Wawrzyniec Styczeń ( [vaˈvʐɨɲɛt͡s ˈstɨt͡ʂɛɲ] ; January 5, 1836 in Wola Drwińska near Bochnia – May 29, 1908 in Niepołomice) was a Polish social activist, lawyer, president of the Kraków branch of the Youth Club Sokół ("Falcon"), member of the Society of Appreciation of the History and Monuments of Kraków, and member of the Kraków City Council.
Wola Drwińska is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Drwinia, within Bochnia County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies approximately 2 kilometres (1 mi) east of Drwinia, 14 km (9 mi) north of Bochnia, and 38 km (24 mi) east of the regional capital Kraków. Wawrzyniec Styczeń was born there.
Niepołomice is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, previously in Kraków Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is situated on the Vistula River, and belongs to Kraków on the verge of a large virgin forest. There is a 14th-century gothic hunting castle in town built by Casimir III, as well as a conservation center for wisents nearby.
Styczeń came from a peasant family. He most likely began his studies in his native Wola Drwińska, and by 1854 attended the Saint Anne's gymnasium in Kraków. He graduated after five years. Between 1859 and 1863 he studied at the Faculty of Law of the Jagiellonian University. He finished his doctorate in Law in 1869.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern, and south Europe.
The Jagiellonian University is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Styczeń settled permanently in Kraków and purchased a house on Karmelicka street. He operated a successful law practice, and gradually acquired the reputation as "the most outstanding personality of the Kraków Bar". For many years he served as President of the Board of the Kraków Bar, and was also a member of the disciplinary committee of the Bar (within the Kraków National Court).
In law, the bar is the legal profession as an institution. The term is a metonym for the line that separates the parts of a courtroom reserved for spectators and those reserved for participants in a trial such as lawyers.
He was active in social work. After the establishment of the Kraków branch of the Youth Club/Athletic society "Sokól" in Kraków in 1885, he became one of its members and served as the president of the organization after the resignation of Michał Bałucki, in 1886. He also served as the vice-president of the Lwów chapter of the organization. Styczeń was instrumental in obtaining funds for and organizing the construction of the Sokól headquarters in Kraków, which opened up in November 1889 on Wolska Street. The building was expanded in 1894.
Wolska is the main artery of Warsaw's borough of Wola. Initially Wola district was but a western suburb of Warsaw and a road leading to it was dubbed "droga wolska" - Wola road. In 1725 parts of that road closest to the Warsaw Old Town, located along the Saxon Axis, were officially renamed to "Aleja Wolska" - Wola Avenue. In modern times it starts at a crossing of Chłodna and Towarowa Streets, and runs as a continuation of Solidarity Avenue through the neighbourhoods of Młynów, Czyste and Ulrychów, all the way to Połczyńska Street.
Under his leadership the athletic organization expanded to include, in addition to gymnastics, fencing, rowing, horse riding and cycling. Styczeń closely cooperated with the original Czech Sokol establishment . In 1894 the Kraków members participated in a national athletic exhibition in Lwów, and in June 1896 Styczeń helped to organize a three-day tournament and rally of the club with representatives from Galicia, Greater Poland, Czech lands and the United States. In 1894 the Kraków branch had 1,200 members, including doctors, land owners, merchants and artists. Due to disputes with other members of the organization, Styczeń stepped down as president in 1898 and was replaced by Władysław Turski.
The Sokol movement is an all-age gymnastics organization first founded in Prague in the Czech region of Austria-Hungary in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner. It was based upon the principle of "a strong mind in a sound body". The Sokol, through lectures, discussions, and group outings provided what Tyrš viewed as physical, moral, and intellectual training for the nation. This training extended to men of all ages and classes, and eventually to women.
Galicia is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine. The area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia. In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska, is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań.
In June 1887, Styczeń began to serve on the Kraków City Council, and remained in the position for the next fifteen years. He served in the economic and legal departments and from 1891 he headed the commission to "attract foreign visitors to the city of Kraków and its surroundings". He was deeply concerned with improving the aesthetics of the city and in November 1896 he was invited by Stanisław Krzyżanowski to join the Society of Appreciation of the History and Monuments of Kraków.
Between 1887 and 1890 he was a member of the Faculty of the Great Savings Fund for the City of Kraków under the presidency of Feliks Szlachtowski. He continued to work in the same capacity under the next president, Józef Friedlein.
He was involved in charitable work, as a member of the Arcybractwa Miłosierdzia i Banku Pobożnego (the "Arch-brothers of Mercy and of the Pious Bank"). He served as their legal advisor, as well as for the Goodwill Society.
At the end of 1904 he left Kraków and moved his offices to Niepołomice, where he served as a city councilor and on the district court. He died in Niepołomice on May 29, 1908. He was buried at the Rakowicki Cemetery in the family tomb of the Ziembiński, his wife's family. His tomb has an erroneous date of birth, given as 1837 instead of 1836.
