Weir

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A weir on the Humber River near Raymore Park in Toronto, Ontario, Canada Humber Weir.JPG
A weir on the Humber River near Raymore Park in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
A weir on the Yass River, New South Wales, Australia directly upstream from a shared pedestrian-bicycle river crossing Culverts under yass river walkway weir.JPG
A weir on the Yass River, New South Wales, Australia directly upstream from a shared pedestrian-bicycle river crossing
Time lapse video of a new tilting weir being installed in the Caldicot and Wentloog Levels

A weir /wɪər/ or low head dam is a barrier across the width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level. They are also used to control the flow of water for outlets of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. There are many weir designs, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level.

Contents

Etymology

There is no single definition as to what constitutes a weir and one English dictionary simply defines a weir as a small dam, likely originating from Middle English were, Old English wer, derivative of root of werian, meaning "to defend, dam". [1] [2]

Function

A broadcrest weir at the Thorp grist mill in Thorp, Washington, USA Thorp Gristmill Weir.jpg
A broadcrest weir at the Thorp grist mill in Thorp, Washington, USA

Commonly, weirs are used to prevent flooding, measure water discharge, and help render rivers more navigable by boat. In some locations, the terms dam and weir are synonymous, but normally there is a clear distinction made between the structures. Usually, a dam is designed specifically to impound water behind a wall, whilst a weir is designed to alter the river flow characteristics.

A common distinction between dams and weirs is that water flows over the top (crest) of a weir or underneath it for at least some of its length. Accordingly, the crest of an overflow spillway on a large dam may therefore be referred to as a weir. Weirs can vary in size both horizontally and vertically, with the smallest being only a few inches in height whilst the largest may be many metres tall and hundreds of metres long. Some common weir purposes are outlined below.

Flow measurement

Weirs allow hydrologists and engineers a simple method of measuring the volumetric flow rate in small to medium-sized streams/rivers or in industrial discharge locations. Since the geometry of the top of the weir is known and all water flows over the weir, the depth of water behind the weir can be converted to a rate of flow. However, this can only be achieved in locations where all water flows over the top of the weir crest (as opposed to around the sides or through conduits or sluices) and at locations where the water that flows over the crest is carried away from the structure. If these conditions are not met, it can make flow measurement complicated, inaccurate, or even impossible.

The discharge calculation can be summarised as:

Where:

However, this calculation is a generic relationship and specific calculations are available for the many different types of weir. Flow measurement weirs must be well maintained if they are to remain accurate. [3] [4]

Flow over a V-notch weir

The flow over a V-notch weir (in ft3/s) is given by the Kindsvater-Shen equation. [5]

Where:

Control of invasive species

As weirs are a physical barrier, they can impede the longitudinal movement of fish and other animals up and down a river. This can have a negative effect on fish species that migrate as part of their breeding cycle (e.g., salmonids), but it also can be useful as a method of preventing invasive species moving upstream. For example, weirs in the Great Lakes region have helped to prevent invasive sea lamprey from colonising farther upstream.

Watermills

Mill ponds are created by a weir that impounds water that then flows over the structure. The energy created by the change in height of the water can then be used to power waterwheels and power sawmills, grinding wheels, and other equipment.

Flood control and altering river conditions

A sluice gate-based weir at Bray Lock on the River Thames, facing downstream, in the background is the smaller secondary 'overspill' weir. Two small boats are also visible held against the overspill weir, having been washed against it during a particularly high discharge as a result of meltwater from the 2018 winter cold wave. Weir at Bray Lock, May 2018.jpg
A sluice gate-based weir at Bray Lock on the River Thames, facing downstream, in the background is the smaller secondary 'overspill' weir. Two small boats are also visible held against the overspill weir, having been washed against it during a particularly high discharge as a result of meltwater from the 2018 winter cold wave.

Weirs are commonly used to control the flow rates of rivers during periods of high discharge. Sluice gates (or in some cases the height of the weir crest) can be altered to increase or decrease the volume of water flowing downstream. Weirs for this purpose are commonly found upstream of towns and villages and can either be automated or manually operated. By slowing the rate at which water moves downstream even slightly, a disproportionate effect can be had on the likelihood of flooding. On larger rivers, a weir can also alter the flow characteristics of the waterway to the point that vessels are able to navigate areas previously inaccessible due to extreme currents or eddies. Many larger weirs will have construction features that allow boats and river users to "shoot the weir" and navigate by passing up or down stream without having to exit the river. Weirs constructed for this purpose are especially common on the River Thames, and most are situated near each of the river's 45 locks.

