Waziristan

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Location of North and South Waziristan (green) inside Pakistan (white) Pakistan and Waziristan.PNG
Location of North and South Waziristan (green) inside Pakistan (white)

Waziristan (Pashto and Urdu : وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the former FATA agencies of North Waziristan and South Waziristan which are now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. [1] [2] Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. [3] The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziri dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. [4] The 16th-century Pashtun revolutionary leader and warrior-poet Bayazid Pir Roshan, who wrote the oldest known book in Pashto, was based in Kaniguram, Waziristan.

Contents

Etymology

Waziristan is Derived from the word Wazir which is the Pashtun tribe ("Land of the Wazir") that is situated in North Waziristan. Despite this other tribes such as Mehsud, Kakar, Sherani, Dawar, Burki and Syeds are also situated in Waziristan

Overview and history

North (purple) and South (blue) Waziristan and surrounding Federally Administered Tribal Areas and provinces FATA (8).jpg
North (purple) and South (blue) Waziristan and surrounding Federally Administered Tribal Areas and provinces

Waziristan lies between the Kurram river to the north and the Gomal River to the south. It is bordered by Bannu and Tank Districts, FR DI Khan, and Kurram Agency to the east and northeast, Sherani and Musakhel Districts of Baluchistan to the south in Pakistan and Khost, Paktia, and Paktika Provinces of Afghanistan to the west and north.

Waziristan is divided into two agencies now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, [2] North Waziristan and South Waziristan. According to 2017 census of Pakistan, the population of North Waziristan is 543,254 [5] while that of South Waziristan is 674,065. [6] The two parts have quite distinct characteristics, though both are inhabited by the Wazir and Mahsud (or Maseed) tribes. They have a reputation as formidable warriors. [7]

British Era

The British entered Waziristan in 1894, when the boundary with Afghanistan, Durand Line was determined. [8] They divided Waziristan into two agencies, North Waziristan and South Waziristan; they also introduced a regular system of land record and revenue administration for the most fertile part of the Tochi valley. After the British military operations, a Political Agent for South Waziristan was permanently appointed with its headquarters at Wanna; another was appointed for North Waziristan with headquarters at Miranshah.

Waziristan Revolt (1919–1920)

A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir written on it Flag of Waziristan resistance (1930s).svg
A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir written on it
Souvenir presented by British Officers who took part in Waziristan operation 1937 depicting Tribal Marksman in an ambush against British Indian Forces. Souvenir by Offrs of Royal Engineers.jpg
Souvenir presented by British Officers who took part in Waziristan operation 1937 depicting Tribal Marksman in an ambush against British Indian Forces.

In the rugged and remote region of Waziristan on British India's northwest border with Afghanistan, mountain tribes of Muslim fighters rebelled against the British Indian Army in numerous operations. The Waziristan Revolt of 1919–1920 was sparked by the Afghan invasion of British India in 1919. Though the British made peace with the Afghans, the Waziri and Mahsud tribesmen gave the imperial (almost entirely Indian) forces a very difficult fight. Some of the tribesmen were veterans of the British-organised local militias that were irregular elements of the British Indian Army, and used some modern Lee–Enfield rifles against the British Indian forces sent into Waziristan. One aspect of this conflict was the effective use of air power against the Waziris and Mahsuds. This is similar to Royal Air Force tactics in suppressing the Arab Revolt in Iraq in 1920 and 1921.

Faqir of Ipi

In 193536, a Hindu-Muslim clash occurred over a Hindu girl of Bannu, who was abducted and forced to convert to Islam. [9] The tribesmen rallied around Mirzali Khan, a Tori Khel Wazir, who was later given the title of "the Faqir of Ipi" by the British. Jihad was declared against the British. Mirzali Khan, with his huge lashkar (force), started a guerrilla warfare against the British forces in Waziristan.

In 1938, Mirzali Khan shifted from Ipi to Gurwek, a remote village on the Durand Line, where he declared an independent state and continued the raids against the British forces. In June 1947, Mirzali Khan, along with his allies, including the Khudai Khidmatgars and members of the Provincial Assembly, declared the Bannu Resolution. The resolution demanded that the Pashtuns be given a choice to have an independent state of Pashtunistan, composing all Pashtun majority territories of British India, instead of being made to join Pakistan. However, the British Raj refused to comply with the demand of this resolution. [10] [11] After the creation of Pakistan in August 1947, Mirzali Khan and his followers refused to recognise Pakistan, and launched a campaign against Pakistan. They continued their guerilla warfare against the new nation's government. [12] He didn't surrender to the government of Pakistan throughout his life. However, his popularity among the people of Waziristan declined over the years, with many jirgas in Waziristan deciding to support Pakistan. He died a natural death in 1960 in Gurwek. [13]

