Wells of Baján
Norias de Baján, Acatita de Baján
|Elevation||840 m (2,756 ft)|
Wells of Baján (Spanish : Norias de Baján) are water wells located between Saltillo and Monclova in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. The small community near the wells is called Acatita de Baján. In the first phase of the Mexican War of Independence, revolutionary leaders Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende, José Mariano Jiménez, and Juan Aldama, plus nearly 900 men in the rebel army were captured here on March 21, 1811 by 150 soldiers commanded by Ignacio Elizondo. Elizondo pretended to be a supporter of the struggle to overthrow Spanish rule, lured the rebels into a trap, and captured them with little resistance. The four leaders and many of their followers were tried and executed.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. As of the 2015 census, Saltillo had a population of 807,537 people, while the population of the metropolitan area was 923,636 inhabitants, making Saltillo the largest city and the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Coahuila and the 19th most populated metropolitan area in the country.
Monclova, is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. According to the 2015 census there were 231,107 inhabitants in the city. