Weary Dunlop

Last updated

Sir Ernest Edward Dunlop
Edward Dunlop (brass relief).jpg
Brass relief of Dunlop in uniform
Nickname(s)Weary
Born(1907-07-12)12 July 1907
Major Plains, Victoria
Died2 July 1993(1993-07-02) (aged 85)
Melbourne, Victoria
Allegiance Australia
Service/branch Australian Army
Years of service1935–1946
Rank Colonel
Unit Royal Australian Army Medical Corps
2/2nd Casualty Clearing Station
Commands heldNo.1 Allied General Hospital
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Companion of the Order of Australia
Knight Bachelor
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Knight of the Venerable Order of Saint John
Mentioned in Despatches

Colonel Sir Ernest Edward "Weary" Dunlop, AC , CMG , OBE (12 July 1907 – 2 July 1993) was an Australian surgeon who was renowned for his leadership while being held prisoner by the Japanese during World War II.

Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Monaco or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.

Surgery Medical specialty

Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

Early life and family

Dunlop was born in Major Plains, Victoria, the second of two children of parents James and Alice. He attended Benalla High School for two years of his education. He started an apprenticeship in pharmacy when he finished school, and moved to Melbourne in 1927. There, he studied at the Victorian College of Pharmacy and then the University of Melbourne, where he obtained a scholarship in medicine. [1] Dunlop graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1934 with first class honours in pharmacy and in medicine, [2] and excelled as a sportsman at Melbourne University and Ormond College. The nickname "Weary" was a reference to his last name—"tired" like a Dunlop tyre. [3]

Benalla P-12 College is a state college located in the regional town of Benalla which is located on the Hume Highway in central Victoria, on the Melbourne to Sydney Highway, 180 km north-north-east of Melbourne. It was one of the first high schools established in Victoria by the government.

University of Melbourne Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria

The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria.

Pharmacy academic discipline studying preparation and dispensation of medicines

Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing, dispensing, and review of drugs and providing additional clinical services. It is a health profession that links health sciences with pharmaceutical sciences and aims to ensure the safe, effective, and affordable use of drugs. The professional practice is becoming more clinically oriented as most of the drugs are now manufactured by pharmaceutical industries. Based on the setting, the pharmacy is classified as a community or institutional pharmacy. Providing direct patient care in the community of institutional pharmacies are considered clinical pharmacy.

Rugby union career

Dunlop with the victorious Bledisloe Wallabies, 1st Test v NZ 11 August 1934 Wallabies 1934.jpg
Dunlop with the victorious Bledisloe Wallabies, 1st Test v NZ 11 August 1934

Although brought up playing Australian Rules football, when at university — and although still playing "Aussie Rules", as a ruckman for Ormond College [4] — Dunlop took up rugby union; commencing as a fourth grade player with the Melbourne University Rugby Club in 1931. [5] He rapidly progressed through the grades, to state, and then to the national representative level, becoming the first Victorian-born player to represent the Wallabies. [6]

Rugby union Team sport, code of rugby football

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end.

Australia national rugby union team national team representing Australia in rugby union

The Australia national rugby union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, is controlled by Rugby Australia. The team first played at Sydney in 1899, winning their first test match against the touring British Isles team.

He made his national representative debut against the All Blacks at the Sydney Cricket Ground on 23 July 1932 as a number 8. [7]

Sydney Cricket Ground stadium in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG) is a sports stadium in Sydney, Australia. It is used for Test, One Day International and Twenty20 cricket, as well as Australian rules football, rugby league football, rugby union, and association football. It is the home ground for the New South Wales Blues cricket team, the Sydney Sixers of the Big Bash League, the Sydney Roosters of the National Rugby League, the NSW Waratahs of Super Rugby and the Sydney Swans Australian Football League club. It is owned and operated by the Sydney Cricket Ground Trust that also manages the Sydney Football Stadium located next door. Until the 44,000 seat Football Stadium opened in 1988, the Sydney Cricket Ground was the major rugby league venue in Sydney.

