Waverly, Ohio

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Waverly, Ohio

Waverly City, Ohio
Motto(s): 
"Working for a Vibrant Future"
OHMap-doton-Waverly.png
Location of Waverly, Ohio
Detailed map of Waverly, Ohio.png
Detailed map of Waverly
Coordinates: 39°7′34″N82°58′59″W / 39.12611°N 82.98306°W / 39.12611; -82.98306 Coordinates: 39°7′34″N82°58′59″W / 39.12611°N 82.98306°W / 39.12611; -82.98306
Country United States
State Ohio
County Pike
Government
   Mayor Greg Kempton
Area
[1]
  Total4.26 sq mi (11.03 km2)
  Land4.20 sq mi (10.88 km2)
  Water0.06 sq mi (0.16 km2)
Population
 (2010) [2]
  Total4,408
  Estimate 
(2018 [3] )
4,270
  Density1,049.5/sq mi (405.2/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
45690
Area code(s) 740 Exchanges: 941,947
Website http://www.cityofwaverly.net/

Waverly (sometimes known as Waverly City) is a village in, and the county seat of, Pike County, Ohio, United States, [4] located 14 miles south of Chillicothe. The population was 4,408 at the 2010 census. The town was formed in 1829, as the construction of the Ohio and Erie Canal along the west bank of the Scioto River brought new growth to the area. In 1861 the county seat was moved here from Piketon.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Pike County, Ohio County in the United States

Pike County is a county located in the Appalachian region of the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,709. Its county seat is Waverly. The county is named for explorer Zebulon Pike.

Ohio State of the United States of America

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

Contents

Waverly is served by the Garnet A. Wilson Public Library.

History

First inhabitants and native cultures

Historians believe that Waverly and the surrounding areas were inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC. [5] The first historical evidence that can be tied to a particular culture dates back to sometime between the years 1000 and 800 BC, to the culture known as the "Adena". The area around Waverly is particularly rich in Adena heritage, including a number of mounds throughout the area. The Adena were given their cognomen from Thomas Worthington's Adena Estate near Chillicothe, where evidence of their culture was found in the early 1900s.

Adena culture archaeological culture

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.

There is evidence pointing to the emergence of the "Hopewell" culture in the Waverly area beginning about 300 BC. The namesake for the Hopewell is Captain M. C. Hopewell, the owner of the Ross County farmstead where artifacts leading to the discovery of the Hopewell's separate cultural identity were found. [5] Both the Adena and the Hopewell are well known for their mounds, many of which still exist around southern Ohio, including several in Pike County, and just north of Waverly in Chillicothe, Ohio, where the Adena Mound is a registered historic structure. There is evidence of Hopewell in the area until about 600 AD. The cause of the demise of the Hopewell is unknown, and there is not much information available about the people immediately following them. Sometime after 1000 AD, the "Fort Ancient" people began to occupy southern Ohio, only to disappear in the 17th century, likely decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. Some scholars believe that the Fort Ancient people "were ancestors of the historic Shawnee people, or that, at the very least, the historic Shawnees absorbed remnants of these older peoples." [5]

There is a historical gap between evidence of the end of the Fort Ancient presence in the Waverly area and the beginning of the presence of the Shawnee Native American tribe. [5] It is not known whether the Shawnee were descendants of the Fort Ancient, but there are a number of similarities between the two cultures that have led some to speculate that this is the case. As European settlements began to push into Ohio country, the Shawnee were driven further and further west, and there is an extensive record of the Shawnee's clashes with settlers, including Tecumseh's War and various battles of the War of 1812.

Fort Ancient Archaeological culture in the Ohio River valley

Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from Ca. 1000-1750 CE and predominantly inhabited land near the Ohio River valley in the areas of modern-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky, southeastern Indiana and western West Virginia. Although a contemporary of the Mississippian Culture, they are often considered a "sister culture" and distinguished from the Mississippian Culture. Although far from agreed upon, there is evidence to suggest that the Fort Ancient Culture were not the direct descendants of the Hopewellian Culture]. It is suspected that the Fort Ancient Culture introduced maize agriculture to Ohio. The Fort Ancient Culture were most likely the builders of the Great Serpent Mound.

Shawnee ethnic group

The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois.

