|Webb County, Texas|
The Webb County Courthouse in Laredo
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
|• Total||3,375 sq mi (8,741 km2)|
|• Land||3,361 sq mi (8,705 km2)|
|• Water||14 sq mi (36 km2), 0.4%|
|• Density||82/sq mi (32/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
Webb County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 250,304.Its county seat is Laredo. The county was named after James Webb, who served as Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of State, and Attorney General of the Republic of Texas, and later judge of the United States District Court following the admission of Texas to statehood. By area, Webb County is the largest county in South Texas and the sixth largest in the state.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.
Webb County includes the Laredo metropolitan area.
Webb County was split in 1856. Encinal County was established on February 1, 1856, and was to have consisted of the eastern portion of Webb County. However, Encinal County was never organized and was finally dissolved on March 12, 1899, with its territory returned as part of Webb County.
Much of Webb County history is based on the prevalence of ranching in the 19th century and continuing thereafter. The Webb County Heritage Foundation is a nonprofit organization that seeks to preserve documents and artifacts of the past to guarantee that the regional history is not lost to upcoming generations. In 2015, the foundation, headed by President James E. Moore, presented Heritage Awards to such local notables as the artist Janet Krueger, the journalist Maria Eugenia Guerra, and the Laredo Community College art instructor Martha F. Fenstermaker (1943-2014).
A nonprofit organization, also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view. In economic terms, it is an organization that uses its surplus of the revenues to further achieve its ultimate objective, rather than distributing its income to the organization's shareholders, leaders, or members. Nonprofits are tax exempt or charitable, meaning they do not pay income tax on the money that they receive for their organization. They can operate in religious, scientific, research, or educational settings.
Janet Eager Krueger is an artist known for her large-scale oil paintings of South Texas ranching life. She is a retired associate professor of art at Texas A&M International University in Laredo and lives on a ranch in nearby Encinal, Texas, in the southwestern corner of La Salle County just north of the Webb County line.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,376 square miles (8,740 km2), of which 3,361 square miles (8,700 km2) is land and 14 square miles (36 km2) (0.4%) is covered by water.
The Webb County - City of Laredo Regional Mobility Authority has responsibility for a comprehensive transport system in the region.
The Webb County - City of Laredo Regional Mobility AuthorityakaWebb County - Laredo RMA in Texas, USA, does not currently operate any roads, but in the future will operate toll roads located inside Webb County.
Interstate 35 in Texas is a major north–south Interstate Highway running from Laredo near the United States-Mexico border to the Red River north of Gainesville where it crosses into Oklahoma. Along its route, it passes through the cities of San Antonio, Austin, and Waco before it splits into two auxiliary routes just north of Hillsboro. Interstate 35E heads northeast where it passes through Dallas. Interstate 35W turns northwest to run through Fort Worth. The two branches meet up in Denton to again form Interstate 35, where it continues to the Oklahoma border. The exit numbers for Interstate 35E maintain the sequence of exit numbers from the southern segment of Interstate 35, and the northern segment of Interstate 35 follows on from the sequence of exit numbers from Interstate 35E. Interstate 35W maintains its own sequence of exit numbers.
Interstate 69W (I-69W) is a relatively short north–south Interstate Highway running through South Texas in the United States. The freeway begins northeast of the middle of World Trade International Bridge in Laredo and ends at I-35. In the future, I-69W will head northeast for 180 miles (290 km) before terminating near Victoria as both I-69E and I-69W merge to form I-69. For its entire length, I-69W runs concurrently with US Highway 59 (US 59).
U.S. Highway 59 (US 59) in the U.S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U.S. senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69 (I-69), is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, which is also co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway. The stretch of the Southwest Freeway just west of The Loop was formerly one of the busiest freeways in North America, with a peak AADT of 371,000 in 1998.
|U.S. Decennial Census |
1850–2010 2010–2014 2017
As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 273,536, non-Hispanic whites 8,699 (3.2%). Black Americans 552 (0.2%). Other non-Hispanic 2,134 (0.8%). Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 262,151 (95.8%).
As of the census mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 82.16% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.00% from other races, and 2.54% from two or more races. About 94% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.of 2000, 193,117 people, 50,740 households, and 43,433 families resided in the county. The county gained 57,000 additional residents between 2000 and 2010. The population density was 58 people per square mile (22/km²). The 55,206 housing units averaged 16 per square
Of the 50,740 households, 53.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 14.40% were not families; 12.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.75 and the average family size was 4.10.