Rugby union positions

In the game of rugby union, there are 15 players on each team, comprising eight forwards and seven backs. In addition, there may be up to eight replacement players "on the bench", numbered 16–23. Players are not restricted to a single position, although they generally specialise in just one or two that suit their skills and body types. Players that play multiple positions are called "utility players".

In the first Test of 1934 he again appeared for Australia, this time as a lock [8] Australia won the match 25–11. [9] Dunlop had broken his nose in a head clash in the Melbourne University boxing championships on 3 August 1934, [10] and it was broken again in the first five minutes of the match. [11]

Two weeks later the second and final match of that year's Bledisloe Cup series finished in a draw; and, although Dunlop missed that match — he was one of a number of players from both teams who were victims of influenza [12] — he stands as a member of the first Wallaby squad to have won the Bledisloe Cup away from New Zealand.

Bledisloe Cup

The Bledisloe Cup is a rugby union competition between the national teams of Australia and New Zealand that has been competed for since the 1930s. The frequency at which the competition has been held and the number of matches played has varied, but as of 2016, it consists of an annual three-match series, with two of the matches also counting towards The Rugby Championship. New Zealand have had the most success, winning the trophy for the 47th time in 2018, while Australia have won 12 times.

In June 2008, he was honoured in the third set of inductees into the Australian Rugby Union Hall of Fame. To date, he is the only Victorian so honoured. [13]

Pre-war career

A bronze statue of Edward Dunlop situated in the Domain Parklands, Melbourne Edward Dunlop (statue in Melbourne Botantic Gardens).jpg
A bronze statue of Edward Dunlop situated in the Domain Parklands, Melbourne
A bronze statue of Edward Dunlop at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 2nd of an edition of two by sculptor Peter Corlett, the other in the Domain Parklands in Melbourne. This statue "commemorates all Australian doctors and medical staff who served Australian prisoners of war in the Asia-Pacific region between 1939 and 1945." Conserved 1995, remounted 2010 Statue of Sir Edward 'Weary' Dunlop at the AWM.jpg
A bronze statue of Edward Dunlop at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 2nd of an edition of two by sculptor Peter Corlett, the other in the Domain Parklands in Melbourne. This statue "commemorates all Australian doctors and medical staff who served Australian prisoners of war in the Asia-Pacific region between 1939 and 1945." Conserved 1995, remounted 2010

Dunlop had been a school cadet, and he continued his part-time army service until 1929, when his service ceased under pressure from his pharmacy studies. He re-enlisted in 1935 and was commissioned into the Australian Army Medical Corps on 1 July with the rank of Captain. In May 1938 Dunlop left Australia for London on a ship, where he served as her medical officer. In London he attended St Bartholomew's Medical School and in 1938 became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. The distinguished medical mentors Dunlop met in London, Professor Grey-Turner and Sir Thomas Dunhill, impressed him with their dedication to their job and he resolved to emulate their example.

War and imprisonment

During World War II, Dunlop was appointed to medical headquarters in the Middle East, where he developed the mobile surgical unit. In Greece he liaised with forward medical units and Allied headquarters, and at Tobruk he was a surgeon until the Australian Divisions were withdrawn for home defence. His troopship was diverted to Java in an ill-planned attempt to bolster the defences there. On 26 February 1942, he was promoted to temporary lieutenant-colonel. Dunlop became a Japanese prisoner of war in 1942 when he was captured in Bandung, Java, together with the hospital he was commanding. [14]

Because of his leadership skills, he was placed in charge of prisoner-of-war camps in Java, and was later transferred briefly to Changi, and in January 1943 commanded the first Australians sent to work on the Thai segment of the Burma-Thailand railway where prisoners of the Japanese were being used as forced labourers to construct a strategically important supply route between Bangkok and Rangoon. Conditions in the railway camps were primitive and horrific—food was totally inadequate, beatings were frequent and severe, there were no medical supplies, tropical diseases were rampant, and the Japanese required a level of productivity that would have been difficult for fully fit and properly equipped men to achieve.

Along with a number of other Commonwealth Medical Officers, Dunlop's dedication and heroism became a legend among prisoners.

A courageous leader and compassionate doctor, he restored morale in those terrible prison camps and jungle hospitals. Dunlop defied his captors, gave hope to the sick and eased the anguish of the dying. He became, in the words of one of his men, "a lighthouse of sanity in a universe of madness and suffering". His example was one of the reasons why Australian survival rates were the highest.

