State of Wei
|403 BCE–225 BCE|
|Capital||Anyi (安邑, first)|
|Common languages||Old Chinese|
|Government|| Marquessate (侯)|
Kingdom (王; after 344 BCE)
• Conquered by Qin
|Currency|| spade money |
other ancient Chinese coinage
Wei ( /weɪ/ ;  Chinese :魏; pinyin :Wèi;Old Chinese:*N-qʰuj-s) was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin,together with Han and Zhao. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan,Hebei,Shanxi,and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang (present-day Kaifeng) during the reign of King Hui,Wei was also called Liang (Chinese :梁; pinyin :Liáng).
This section needs additional citations for verification .(November 2010)
Surviving sources trace the ruling house of Wei to the Zhou royalty:Gao,Duke of Bi (畢公高),was a son of King Wen of Zhou. His descendants took their surname,Bi,from his fief. After the destruction of Bi,Bi Wan (畢萬) escaped to Jin,where he became a courtier of Duke Xian's,accompanying his personal carriage. After a successful military expedition,Bi Wan was granted Wei,from which his own descendants then founded the house of Wei.
Jin's political structure was drastically changed after the slaughter of its ruling dynasty during and after the Li Ji Unrest. Afterwards,"Jin ha[d] no princely house" (晉無公卿) and its political power diffused into extended relations of the ruling family,including the Wei. In the last years of the Spring and Autumn period,the founders of Wei,Zhao,and Han joined to attack and kill the dominant house of Zhi (知) in 453 BCE,resulting in the partition of Jin. King Weilie of Zhou finally legitimized the situation in 403 BCE,when he elevated the three houses' heads to the rank of marquess (Chinese :侯; pinyin :hóu).
The state reached its apogee during the reigns of its first two rulers,Marquess Wen of Wei and Marquess Wu of Wei. The third ruler,King Hui of Wei,declared himself an independent sovereign and concentrated on economic developments,including irrigation projects at the Yellow River. Hui felt that Qin in the west was weak and their land a barren waste. He focused on conquering the well-settled eastern lands which were richer in known resources. However,a series of battles including the battle of Maling in 341 BCE checked Wei's ambitions while Qin's expansion went largely unimpeded,boosting its economy and military strength.
Early strengthening of the state of Wei resulted from adoption of Legalist reforms proposed by Li Kui (Chinese :李悝,c. 459 –c. 395 BCE).
Wei eventually lost the western Hexi (河西) region,a strategic area of pastoral land on the west bank of the Yellow River between the border of modern-day Shanxi and Shaanxi,to Qin. Thereafter,it remained continuously at war with Qin,requiring the capital to be moved from Anyi to Daliang. Wei surrendered to Qin in 225 BCE,after the Qin general Wang Ben diverted the Yellow River into Daliang,destroying the capital in a flood.
According to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian written in the first centuryBCE,the list of rulers is slightly different:King Hui died in 335BCE and was succeeded by his son King Xiang in 334BCE. King Xiang died in 319BCE and was succeeded by his son King Ai (哀王),who died in 296BCE and was succeeded by his son King Zhao. However,the majority of scholars and commentators believe that King Ai,whose personal name is not recorded,never existed. It seems that Sima Qian assigned the second part of the reign of King Hui (starting in 334BCE,on which date Marquess Hui probably proclaimed himself King) to his son King Xiang and added King Ai to fill in the gap between 319 and 296BCE. On the other hand,a minority of scholars believe King Ai did indeed exist.[ citation needed ]
|Wei state family tree|
According to the Records of the Warring States,a king of Wei had a lover named Lord Longyang,with whom he enjoyed fishing. One day,Longyang began to weep. When questioned,Longyang said he saw his own future in how he had treated a fish. Happy to have the catch at first,Longyang had wanted to throw it back when he caught a better fish. He wept,"I am also a previously-caught fish! I will also be thrown back!" To show his fidelity to Longyang,the king declared that,"Anyone who dares to speak of other beauties will be executed along with his entire family". 
In traditional Chinese astronomy,Wei is represented by one star in the "Twelve States" asterism of the "Girl" lunar mansion of the "Black Turtle" symbol and other star in the "Left Wall" of the "Heavenly Market" enclosure. Sources differ,however,in whether those two stars are (respectively) 33 Capricorni  and Delta Herculis  or whether they are Chi Capricorni and Phi Capricorni. 
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 770 to 476 BCE which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals,a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BCE,which tradition associates with Confucius.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare,as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states,which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire,known as the Qin dynasty.
King Hui of Wei,originally called Marquis Hui of Wei,and after 344,King Hui of Liang was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States period,ruling from approximately 369–319 BC. He was a grandson of Marquess Wen of Wei,the founder of the state,and a son of Marquess Wu of Wei. He was succeeded by his son,King Xiang of Wei.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin,together with Han and Wei,in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign,but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping. Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia,Hebei,Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu,the states of Qin,Wei and Yan. Its capital was Handan,in modern Hebei Province.