In the county, the population was distributed as 36.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 15.60% from 45 to 64, and 7.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $28,100, and for a family was $29,394. Males had a median income of $23,618 versus $19,018 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,759. About 26.70% of families and 31.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.40% of those under age 18 and 26.90% of those age 65 or over.
Like all Texas counties, Webb County is governed by four part-time county commissioners paid $76,220 annually and elected by single-member districts of equivalent population, and a county-wide county judge, who is the full-time administrator of the county. County judge Danny Valdez left the position after two terms on December 31, 2014, and was succeeded by Tano Tijerina, a former professional baseball player and local businessman. Valdez narrowly defeated Tijerina in 2010,but Tijerina rebounded with a 65 to 35% victory over Valdez in the Democratic primary election held on March 4, 2014.
The private prison operator GEO Group runs the Rio Grande Detention Center in Webb County, which opened in 2008 and holds a maximum of 1900 federal detainees.
On March 27, 2017, the Laredo attorney Victor G. Villarreal was named judge of Position 2 of the Webb County Court at Law. He succeeds Jesus "Chuy" Garza, a popular veteran judge who resigned after indictment on an influence peddling charge. The commissioners interviewed six candidates for the position before deciding on Villarreal.Meanwhile, jury selection for Garza's trial is scheduled to begin on October 2, 2017. The indictment alleges that Garza in 2015 sought a $3,000 loan from Shirley Mathis on behalf of Christopher Casarez, a coordinator in Garza’s court. Casarez committed suicide in December 2016 the day before being scheduled to meet with authorities about the probe into the Garza case.
On April 26, 2017, the Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted raids on municipal and county offices in Laredo to seek information in an undisclosed public corruption probe. Mayor Pete Saenz called the raids "embarrassing," but welcomed the investigation to halt any corruption that may be uncovered. A raid was conducted on Dannenbaum Engineering Company, a firm that holds large contracts in Laredo, San Antonio, and other Texas cities. Webb County Judge Tano Tijerina, who like Saenz indicated that he does not know the details of the matter, said that local officials would be standing for "justice, transparency and truth" and would cooperate fully with the FBI in the probes. County Commissioner John Galo said he was not surprised at the developments, which essentially closed off Laredo City Hall for the day: “Corruption in Webb County has been going on for too long,” Galo added.
This seat will have changed hands four times in four years when the new commissioner takes office on January 1, 2017. Democratic voters in Precinct 1 named Jesse Gonzalez the new commissioner in the runoff election held on May 24, 2016. Gonzalez polled 2,330 votes (50.5 percent) to Esteban Rangel's 2,284 (49.5 percent).Rangel called for a recount of the tabulation. No Republican filed for the seat in heavily Democratic south Webb County.
Francisco J. "Frank" Sciaraffa (born 1972), the departing commissioner, had been returned to the body in a special election held on November 4, 2014, in conjunction with the regular general elections held across Texas and the nation. He succeeded Linda Ramirez, an interim appointee who had been selected by presiding Judge David Peeples, a Republican member of the Texas 4th Administrative Judicial Region, a 22-county area in and around San Antonio.Sciaraffa invited Anna Laura Cavazos Ramirez, the former county attorney, to become his administrative aide.
Linda Ramirez had succeeded Mike Montemayor, who resigned on June 20, 2014, after 17 months in office. Montemayor pleaded guilty on June 19, 2014, in a plea bargain to accepting some $11,000 in cash and $2,700 in electronics from a businessman, who unbeknownst to Montemayor, was an undercover agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Montemayor defeated Sciaraffa in 2012 and took office on January 1, 2013. He faced a two-count indictment for having solicited and accepted bribes in exchange for promises to perform various official acts for private gain. He allegedly accepted a truck valued at $37,000 in exchange for promising to find government jobs to the owner of the vehicle, as well as the man's wife. The government elected not to proceed with that charge after Montemayor pleaded guilty to the other count against him. Had he been convicted on both counts in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Montemayor could have faced up to ten years in prison and fines of $500,000 on both bribery charges.After he posted bail, Montemayor said on Facebook, "there is more to the story, a lot more" than has yet been revealed. Montemayor added that he has "a great team of attorneys", but cannot discuss the specifics of the case in public. Meanwhile, a county resident, Juan Avila, in a public meeting on March 24, called upon the commissioners court to remove Montemayor from office. Under state law, a resident may file a written petition for removal with a district court judge. Avila told the commissioners, "It is true that you're innocent until proven guilty. But when the FBI comes and picks you up, that's a whole different matter."