U.S. War on Terror

In the early stage of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, when the Taliban started fleeing into Pakistan, the local leaders, or Maliks, began a campaign among their locals to host the foreigners. Since then, around 200 Maliks have been assassinated by local Taliban through targeted killings.[ citation needed ]

To end the Waziristan war, Pakistan signed the Waziristan Accord with chieftains from the self-styled Islamic Emirate of Waziristan on 5 September 2006. The Islamic militants in Waziristan are said to have close affiliations with the Taliban. [14] Waziristan is often mentioned as a haven for al-Qaeda fighters. There is speculation that some al-Qaeda leaders have found refuge in the area controlled by the Emirate, which is a staging ground for militant operations in Afghanistan. [15]

On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan met to decide the fate of Waziristan and take up a number of political and administrative issues in order to control the "Talibanization" of the area. The meeting was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the deteriorating law and order situation and the threat posed to state security. The government decided to take a number of actions to stop the "Talibanization" and to crush the armed militancy in the Tribal regions and the NWFP.

Due to the ongoing military operations against the Taliban, nearly 100,000 people have already fled to Afghanistan's Khost province to seek shelter. The UN and other aid agencies are helping more than 470,000 people who have been displaced from Pakistan's North Waziristan region due to the ongoing military operations. [16]

The Ministry of the Interior has played a large part in the information gathering for the operations against the militants and their institutions. The Ministry of the Interior has prepared a list of militant commanders operating in the region and they have also prepared a list of seminaries for monitoring. (Waziristan is a tribal area, and in any tribal area of Pakistan, no body can deploy police. There are other options like frontier corps (militia) and khasadar (local tribesmen force).) The government is also trying to strengthen law enforcement in the area by providing the NWFP Police with weapons, bullet-proof jackets, and night-vision devices. The paramilitary Frontier Corps is to be provided with artillery and APCs. The state agencies are also studying ways to jam illegal FM radio channels. [17]

The US drone strikes programme has been responsible for numerous bombings in Waziristan, carried out with the approval of the Pakistani government. [18]

The Wazir tribes are divided into clans governed by male village elders who meet in a tribal jirga. Socially and religiously, Waziristan is an extremely conservative area. Women are carefully guarded, and every household must be headed by a male figure. Tribal cohesiveness is also kept strong by means of the so-called Collective Responsibility Acts in the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which has since been repealed following the merger of FATA to Khyber Pakhunkhwa in May, 2018. [4] [2]

Taliban presence in the area has been an issue of international concern in the War on Terrorism particularly since the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. [19] In 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from Waziristan as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces along the Pakistan - Afghanistan border. [20] [21]

North Waziristan

North Waziristan's capital is Miranshah. The area is mostly inhabited by the Dawar Tribe and the Utmanzai branch of the Darwesh Khel Waziris, who are related to Ahmedzai Waziris of South Waziristan, who live in fortified mountain villages, including Razmak, Datta Khel, Spin wam, Dosali, Shawa and Shawal. The Dawars (also known as Daurr or Daur), who live in the main Tochi Valley, farm in the valleys below in villages including Miranshah, Hamzoni, Darpakhel, Muhammadkhel, Boya, Degan, Banda, Ngharkali, Palangzai, Mirali, Edak, Hurmaz, Mussaki, Hassukhel, Ziraki, Tapi, Issori, Haiderkhel and Khaddi irrigated by the river Tochi.

Furthermore, yet left unconfirmed, Northern Waziristan is rumored to be the original birthplace of 45th U.S President Donald J. Trump. Allegedly born in the Shawal Valley on June 14th 1946 bearing birth name of "Dawood Ibrahim Khan," he was reportedly brought to England in 1955 and then adopted shortly after, in the states, and renamed to "Donald."

South Waziristan

The South Waziristan has its district headquarters at Wanna. South Waziristan, comprising about 6,500 square kilometres (2,500 sq mi), is the most volatile agency of Pakistan. Not under the direct administration of the government of Pakistan, South Waziristan is indirectly governed by a political agent, who has been either an outsider or a Waziri—a system inherited from the British Raj. In south Waziristan Agency, there are three tribes, Wazir, Maseed and Burki. Burki and Urmarh is the same tribe.

See also

Related Research Articles

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, commonly abbreviated as KP or KPK, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern region of the country, along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border, and the city of Peshawar serves as its capital.

North Waziristan District District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan

North Waziristan District is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It is the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering 4,707 square kilometres (1,817 sq mi). The capital city of North Waziristan is Miranshah.