One of the most well-known leaders of the Shawnee tribe, Tecumseh, was born somewhere very close to Waverly, perhaps just north of the village's site, in 1768. As early as the age of 15, after the American Revolutionary War ended in 1783, Tecumseh was fighting alongside other Shawnee to stop the white invasion of their lands by attacking settlers' flatboats traveling down the Ohio River from Pennsylvania. In time, Tecumseh came to lead his own band of warriors and his bravery and leadership have caused him to become an American folk hero and his legend still lives large in Waverly and the surrounding areas.

European settlement

Although Europeans had been in the area hunting, trapping and surveying for some time prior, not until approximately 1796 did the first Europeans began to settle in the area around Waverly, in what is now Pike County, Ohio. [6] Pike County was named for General Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who was killed at the storming of York in Upper Canada in the war of 1812–15. [7] He died during the war, on April 25, 1813, aged 35, and is considered a war hero, many landmarks and geographic areas being named after him.

Waverly was platted in about 1829 by a M. Downing, and it had 306 inhabitants by 1840. It was originally known as Uniontown; Francis Cleveland suggested changing the name to Waverly. He is believed to have done this because he was an admirer of Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels.

The Ohio and Erie Canal

The Ohio and Erie Canal, which was completed to Waverly in the early 1830s, transformed the landscape of southern Ohio in many ways, and played a major part in the development of Waverly and its surrounding areas. The initial plan for the Canal's route was likely not through Waverly, and it is believed that several noteworthy interested parties, including Robert Lucas and James Emmitt, had a hand in redirecting the route of the Canal to pass through or near their land, thereby benefiting them personally. Robert Lucas plotted the Canal right through his land near Jasper, while Emmitt had many interests in Waverly on the canal route, and owned the first canalboat to pass through the Canal, the Governor Worthington. [8]

The battle for the county seat

After several years of political battle, the county seat of Pike County was moved from Piketon to Waverly in 1861, [9] and Waverly remains the county seat to this day. In 1859, James Emmitt led a group of supporters to petition to remove the county seat to Waverly, which met with strong resistance from those with an interest in keeping the seat in Piketon which had been the county seat for over 45 years. To finally push the removal across the line, those in favor of moving the county seat to Waverly promised to provide a new courthouse as a gift to the people of Pike County in Waverly. [9] This courthouse still stands on Second Street in Waverly.

Additionally, a number of parties including James Emmitt created a bridge across the Scioto River in Waverly, which up until that point had required chartering a ferry boat to cross – this was no doubt another incentive to move the seat to Waverly. In the end, despite a number of reported irregularities in the special election, the Waverly supporters were victorious, and on November 11, 1861, the county commissioners ordered the removal of the county offices to Waverly pending the completion of suitable rooms to accommodate the move, which happened shortly thereafter.

James Emmitt and The Historic Emmitt House

James Emmitt was one of Waverly's most prominent inhabitants in the nineteenth century and was one of the wealthiest and most influential southern Ohioans of the time. Emmitt was involved in a number of successful ventures, including distilleries, mills, canal boat ventures and various manufacturing businesses. Perhaps the most well-known of Emmitt's ventures is the Emmitt House, the restaurant and tavern that bore his name; it burned down in January 2014, having stood since 1861.

Carpenter Madison Hemings was involved in the building of the Emmitt House. Hemings is rumored to be the son of President Thomas Jefferson, whom Jefferson fathered with Sally Hemings, a slave owned by Jefferson. There has been some evidence linking Madison Hemings to Jefferson, but historians continue to debate the issue. [10]

The Civil War through the atomic era

During the Civil War years of 1861-1865, Waverly was impacted by the conflict; more than 100 Pike County residents died. Morgan's Raiders passed through Waverly in 1863. [11]

Many Pike County residents represented the area through service in both World War I and World War II. [11] The need for workers in war industries during World War II gave area residents alternatives to working on the farm or saw mill. [11]

After World War II large farming operations began to consolidate their holdings by buying up smaller family farms. [11] Pike County had 1,700 farms in 1940 but a short 30 years later the number had dropped to 450. [11]

In 1953, the Federal Government chose Pike County as the location for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, designed to enrich uranium. [11] The time around the construction of the facility is still referred to as the "Boom", as literally hundreds of new people flooded the county to construct, and later work, at the facility. [11] During this time, government housing projects were undertaken, school facilities were expanded and improved, and many new businesses were started in Pike County. [11] The plant covered nearly 4,000 acres and provided employment for over 2,000 workers at its height of operation. [11]