County attorney Marco Montemayor (no relation to Mike Montemayor), who in 2012 unseated Anna Laura Cavazos Ramirez, proposed that Mike Montemayor be suspended and denied his pay pending a hearing set for July 1 before Judge Peeples in the 49th District Court.Montemayor agreed to accept the suspension and the loss of pay, considering chaotic events which occurred at his most recent commissioners court meeting. Twenty-four applied for the post, including former commissioner Sciaraffa and former County Judge Louis H. Bruni.
In April 2014, prosecutors claimed that Montemayor pocketed thousands of dollars in campaign contributions, accepted all-expense paid trips, sought to have traffic tickets dismissed in exchange for favors, and lived outside his precinct when he filed for office.
Former County Judge Danny Valdez, who was unseated in 2014, reappointed Linda Ramirez, a United South High School teacher, as interim commissioner. However, the Webb County Democratic Party in early August 2014, in a 9/13 vote of its precinct chairmen, endorsed Sciaraffa to return to the seat that he had held prior to having been unseated in 2012 by Montemayor. Ramirez did not receive a single vote among the precinct chairs.
On November 4, 2014 Sciaraffa defeated his lone opponent, a member of the Green Party. The special election was required under the Texas election code because Ramirez joined the court 137 days prior to the general election. The law would have allowed her to have served through 2015 without facing voters only if her assumption of the position had begun no more than seventy-four days before the general election.
Meanwhile, Sciaraffa faces mounting legal problems. In 2012, Sara Jo Davila filed suit against Webb County and Sciaraffa after she was removed from her position as a community center director. Davila claimed that she had been forced to perform sexual acts on Sciaraffa to keep her position. In March 2013, Sciaraffa, after having first denied specific sexual encounters with Davila, admitted to contact but claimed the relations were consensual. Since that time there was little court movement in the case.County auditor Leo Flores said that taxpayers have funded nearly $90,000 to defend Sciaraffa in the Davila lawsuit. The fees were paid to the San Antonio firm Goode, Casseb, Jones, Riklin, Cholate & Watson. Additional amounts beyond the $90,000 are deferred to the county's insurer, Flores said.
On September 23, 2014, Judge Diana Saldaña of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas threw out one of the claims against Sciaraffa but permitted the other to go to trial. Saldaña said that she found no proof that Sara Jo Davila sustained alleged tangible employment actions because of her rejection of Sciaraffa's sexual advances. However, she said Webb County may have failed to take needed precautions to prevent sexual harassment from occurring in the workplace. The judge said that she needs additional detailed information from Davila before she can rule on alleged acts of retaliation by Sciaraffa.
On January 26, 2015, Montemayor was sentenced to seventy-six months in prison and fined $109,000. Taken into immediate custody upon sentencing, he said that he was "embarrassed by my actions and have been humiliated." He further apologized to the city and county "for going against everything I promised I would do." U.S. District Judge Marina Garcia Marmolejo also ordered Montemayor to undergo treatment for alcohol/drug abuse and to participate in a mental health program.
Precinct 2, Rosaura Palacios Tijerina, known as "Wawi" Tijerina, was elected in 2006, 2010, and on March 4, 2014. In her last two Democratic primary contests, she defeated former commissioner Judith Gutierrez. A graduate of the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at Texas Southern University in Houston, Tijerina was from 1998 to 2002 the elected part-time Laredo city judge and from 1989 to 2008 an instructor of criminal justice at Laredo Community College, from which she received an associate degree in 1978. She is also a practicing attorney in Laredo. Her Precinct 2 includes a part of mid-Laredo and also encompasses the largest rural areas of Webb County: Aguilares, Mirando City, Oilton, and Bruni. Tijerina's husband, Omar Tijerina, Sr.,is an uncle of Webb County Judge Tano Tijerina, under whom she will serve beginning on January 1, 2015.
Precinct 3, John Clifford Galo, was first elected in 2012 to succeed Jerry Garza, who ran unsuccessfully for the Texas House of Representatives against Tracy King in House District 80 and in 2014 was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor of Laredo, having been defeated by Pete Saenz. Galo is a former two-term member of the Laredo City Council and an unsuccessful candidate for mayor in the 2006 election; he was defeated by Raúl González Salinas, Saenz's predecessor.In 2014, Salinas lost a bid for Webb County treasurer against the three-term incumbent Delia Perales. Salinas was succeeded on November 12, 2014, as mayor by Pete Saenz, a former member and president of the trustees of Laredo Community College.