The Tochi Valley, also known as Dawar, is a fertile area located in the North Waziristan agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. In 1881, Nawab of Sarhad Nawab Gulmaizar Khan established the North Waziristan Tribal Agency with its headquarters at Miramshah in the valley.

Wanna, Pakistan Place in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Wāṇa or Wanna is the largest town of South Waziristan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is the summer headquarters for the Agency's administration, Tank located in the neighbouring Tank District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province being the winter headquarters.

Abdullah Mehsud Pakistani militant commander

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South Waziristan District District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan

South Waziristan District was a district in Dera Ismail Khan Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa before splitting in to Lower South Waziristan District and Upper South Waziristan District and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km2 (4,473 mi²). Waziristan comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south. The region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of British-ruled empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain. The capital city of South Waziristan is Wanna. South Waziristan is divided into the three administrative subdivisions of Ladha, Sarwakai, and Wanna. These three subdivisions are further divided into eight Tehsils: Ladha, Makin, Sararogha, Sarwakai, Tiarza, Wanna, Barmal, and Toi Khula.

Mīrānshāh or Mīrāmshāh is a small town that is the administrative headquarters of North Waziristan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Miranshah lies on the banks of the Tochi River in a wide valley surrounded by the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is located at an elevation of about 930 metres (3,050 ft), 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. The nearest city in Pakistan is Bannu, about 55 kilometres (34 mi) to the east, while the nearest city across the border in Afghanistan is Khost, 60 kilometres (37 mi) to the northwest.

Faqir of Ipi Pashtun tribal leader (1897–1960)

Haji Mirzali Khan Wazir, commonly known as the Faqir of Ipi, was a Pashtun tribal chief and freedom fighter from North Waziristan in today's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Mahsud or Mehsood, also spelled Maseed, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.

Baitullah Mehsud Founder and first leader of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (d. 2009)

Baitullah Mehsud was a leading member of TTP in Waziristan, Pakistan, and the leader of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). He formed the TTP from an alliance of about five militant groups in December 2007. He is thought by U.S. military analysts to have commanded up to 5,000 fighters and to have been behind numerous attacks in Pakistan including the assassination of Benazir Bhutto which he and others have denied.

The Wazirs or Waziris are a Karlani Pashtun tribe found mainly in the Pakistan-Afghanistan border region of North waziristan, South Waziristan and Bannu[(Ahmadzai Wazir and Utmanzai wazir ]. The Utmanzai are settled in the North Waziristan Agency and the Ahmadzai are in the South Waziristan Agency and Bannu domel. Those subgroups are in turn divided further, for example into Utmanzai tribes such as the Baka Khel and Jani Khel. The Wazirs speak the Waziristani dialect of Pashto.

Insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Armed conflict involving Pakistan and armed militant groups

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Mir Ali, Pakistan Tehsil in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Mir Ali or Mirali is a town in North Waziristan District, in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Mirali is located in the Tochi Valley, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) east of Miramshah, 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of the city of Khost, Afghanistan. Mirali is at an altitude of 674 metres (2,211 ft).

Razmak Town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Razmak is one of the three subdivisions of North Waziristan District in Pakistan, the other two being Mir Ali and Miran Shah. The inhabitants are almost exclusively Wazir Pashtuns, along with a few from the Mahsud tribe. The town of Razmak is located just north of Makeen, South Waziristan.

Utmanzai (Wazir clan)

The Utmanzai or Utmanzai Wazir are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun tribe found in North Waziristan Agency, Pakistan.

Operation Rah-e-Nijat 2009 military offensive by the Pakistan Armed Forces against the Tehrik-i-Taliban

The Operation Rah-e-Nijat was a strategic offensive military operation by the unified command of Pakistan Armed Forces against the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and their extremist allies in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas that began on June 19, 2009; a major ground-air offensive was subsequently launched on October 17. It became the integral part of the war in Western fronts which led to the encirclement and destruction of Taliban forces in the region, although the Taliban leadership escaped to lawless areas of neighboring Afghanistan.

Makeen or Makin (ماکین) is a city in South Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, on the boundary with North Waziristan. The boundary with Afghanistan's Barmal District, Paktika lies 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the west. Makeen lies within the heartland of the Mahsud tribe of Pashtuns.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas Former semi-autonomous region in northwestern Pakistan (1947–2018)

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighbouring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2018. It consisted of seven tribal agencies (districts) and six frontier regions, and were directly governed by Pakistan's federal government through a special set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulations.

Manzoor Pashteen Pashtun human rights activist (born 1994)

Manzoor Ahmad Pashteen is a human rights activist from South Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

References

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Further reading