Issues

During periods of high river flow, this nineteenth century weir of porphyry stone on a creek in the Alps would have significantly more water flowing over it. Grialeces cuecenes.jpg
During periods of high river flow, this nineteenth century weir of porphyry stone on a creek in the Alps would have significantly more water flowing over it.

Ecology

Because a weir impounds water behind it and alters the flow regime of the river, it can have an effect on the local ecology. Typically, the reduced river velocity upstream can lead to increased siltation (deposition of fine particles of silt and clay on the river bottom) that reduces the water oxygen content and smothers invertebrate habitat and fish spawning sites. The oxygen content typically returns to normal once water has passed over the weir crest (although it can be hyper-oxygenated), although increased river velocity can scour the river bed causing erosion and habitat loss.

Fish migration

Weirs can have a significant effect on fish migration. [6] Any weir that exceeds either the maximum height a species can jump or creates flow conditions that cannot be bypassed (e.g., due to excessive water velocity) effectively limits the maximum point upstream that fish can migrate. In some cases this can mean that huge lengths of breeding habitat are lost and over time, this can have a significant impact on fish populations.

In many countries, it is now a legal requirement to build fish ladders into the design of a weir that ensure that fish can bypass the barriers and access upstream habitats. Unlike dams, weirs do not usually prevent downstream fish migration (as water flows over the top and allows fish to bypass the structure in that water), although they can create flow conditions that injure juvenile fish. Recent studies suggest that navigation locks have also potential to provide increased access for a range of biota, including poor swimmers. [7]

Safety

Even though the water around weirs can often appear relatively calm, they can be extremely dangerous places to boat, swim, or wade, as the circulation patterns on the downstream side—typically called a hydraulic jump— can submerge a person indefinitely. This phenomenon is so well known to canoeists, kayakers, and others who spend time on rivers that they even have a rueful name for weirs: "drowning machines". [8] If caught in this situation, the Ohio DNR recommends that a victim should "tuck the chin down, draw the knees up to the chest with arms wrapped around them. Hopefully, conditions will be such that the current will push the victim along the bed of the river until swept beyond the boil line and released by the hydraulic." [9] The Pennsylvania State Police also recommends to victims, "curl up, dive to the bottom, and swim or crawl downstream". [10] As the hydraulic jump entrains air, the buoyancy of the water between the dam and boil line will be reduced by upward of 30%, and if a victim is unable to float, escape at the base of the dam may be the only option for survival.

Common types

The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset, England, UK Dorset sn weir 01.jpg
The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset, England, UK
Two weirs on the River Wear in Durham, County Durham, England, UK - the lower weir is a compound weir that also has fish ladders to allow fish such as salmon to navigate the weir Weir on the river wear.png
Two weirs on the River Wear in Durham, County Durham, England, UK - the lower weir is a compound weir that also has fish ladders to allow fish such as salmon to navigate the weir
A manually operated needle dam-type weir near Revin on the River Meuse, France Revin Meuse weir 20041230- 024.jpg
A manually operated needle dam-type weir near Revin on the River Meuse, France
A broad-crest weir in Warkworth, New Zealand WarkworthweirSeuilNewZealand.jpg
A broad-crest weir in Warkworth, New Zealand
A complicated series of broad-crest and V-notch weirs at Dobbs Weir in Hertfordshire, England, UK Dobbsweirvdropsjan2006.jpg
A complicated series of broad-crest and V-notch weirs at Dobbs Weir in Hertfordshire, England, UK

There are many different types of weirs and they can vary from a simple stone structure that is barely noticeable, to elaborate and very large structures that require extensive management and maintenance.

Broad-crested

A broad-crested weir is a flat-crested structure, where the water passes over a crest that covers much or all of the channel width. This is one of the most common types of weir found worldwide.

Compound

A compound weir is any weir that comprises several different designs into one structure. They are commonly seen in locations where a river has multiple users who may need to bypass the structure. A common design would be one where a weir is broad-crested for much of its length, but has a section where the weir stops or is 'open' so that small boats and fish can traverse the structure.

V-notch

A notch weir is any weir where the physical barrier is significantly higher than the water level except for a specific notch (often V-shaped) cut into the panel. At times of normal flow all the water must pass through the notch, simplifying flow volume calculations, and at times of flood the water level can rise and submerge the weir without any alterations made to the structure.

Polynomial

A polynomial weir is a weir that has a geometry defined by a polynomial equation of any order n. [11] In practice, most weirs are low-order polynomial weirs. The standard rectangular weir is, for example, a polynomial weir of order zero. The triangular (V-notch) and trapezoidal weirs are of order one. High-order polynomial weirs are providing wider range of Head-Discharge relationships, and hence better control of the flow at outlets of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs.