Precinct 4, Jaime Alberto Canales, was first elected in 2010. A former science educator and school principal,Canales won his runoff election for a second term as commissioner on May 27, 2014. He defeated fellow Democrat Jose Valdez, Jr., a former member of the Laredo City Council. In a low-turnout contest, Canales polled 1,963 votes (53.8 percent); Valdez, 1,683 (46.2 percent). In the March 4 primary election, Canales garnered 46 percent; Valdez, 30 percent.
Arnulfo "Fito" Santos, Sr. (1931-2015), was the Precinct 4 commissioner for four terms from 1978 to 1984. A 1949 graduate of Martin High School in Laredo, he operated until its closure early in the 21st century, his family-owned, Alfredo Santos Grocery Store at 1900 Santa Maria Avenue, now the site of a Family Dollar store.
Ricardo Rangel was from 2002 to 2014 the justice of the peace for Precinct 2, Place 2. He won the March 4, 2014, Democratic primary for a fourth term. On September 4, 2014, Rangel pleaded guilty to an extortion charge before U. S. District Judge Diana Saldaña. He has since entered an alcohol rehabilitation unit in Houston.
Webb County is overwhelmingly Democratic and has voted for that party's electors since 1916 (the last Republican being incumbent President William Howard Taft in 1912). Although Texas as a whole voted for Republican nominee John McCain in the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama won 33,435 votes (71%) of the ballots in Webb County. McCain was a distant second in Webb County with 13,111 votes (28%). Obama fared better than Democrat John Kerry had done in 2004. Latinos in Texas gave Obama 63% of their ballots, whereas Kerry had polled 50% among that group in Texas. In Webb County, Kerry received 23,654 (57%) to George W. Bush's 17,753 (42%). Nearly 57,000 registered voters in Webb County did not cast ballots in the 2008 presidential election. In 2012, despite the continuing statewide Republican trend, Webb County rebuffed Mitt Romney and cast an even larger percentage of its vote for President Obama than it had done in 2008.
Webb County also voted in 2008 and 2012 for the Democratic nominees for the United States Senate, State Representative Rick Noriega of Houston, who failed to unseat Republican incumbent John Cornyn, and then Paul Sadler, a former state representative from Henderson, who lost to Republican nominee Ted Cruz for the right to succeed the retiring Kay Bailey Hutchison.
Because of the heavy Democratic allegiance in Webb County, Republicans virtually never offer candidates for county office. In the March 4, 2014, primary, 1,151 (4.6 percent) voted in the Republican primary in Webb County, compared to 23,958 (95.4 percent) in the Democratic contests.Webb County elections administrator Carlos Villarreal reported a 24% turnout in the November 4, 2014, general election in Webb County. County officials have requested that Villarreal develop a plan to increase turnout for 2016. County Democratic Chairman Alberto Torres, Jr., suggested improvements in the election division website with clear maps of voter boundaries. Torres said that such better services might motivate persons to vote regularly.
Three school districts serve Webb County:
Prior to 1994, Webb CISD served only Bruni and Oilton. Mirando City Independent School District served the community of Mirando City from 1923 to 2005. Prior to 1994, all Mirando City children attended Mirando City ISD schools. After the spring of 1994, Mirando City High School closed.Therefore, from the fall of 1994 to July 1, 2005, WCISD served high schoolers from Mirando City, while Mirando Elementary School in the Mirando City ISD served pupils from kindergarten through eighth grade. On May 9, 2005, the Texas Education Agency ordered the closure of Mirando City ISD. The district closed on July 1, 2005, and all students were rezoned to Webb CISD schools.
The private Holding Institute is a former United Methodist boarding school operating as a downtown Laredo community center.
Laredo is a city in and the county seat of Webb County, Texas, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Laredo has the distinction of flying seven flags. Founded in 1755, Laredo grew from a village to the capital of the brief Republic of the Rio Grande to the largest inland port on the Mexico–United States border. Laredo's economy is based on international trade with Mexico. Many major transportation companies have a facility in Laredo. The city is on the southern end of I-35 which makes it close to the manufacturers in northern Mexico. It has four international bridges and one railway bridge.
Mirando City is a census-designated place (CDP) in Webb County, Texas, United States. It is three hundred eighty-four miles southwest of Houston. The population was 166 at the 2010 census. The town gets its name from Nicolás Mirando, a Spanish land grantee. The population of Mirando City was highest in 1929, at an estimated 1500.
Henry Roberto Cuellar is the U.S Representative for Texas's 28th congressional district, a position he has held since 2005. He is a member of the Democratic Party. The district extends from the Rio Grande to the suburbs of San Antonio.
Richard Peña Raymond is a Democratic member of the Texas House of Representatives for District 42, which encompasses western Webb County and includes the city of Laredo. He chairs the Human Services Committee and is a member of the Ways & Means Committee.