He is depicted in a lighter moment during these terrible times on a birthday card painted by Ashley George Old for Major Arthur Moon and now held at the State Library of Victoria. [15]

Post-war life

After 1945, with the darkness of the war years behind him, Dunlop forgave his captors and turned his energies to the task of healing and building. He was to state later that " in suffering we are all equal". He devoted himself to the health and welfare of former prisoners-of-war and their families, and worked to promote better relations between Australia and Asia.

He was active in many spheres of endeavour. He became closely involved with a wide range of health and educational organisations, and served as President of the Australian Drug Foundation for 13 years, and also on the board of Cancer Council Victoria. He was the first Australian Patron of St. Andrew's Ambulance Association (now St. Andrew's First Aid). His tireless community work had a profound influence on Australians and on the people of Asia. As well as numerous tributes and distinctions bestowed upon him in his own country, he received honours from Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the United Kingdom.

Honours and awards

'Weary' Dunlop received many honours and awards throughout his life, including:

In 1988 'Weary' Dunlop was named one of '200 Great Australians'. In June 2008, he was honoured in the third set of inductees into the Australian Rugby Union Hall of Fame.

He received the posthumous honour of having the Canberra suburb of Dunlop named after him shortly after his death in 1993. [21] His image is on the 1995 issue Australian fifty cent piece with the words "They Served Their Country in World War II, 1939 – 1945". The fifty cent piece is part of a set including the one dollar coin and the twenty cent piece. He has a platoon named after him in the Army Recruit Training Centre, Blamey Barracks, Kapooka. Weary Dunlop Platoon is a holding platoon to recruits that want to leave recruit training.

He was on one of 1995 Australia Remembers 45c stamps.

He was a Freemason. [22]

Footnotes

  1. 125 Stories for 125 Years Archived 3 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. At that time, it was not uncommon for a student to first study pharmacy, because the gaining of a pharmacy diploma guaranteed advanced-level admission to a medical degree at Melbourne University.
  3. – Museum of Victoria
  4. Fast Inter-Collegiate Football: Newman Defeat Ormond, The Age, (Thursday, 14 July 1932), p.3.
  5. Greatorex, E.N., "Start now to prepare for South Africa", The (Sydney) Daily Telegraph, (Friday, 29 July 1932), p.4.
  6. Victorian in Rugby Test, The (Melbourne) Herald, (Wednesday, 20 July 1932), p.4.
  7. All Blacks Win, The (Rockhampton) Morning Bulletin, (Monday, 25 July 1932), p.10; All Blacks Defeat Australia, The Australasian, (Saturday, 30 July 1932), p.25.
  8. Rugby Test: Australian Team: Three States Represented, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Tuesday, 7 August), p.9.
  9. Australia Routs All Blacks in First Rugby Test, The (Sydney) Truth, (Sunday, 12 August 1934), p.6.
  10. University Boxing Finals, The Age, (Saturday, 4 August 1934), p.17; University Championships, The Argus, (Saturday, 4 August 1934), p.25; What an All-rounder!, The (Brisbane) Daily Standard, (Monday, 20 August 1934), p.6.
  11. Played with Broken Nose, The Courier-Mail, (Tuesday, 14 August 1934), p.5.
  12. Rugby Football Casualties: Influenza Claims Victims, The Referee, (Thursday, 30 August 1934), p.12; Rugby Union Test Match, The Newcastle Sun, (Saturday, 25 August 1934), p.7.
  13. Dunlop Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine – Wallaby Hall of Fame
  14. "Obituary of Maurice Kinmonth". Daily Telegraph. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. It's an Honour: OBE
  17. It's an Honour: CMG
  18. It's an Honour: Knight Bachelor
  19. Lewis, Wendy (2010). Australians of the Year. Pier 9 Press. ISBN   978-1-74196-809-5.
  20. It's an Honour: AC
  21. "Suburb Name search results". ACT Planning & Land Authority. Retrieved 13 July 2009.[ dead link ]
  22. Levenston (2010).

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