See also

Related Research Articles

Stream gauge Location used to monitor surface water flow

A stream gauge, streamgage or gauging station is a location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water. Hydrometric measurements of water level surface elevation ("stage") and/or volumetric discharge (flow) are generally taken and observations of biota and water quality may also be made. The location of gauging stations are often found on topographical maps. Some gauging stations are highly automated and may include telemetry capability transmitted to a central data logging facility.

Hydraulic jump Phenomenon occurring when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity

A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which is frequently observed in open channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface. The rapidly flowing liquid is abruptly slowed and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential energy, with some energy irreversibly lost through turbulence to heat. In an open channel flow, this manifests as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms.

Fish ladder Structure to allow fish to migrate upriver around barriers

A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial and natural barriers to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration as well as movements of potamodromous species. Most fishways enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps into the waters on the other side. The velocity of water falling over the steps has to be great enough to attract the fish to the ladder, but it cannot be so great that it washes fish back downstream or exhausts them to the point of inability to continue their journey upriver.

Spillway Structure for controlled release of flows from a dam or levee

A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the United Kingdom, they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways ensure that the water does not overflow and damage or destroy the dam.

Flume

A flume is a human-made channel for water in the form of an open declined gravity chute whose walls are raised above the surrounding terrain, in contrast to a trench or ditch. Flumes are not to be confused with aqueducts, which are built to transport water, rather than transporting materials using flowing water as a flume does. Flumes route water from a diversion dam or weir to a desired materiel collection location.Flumes are usually made up of wood, metal or concrete.

Culvert Structure that allows the passage of water or organisms under an obstruction

A culvert is a channel that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other. Typically embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom, the word can also be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse.

Low-water crossing bridge when the water flow is low

A low-water crossing provides a bridge when water flow is low. Under high-flow conditions, water runs over the roadway and precludes vehicular traffic. This approach is cheaper than building a bridge to raise the level of the road above the highest flood stage of a river, particularly in developing countries or in semi-arid areas with rare high-volume rain. Low-water crossings can be dangerous when flooded.

Ice jam accumulation of ice on a river caused by ice break-up forming a barrier that in turn can cause floods

Ice jams occur when floating river ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes the progress of the ice downstream with the river current. Ice jams can significantly reduce the flow of a river and cause upstream flooding—sometimes called ice dams. Ice jam flooding can also occur downstream when the jam releases in an outburst flood. In either case, flooding can cause damage to structures on shore.

In hydraulic engineering, a nappe is a sheet or curtain of water that flows over a weir or dam. The upper and lower water surface have well-defined characteristics that are created by the crest of a dam or weir. Both structures have different features that characterize how a nappe might flow through or over impervious concrete structures. Hydraulic engineers distinguish these two water structures in characterizing and calculating the formation of a nappe. Engineers account for the bathymetry of standing bodies or moving bodies of water. An appropriate crest is built for the dam or weir so that dam failure is not caused by nappe vibration or air cavitation from free-overall structures.

A drop structure, also known as a grade control, sill, or weir, is a manmade structure, typically small and built on minor streams, or as part of a dam's spillway, to pass water to a lower elevation while controlling the energy and velocity of the water as it passes over. Unlike most dams, drop structures are usually not built for water impoundment, diversion or raising the water level. Mostly built on watercourses with steep gradients, they serve other purposes such as water oxygenation and erosion prevention.

Log jam Accumulation of large wood in a stream or river, preventing movement downstream

A log jam is a naturally occurring phenomenon characterized by a dense accumulation of tree trunks and pieces of large wood across a vast section of a river, stream, or lake. Log jams in rivers and streams often span the entirety of the water's surface from bank to bank. Log jams form when trees floating in the water become entangled with other trees floating in the water, or become snagged on rocks, large woody debris, or other objects anchored underwater. They can build up slowly over months or years, or they can happen instantaneously when large numbers of trees are swept into the water after natural disasters. A notable example caused by a natural disaster is the log jam that occurred in Spirit Lake following a landslide triggered by the eruption of Mount Saint Helens. Until they are dismantled by natural causes or humans, log jams can grow exponentially as more wood arriving from upstream becomes entangled in the mass. Log jams can persist for many decades, as is the case with the log jam in Spirit Lake.

Bridge scour

Bridge scour is the removal of sediment such as sand and gravel from around bridge abutments or piers. Scour, caused by swiftly moving water, can scoop out scour holes, compromising the integrity of a structure.

Check dam small dam

A check dam is a small, sometimes temporary, dam constructed across a swale, drainage ditch, or waterway to counteract erosion by reducing water flow velocity. Check dams themselves are not a type of new technology; rather, they are an ancient technique dating from the second century A.D. Check dams are typically, though not always, implemented in a system of several dams situated at regular intervals across the area of interest.