Raúl González Salinas is a private security consultant, a businessman, and a retired Federal Bureau of Investigation agent who is the former mayor of Laredo, Texas.
Mirando City Independent School District was a school district located in unincorporated Webb County, Texas, United States. The district consisted of one school named Mirando Elementary School, located in the Mirando City community.
Judith Pappas Zaffirini is a Democratic member of the Texas State Senate from the 21st District, which includes her home city of Laredo in south Texas. On January 9, 2007, Zaffirini became the second in seniority in the 31-member Texas Senate, of which she has been a member since 1987. Zaffirini has been named among the "Top 100 Most Influential Hispanics in the United States" by Hispanic Business magazine. Zaffirini is the first Mexican American woman elected to the Texas Senate.
Laredo College (LC) is a public college in Laredo, Texas. Founded as Laredo Junior College in 1947, it is part of the Laredo Independent School District. As defined by the Texas Legislature, the official service area of LC includes the municipality of Laredo and all of Webb, Jim Hogg and Zapata counties.
Raymond & Tirza Martin High School, known as Martin High School, is a secondary institution of learning located in the Laredo Independent School District in Laredo, Texas, United States. Grades 9th through 12th are taught there. It serves students living in central Laredo. The school is adjacent to the Laredo Civic Center.
William N. "Billy" Hall, Jr., was a Democratic member of the Texas House of Representatives from Laredo, Texas, who served in District 57 from 1973 to 1987. He was subsequently the county treasurer of Webb County from 1995 until his death.
The Laredo Lemurs were a professional baseball team based in Laredo, Texas, that played in the independent American Association from 2012 to 2016. The team played their home games at the Uni-Trade Stadium in Laredo, replacing the Laredo Broncos of United League Baseball. The team withdrew from the league prior to the start of the 2017 season.
Tracy Ogden King is a businessman from Batesville, Texas, who has been since 1995 a Democratic member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 80. Beginning in January 2013, the revised District 80 includes these counties south of San Antonio: Dimmit, Frio, Uvalde, Zapata, Zavala plus the rural portions of Webb County outside Laredo.
Saul N. Ramirez Jr., is currently President of GRI a telco that owns TerraCom, Inc. and YourTel of America, Inc. Prior to joining GRI, he was the Chief Executive Officer of the National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials for 15 years, an interest group based in Washington, D.C. Previously, he worked with Greystone and Company, a firm which provides debt and equity financing for multi-family residences and economic development projects. From 1990 to 1997, Ramirez, a Democrat, was the mayor of Laredo, Texas.
Esther Gonzalez-Arroyo Buckley was an educator in Laredo, Texas, USA, who from 1983 to 1992 was one of the eight members of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. She was appointed to the board by U.S. President Ronald W. Reagan.
Tano Eduardo Tijerina is a rancher and businessman from his native Laredo, Texas, who is the County Judge of Webb County in South Texas, United States. On January 1, 2015, he became the 23rd person to hold the elected office since Webb County was established in 1848. For five years beginning in 1993, Tijerina was a baseball player for minor-league teams of the Milwaukee Brewers.
Louis Henry Bruni is a businessman, rancher, politician, and the scion of a pioneer family in his native Laredo, Texas. From 2003 to 2006, he was the elected administrative County Judge of Webb County in South Texas.
Mercurio J. Martinez, Jr., often known as Merc Martinez, is an educator, rancher, and businessman from his native Laredo, Texas. From 1991 to 2002, he was the County Judge of Webb County in South Texas.
Pedro Ignacio Saenz Jr., known as Pete Saenz, is the mayor of Laredo, Texas, a position which he assumed on November 12, 2014.
Homer David Peeples, known as David Peeples, is the Republican presiding judge of the 4th Administrative Judicial Region, a twenty-two county area in and about San Antonio, Texas. Peeples has served on the court since 1996. Earlier, he practiced law and was a judge of two state district courts and the Texas Court of Appeals for the 4th District.
Ramón Humberto Dovalina, Sr., is the retired fifth president of Laredo Community College, a two-year institution with the main campus on the grounds of historic Fort McIntosh on the Rio Grande in his native Laredo in Webb County in South Texas. With service from July 5, 1995, until August 31, 2007, Dovalina left the position with two years remaining in his contract, much to the surprise of his academic colleagues. Under Dovalina, the physical appearance of the college was upgraded, the scholarship endowment fund increased from $100,000 in 1995 to more than $1 million in 2007, the institution advanced a 10-year master plan for new technology, and a $50 million South Campus was opened.