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, isolated from the fermentation broth of a new species of the genus Micromonospora. It is a newer broad-spectrum aminoglycoside most structurally related to gentamicin.
Pseudomonas infection refers to a disease caused by one of the species of the genus Pseudomonas.
Kingella kingae is a species of Gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. First isolated in 1960 by Elizabeth O. King, it was not recognized as a significant cause of infection in young children until the 1990s, when culture techniques had improved enough for it to be recognized. It is best known as a cause of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis, bacteraemia, and endocarditis, and less frequently lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis.
A pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the pneumococcus. S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5–10% of healthy adults and 20–40% of healthy children. However, it is also a cause of significant disease, being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The World Health Organization estimate that in 2005 pneumococcal infections were responsible for the death of 1.6 million children worldwide.
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The gene for NDM-1 is one member of a large gene family that encodes beta-lactamase enzymes called carbapenemases. Bacteria that produce carbapenemases are often referred to in the news media as "superbugs" because infections caused by them are difficult to treat. Such bacteria are usually susceptible only to polymyxins and tigecycline.
Proteus penneri is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is an invasive pathogen and a cause of nosocomial infections of the urinary tract or open wounds. Pathogens have been isolated mainly from the urine of patients with abnormalities in the urinary tract, and from stool. P. penneri strains are naturally resistant to numerous antibiotics, including penicillin G, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, oxacillin, and most macrolides, but are naturally sensitive to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, aztreonam, quinolones, sulphamethoxazole, and co-trimoxazole. Isolates of P. penneri have been found to be multiple drug-resistant (MDR) with resistance to six to eight drugs. β-lactamase production has also been identified in some isolates.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as "nightmare bacteria". Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC and NDM. KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM have also been reported in Pseudomonas.
Helicobacter pullorum is a bacterium in the Helicobacteraceae family, Campylobacterales order. It was isolated from the liver, duodenum, and caecum of broiler and layer chickens, and from humans with gastroenteritis. It is a nongastric urease-negative Helicobacter species colonizing the lower bowel.
Aerococcus sanguinicola is a member of the bacterial genus Aerococcus and is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus growing in clusters. This species was defined in 2001 and has since then been increasingly recognized as a pathogen causing urinary tract infections and also invasive infections including infective endocarditis. Commercially available biochemical tests fail to properly identify A. sanguinicola and correct identification can be achieved through genetic or mass spectroscopic methods, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). A. sanguinicola is, with A. urinae, the most common aerococcus isolated from urine, but from blood, A. urinae is much more commonly encountered.
Cupriavidus gilardii is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, oxidase-positive bacterium from the genus Cupriavidus and the family Burkholderiaceae. It is motil by a single polar flagellum. It is named after G. L. Gilardi, an American microbiologist. The organism was initially identified as Ralstonia gilardii in 1999, renamed Wautersiella gilardii, and most recently moved into the Cupriavidus genus after 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed it to be most closely related to Cupriavidus necator. Notably, species of this genus are not inhibited by copper due to the production of chelation factors, and may actually be stimulated by the presence of copper.
Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus to rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative bacteria first described in 2006 by Dr. Steve Holland's team at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.