Wawrzyniec Cezary Anichini (born Cesare Anighini; 1787 in Florence – January 31, 1861 in Raudondvaris) was an Italian architect, active mostly in what is now the Republic of Lithuania.
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.
Raudondvaris is a village on the Nevėžis River in Kaunas district, Lithuania, 10 km (6.2 mi) west of Kaunas.
Anichini arrived to the lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1812 as an engineer within Napoleon's Grande Armée. Following Napoleon's defeat in Russia he was captured as prisoner of war. Released by the Russians he settled in Vilna (modern Vilnius) together with yet another Italian expatriate, Franciszek Andriolli (a sculptor and father of Michał Elwiro Andriolli). With time he polonised his surname and signed most his projects as Cezary Anichini.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered almost 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million.
The Grande Armée was the army commanded by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars. From 1805 to 1809, the Grande Armée scored a series of historic victories that gave the French Empire an unprecedented grip on power over the European continent. Widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest fighting forces ever assembled, it suffered terrible losses during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and never recovered its tactical superiority after that campaign.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660.
Throughout most of his later life he served as an architect of the mighty Tyszkiewicz family. Among the most notable works are the reconstruction of Raudonė Castle, construction of churches in Raudondvaris (did not survive) and Biržai, and park of the Raudondvaris Castle.
The Tyszkiewicz family was a wealthy and influential Polish-Lithuanian magnate family of Ruthenian origin, with roots traced to the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. They held the Polish coat of arms Leliwa. Their nobility was reaffirmed in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire.
Raudonė Castle is a residential castle of the 19th century in Raudonė, Lithuania. Today it is used as a public school.
Biržai is a city in northern Lithuania. Biržai is famous for its reconstructed Biržai Castle manor, and the whole region is renowned for its many traditional-recipe beer breweries.
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,147 as of 2018. Vilnius is in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania and the Vilnius District Municipality.
Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda was a Polish-Lithuanian musician, pianist, composer and artist, best known for numerous sketches of historical sites of present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland.
Antis is a Lithuanian postmodernist rock band.
Niasviž Castle or Nesvizh Castle is a residential castle of the Radziwiłł family in Niasviž, Belarus. It is 183 metres (600 ft) above sea level.
Radviliškis District Municipality is one of the seven municipalities of Šiauliai County in Lithuania. Radviliškis town has been its center since 1950.
Michał Elwiro Andriolli was a Polish painter and architect of Italian descent. He is notable for his illustrations to Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz, as well as a distinctive style of villas built outside Warsaw. He was probably most well known for his architecture — Świdermajer. This was a regional architectural style common in the Otwock, Poland region. These structures were wooden in construction and were popularized from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Its creator was Michał Elwiro Andriolli. It is characterized by gazebos and decorations above the windows, some of the houses also had turrets. Pine trees were planted together with the buildings as part of the composition.
Verkiai Palace is an 18th-century neoclassical mansion in Verkiai, Vilnius, Lithuania.
Laurynas Gucevičius was an 18th-century architect from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and most of his designs were built there.
The Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania is a palace in Vilnius, Lithuania. It was originally constructed in the 15th century for the rulers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the future Kings of Poland. The palace, located in the lower castle of Vilnius, evolved over the years and prospered during the 16th and mid-17th centuries. For four centuries the palace was the political, administrative and cultural centre of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was demolished in 1801. Work on a new palace started in 2002 on the site of the original building and it took 16 years to complete it in 2018.
The Vilnius Castle Complex is a group of cultural, and historic structures on the left bank of the Neris River, near its confluence with the Vilnia River, in Vilnius, Lithuania. The buildings, which evolved between the 10th and 18th centuries, were one of Lithuania's major defensive structures.
The Presidential Palace, located in Vilnius Old Town, is the official office and eventual official residence of the President of Lithuania. The palace dates back to the 14th century and during its history it has undergone various reconstructions, supervised by prominent architects, including Laurynas Gucevičius and Vasily Stasov. In 1997 the palace became the official seat of the President of Lithuania.
Žirmūnai (pronounced [ʑɪrˈmuːnɐi] is the most populous administrative division in Vilnius. It is also a neighbourhood in the Lithuanian capital city Vilnius, encompassing the city district of the same name, built in the 1960s.
St. Anne's Church is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius' Old Town, on the right bank of the Vilnia River. It is a prominent example of both Flamboyant Gothic and Brick Gothic styles. St. Anne's is a prominent landmark in the Old Town of Vilnius that enabled the district to be included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. And it is one of the most interesting examples of Gothic architecture in Lithuania.
Raudondvaris Castle, also referred to as Raudondvaris Manor, is a Gothic-Renaissance gentry residence, located in the eponymous town of Raudondvaris, Lithuania.
The culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language, with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland. Although linguistic resemblances represent strong cultural ties with Latvia in various historical moments Lithuania was influenced by Nordic, Germanic and Slavic cultures. Various cultural changes occurred throughout Lithuania's transformation from a country occupied by the Soviet Union to an independent Baltic state.
Michał Tyszkiewicz was a member of the noble Tyszkiewicz family and polkovnik in the French Grande Armée during Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. He acquired several manors in present-day Lithuania, including those in Palanga and Biržai. He and his descendants built and reconstructed several manor houses that are some of the most important sites of manorialism heritage in Lithuania.
The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries.
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