Low head hydropower refers to the development of hydroelectric power where the head is typically less than 20 metres, although precise definitions vary. Head is the vertical height measured between the hydro intake water level and the water level at the point of discharge. Using only a low head drop in a river or tidal flows to create electricity may provide a renewable energy source that will have a minimal impact on the environment. Since the generated power is a function of the head these systems are typically classed as small-scale hydropower, which have an installed capacity less than 5MW.

Stepped spillway dam spillway that diasppates energy via staggered levels

A stepped spillway is a spillway with steps on the spillway chute to assist in the dissipation of the kinetic energy of the descending water. This eliminates or reduces the need for an additional energy dissipator, such as a body of water, at the end of the spillway downstream.

Hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel, also known as classical jump, is a natural phenomenon that occurs whenever flow changes from supercritical to subcritical flow. In this transition, the water surface rises abruptly, surface rollers are formed, intense mixing occurs, air is entrained, and often a large amount of energy is dissipated. In other words, a hydraulic jump happens when a higher velocity, v1, supercritical flow upstream is met by a subcritical downstream flow with a decreased velocity, v2, and sufficient depth. Numeric models created using the standard step method or HEC-RAS are used to track supercritical and subcritical flows to determine where in a specific reach a hydraulic jump will form.

Parshall flume Hydraulic structure for measuring fluid flow

The Parshall flume is an open channel flow metering device that was developed to measure the flow of surface waters and irrigation flows. The Parshall flume is a fixed hydraulic structure. It is used to measure volumetric flow rate in industrial discharges, municipal sewer lines, and influent/effluent flows in wastewater treatment plants. The Parshall flume accelerates flow through a contraction of both the parallel sidewalls and a drop in the floor at the flume throat. Under free-flow conditions the depth of water at specified location upstream of the flume throat can be converted to a rate of flow. Some states specify the use of Parshall flumes, by law, for certain situations.

The standard step method (STM) is a computational technique utilized to estimate one-dimensional surface water profiles in open channels with gradually varied flow under steady state conditions. It uses a combination of the energy, momentum, and continuity equations to determine water depth with a given a friction slope , channel slope , channel geometry, and also a given flow rate. In practice, this technique is widely used through the computer program HEC-RAS, developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC).

Open channel spillways are dam spillways that utilize the principles of open-channel flow to convey impounded water in order to prevent dam failure. They can function as principal spillways, emergency spillways, or both. They can be located on the dam itself or on a natural grade in the vicinity of the dam.

Head (hydrology) Hydrological term

The head is the point on a watercourse up to which it has been artificially broadened and/or raised by an impoundment. Above the head of the reservoir natural conditions prevail; below it the water level above the riverbed has been raised by the impoundment and its flow rate reduced, unless and until banks, barrages, weir sluices or dams are overcome (overtopped), whereby a less frictional than natural course will exist resulting in flash flooding below.

References

Notes

  1. "the definition of weir". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
  2. "Weir". www.etymonline.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  3. "Weirs - Flow Rate Measure". www.engineeringtoolbox.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
  4. "Factors affecting weir flow measurement accuracy". openchannelflow.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  5. Shen 1981, p. B31, Equ 6.
  6. Tummers et al. 2016, pp. 183-194.
  7. Silva et al. 2017, pp. 291-302.
  8. Michael Robinson; Robert Houghtalen. "Dangerous dams". Rhode Island Canoe/Kayak Association. Rhode Island. Archived from the original on 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  9. Boating, Ohio DNR Division of Parks and Watercraft -. "Lowhead Dam Safety". watercraft.ohiodnr.gov. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-05-02. Retrieved 2017-06-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Escaping a low-head dam
  11. Baddour 2008, pp. 260–262.

Works cited

Further reading

  • Chanson, H. (2004). The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow : An Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978 0 7506 5978 9.
  • Chanson, Hubert (2007). "Hydraulic Performances of Minimum Energy Loss Culverts in Australia". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities. 21 (4): 264–272. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3828(2007)21:4(264). ISSN   0887-3828.
  • Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Chanson, Hubert (2007). "Experimental measurements of velocity and pressure distributions on a large broad-crested weir". Flow Measurement and Instrumentation. 18 (3–4): 107–113. doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2007.05.005. ISSN   0955-5986.
  • Henderson, F.M. (1996), Open Channel Flow, New York: MacMillan Company
  • McKay, G.R. (1971). "Design of Minimum Energy Culverts." Research Report, Dept of Civil Eng., Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 29 pages & 7 plates.
  • Sturm, Terry W. (2010). Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN   978-0-07-126793-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)