Racial segregation in Waverly

Throughout the 19th century, Waverly was a sundown town, where African Americans were not allowed to live. [12] In an 1884 history of the area, an anonymous author wrote that "Waverly's not having a single colored resident is a rare mark of distinction for a town of its size" and that Waverly had never had "a Negro or mulatto resident". [7] Historian James W. Loewen cites Waverly as a rare example of a town that barred blacks as early as the Civil War, [13] and asserts that the community was one of a number of Midwestern cities created for the purpose of excluding all races but whites. [13] The Ku Klux Klan had a presence in Waverly dating back to a record of a Ku Klux Klan raid in 1885. [14]

Geography

Waverly is located at 39°7′34″N82°58′59″W / 39.12611°N 82.98306°W / 39.12611; -82.98306 (39.126181, -82.983173). [15]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.26 square miles (11.03 km2), of which 4.20 square miles (10.88 km2) is land and 0.06 square miles (0.16 km2) is water. [1]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1840 306
1850 678121.6%
1860 1,05755.9%
1870 1,20213.7%
1880 1,53928.0%
1890 1,5671.8%
1900 1,85418.3%
1910 1,803−2.8%
1920 1,625−9.9%
1930 1,603−1.4%
1940 1,7579.6%
1950 1,679−4.4%
1960 3,830128.1%
1970 4,85826.8%
1980 4,603−5.2%
1990 4,477−2.7%
2000 4,433−1.0%
2010 4,408−0.6%
Est. 20184,270 [3] −3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [16]

2010 census

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 4,408 people, 2,035 households, and 1,142 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,049.5 inhabitants per square mile (405.2/km2). There were 2,290 housing units at an average density of 545.2 per square mile (210.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 1.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population.

There were 2,035 households of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.9% were non-families. 40.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.75.

The median age in the city was 48 years. 19.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 19% were from 25 to 44; 26.6% were from 45 to 64; and 27.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,433 people, 2,028 households, and 1,237 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,131.3 people per square mile (436.6/km²). There were 2,219 housing units at an average density of 566.3 per square mile (218.6/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 96.75% White, 1.15% African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.02% from other races, and 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.38% of the population.

There were 2,028 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.76.

In the village, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 29.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.8 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $33,895, and the median income for a family was $41,346. Males had a median income of $38,045 versus $20,972 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,554. About 9.1% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.1% ages 65 or older.

Education

Waverly City School District operates Waverly Primary School, Waverly Intermediate School, Waverly Junior High School, and Waverly High School. [17]

Waverly has a public library, a branch of the Garnet A. Wilson Public Library of Pike County. [18]

Notable people

Waverly is the hometown of the Pure Prairie League, a pioneering band of the country rock genre

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References

  1. 1 2 "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
  2. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2013-01-06.
  3. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  4. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Knepper, George (1989). Ohio and its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN   978-0-87338-791-0.
  6. History of the Lower Scioto River Valley. 1884. p. 689.
  7. 1 2 History of the Lower Scioto River Valley. 1884.
  8. History of the Lower Scioto River Valley. 1884. p. 702.
  9. 1 2 History of the Lower Scioto River Valley. 1884. pp. 706–708.
  10. "Is It True? | Jefferson's Blood | FRONTLINE | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Pike County Chamber of Commerce - Brief History of Pike County". www.pikechamber.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-06. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
  12. "Negro Suspected of Murder". Daily Inter Ocean . Chicago. September 4, 1900. p. 5 via Newspapers.com. A posse is hunting [Hezekiah] Scott, and he may be harshly dealt with if captured. Negroes are not allowed to live in Waverly. Scott tried to settle there, and [railway conductor William] Woods was one of those instrumental in driving him out. For this, it is said, Scott had sworn vengeance.
  13. 1 2 Loewen, James W. (2005). Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. The New Press. p. 31. ISBN   978-1565848870.
  14. History of the Lower Scioto River Valley. 1884. pp. 713–714.
  15. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  16. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  17. "Schools". Waverly City Schools. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  18. "Hours & Locations". Garnet A. Wilson Public Library of Pike County. Retrieved 3 March 2018.