Yan was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Its capital was Ji. During the Warring States period,the court was also moved to another capital at Xiadu at times.
Jin,originally known as Tang (唐),was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty,based near the centre of what was then China,on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty:the southern part of modern Shanxi. Although it grew in power during the Spring and Autumn period,its aristocratic structure saw it break apart when the duke lost power to his nobles. In 403 BC,Jin was split into three successor states:Han,Zhao and Wei. The Partition of Jin marks the end of the Spring and Autumn Period and the beginning of the Warring States period.
Emperor Wu of Jin,personal name Sima Yan,courtesy name Anshi (安世),was the grandson of Sima Yi,nephew of Sima Shi and son of Sima Zhao. He became the first emperor of the Jin dynasty after forcing Cao Huan,last emperor of the state of Cao Wei,to abdicate to him. He reigned from 266 to 290,and after conquering the state of Eastern Wu in 280,was the emperor of a reunified China. Emperor Wu was also known for his extravagance and sensuality,especially after the unification of China;legends boasted of his incredible potency among ten thousand concubines.
Qin was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Traditionally dated to 897 BC,it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong;its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC,Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified the seven states of China in 221 BC under Qin Shi Huang. The Qin dynasty it established was short-lived but greatly influenced later Chinese history.
Chu,or Ch'u in Wade–Giles romanization,was a Zhou dynasty vassal state. Their first ruler was King Wu of Chu in the early 8th century BCE. Chu was located in the south of the Zhou heartland and lasted during the Spring and Autumn period. At the end of the Warring States period it was destroyed by the Qin in 223 BCE during the Qin's wars of unification.
Liang was a traditional Chinese fief centered on present-day Kaifeng. It was held by various powers over the course of Chinese history. It generally comprised modern Henan with a small part of Shanxi.
King Zhaoxiang of Qin,or King Zhao of Qin (秦昭王),born Ying Ji (Chinese:嬴稷,was the king of Qin from 306 BC to 251 BC. He was the son of King Huiwen and younger brother of King Wu.
Marquess Wen of Wei was the first Marquess to rule the State of Wei during the Warring States period of Chinese history. Born Wei Si (魏斯),he belonged to the House of Wei,one of the noble houses that dominated Jin politics in the 5th and 6th centuries BC.
Wei,commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the contemporary larger Wei (魏) state,was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period. Its rulers were of the surname Ji (姬),the same as that of the rulers of Zhou. It was located in modern northeastern Henan Province,east of Jin,and west of Cao.
Wei Wang may refer to:
The Partition of Jin,the watershed between the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods,refers to the division of the State of Jin between rival families into the three states of Han,Zhao and Wei. As a result,the three states were often referred to as the "Three Jins" ).
Marquess Lie of Zhao was a ruler of the State of Zhao during the Warring States period of Chinese history. Born Zhào Jí,his father was Marquess Xian of Zhao.
King Xiang of Wei,personal name Wei Si,was king of Wei from 318 BC to 296 BC. He was the son of King Hui of Wei. In 318 BC,at the suggestion of the Wei minister,Gongsun Yan,he entered into an alliance against Qin created by King Huai of Chu which also included the states of Zhao,Han and Yan. Chu then betrayed this alliance.
King Zhao of Wei,personal name Wei Chi was king of Wei from 296 BC to 277 BC. He was the son of King Xiang of Wei. During his reign,his state suffered from repeated attacks by the state of Qin. In 293 BC,he made an alliance with the state of Han against Qin but was defeated by the Qin general Bai Qi with the loss of 240,000 troops and 5 cities. In 287 BC,Quyang was attacked and in 286 BC,Anyi and Henei was attacked as well. In an attempt to assist in the attack on Anyi,Qin's ally,the state of Song was attacked in turn by the state of Qi and defeated at Wenyi. After a brief alliance between the states of Yan,Qin,Han and Zhao against Qi,King Zhao broke the alliance and allied with Qi against Qin.
King Anxi of Wei,personal name Wei Yu was King of Wei from 276 BC to 243 BC. He was the son of King Zhao of Wei. He was the older brother of Lord Xinling. In 275 BC,after a Han general fled to the Wei capital Daliang,King Anxi began a war against Qin in an alliance with Qi. Qin forces under chancellor Wei Ran and general Bai Qi captured 4 cities,besieged Daliang and killed 40,000 people. In 273 BC,with the assistance of Lord Mengchang of Qi,he began another war in an alliance with Zhao. The war ended with the deaths of 130,000 people. In 257 BC,he assisted Zhao when its capital Handan was besieged by Qin forces,at the request of Lord Pingyuan of Zhao,who was married to Xinling's older sister.
Jia,King of Wei was the last ruler of the state of Wei during the waning days of the Warring States Period of Chinese history. He ruled the kingdom between 227 BC and 225 BC.