He married Helena Ziembińska (born in 1850 in Kraków) in 1870 and had four children: daughter Mary (born 1873), and sons, Stanisław (born 1876), Alexander (born 1878) and Adam (born 1889).
Football is the most popular sport in Poland. Over 400,000 Poles play football regularly, with millions more playing occasionally. The first professional clubs were founded in the early 1900s, and the Polish national football team played its first international match in 1921.
Wincenty Witos was a prominent member of the Polish People's Party (PSL) from 1895, and leader of its "Piast" faction from 1913. He was a member of parliament in the Galician Sejm from 1908–1914, and an envoy to Reichsrat in Vienna from 1911 to 1918. Witos was also a leader of Polish Liquidation Committee in 1918, head of the Piast party, and member of parliament in the Polish Sejm from 1919-1920.
Kazimierz Żorawski was a Polish mathematician. His work earned him an honored place in mathematics alongside such Polish mathematicians as Wojciech Brudzewski, Jan Brożek (Broscius), Nicolas Copernicus, Samuel Dickstein, Stefan Banach, Stefan Bergman, Marian Rejewski, Wacław Sierpiński, Stanisław Zaremba and Witold Hurewicz.
Kazimierz Stanisław Świtalski was a Polish politician, diplomat, soldier, military officer in the Polish Legions and 18th Prime Minister of Poland between April and December 1929.
Lubomirski is a Polish princely family. The Lubomirski family's coat of arms is the Drużyna coat of arms, which is similar to the Szreniawa coat of arms but without a cross.
Sokół, or in full the "Falcon" Polish Gymnastic Society, is the Polish offshoot of the Czech Sokol movement, and the oldest youth movement organization of Poland. Created in Lwów in 1867, by the end of World War I the movement had its units – gniazda ("Nests") – in all parts of Poland, as well as among the Polish communities abroad. The group's goal was to develop fitness, both physically and mentally, with a motto mens sana in corpore sano.
Artur Grottger was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.
Władysław Orkan was a Polish writer and poet from the Young Poland period. He is known as one of the greatest Polish writers from Podhale region and Górale folk; the most famous of his works portray the common people from that region.
Stanisław Marian Kutrzeba (1876–1946) was a Polish historian and politician who was Professor of the Jagiellonian University from 1908, and then until the end of his life the Chair of Studies in Polish law. He was chair of the Law Department, university's rector (1932/33), General Secretary of Polish Academy of Learning (1926–39) and its president (1939–1946). He was one of many professors of Jagiellonian University arrested by Nazis during Sonderaktion Krakau in 1939. After being freed in 1940, he took part in the underground education. In 1945, he was deputy to the State National Council.
Bochnia Commune is a gmina within Lesser Poland Voivodeship in the south of Poland. It is situated on the borderline between two geographical regions: the Sandomierz Basin in the northern part of the commune's territory, and the Wieliczka Piedmont in the southern part.
Bernard Stanisław Mond (Spanier) was a Jewish general of the Polish Army in the interwar period. He fought in the First World War, Polish-Ukrainian War, Polish-Soviet War and Second World War.
Eugeniusz Piasecki was a Polish physician, promotor of sports and hygiene and boyscouting activist.
Niepołomice Forest is a large forest complex in western part of Sandomierz Basin, about 20 km east of Kraków (center). It is made up of a few protected areas which used to constitute a single virgin forest originally. Niepołomice Forest occupies an area between Vistula and Raba rivers. The main complex covers about 110 km2 (42 sq mi). It is situated between the towns of Niepołomice, Baczków, Krzyżanowice and Mikluszowice.
Bolesław Wallek-Walewski was a Polish composer and conductor, lecturer and Director of the Conservatory of Music in Kraków.
Andrzej Kusionowicz Grodyński, baptized as Andrzej Szymon Kusionowicz, was a Polish lawyer who worked as a Silesian circuit judge based in Cieszyn for much of his career. Kusionowicz was also the editor of Gwiazdka Cieszyńska from 1889 to 1890. An associate of Paweł Stalmach (cs), who founded Gwiazdka Cieszyńska, he was also a friend of Józef Londzin (pl) with whom he shared the early vision of Cieszyn Silesia joining Galicia in a new Polish state independent of Austrian rule.
Stanisław Klimecki was a Polish lawyer, social activist, and the President of Kraków at the time of the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. He served as president only for a few weeks, before his German successor from the NSDAP took over by the order of SS-Obergruppenführer, Hans Frank. Klimecki saved the city from being shelled by the invading Wehrmacht troops on his own initiative.
Jan Sas Zubrzycki was a Polish architect known for his work in the neo-Gothic style and originator of the so-called "Vistula style". His most notable design was the grand Governor's Palace in Lemberg (1876). He was elected a member of the Board of the Union of Polish Scientific Societies in 1920, as representative of the Society for Protecting Monuments of Art and Culture.
Janina Altman, born 2 January 1931 in Lwów, Poland, is a Polish-Israeli chemist, author and a Holocaust survivor.
Franciszek Ksawery Vetulani was a Polish engineer.
Karol Zaremba – was a Polish architect.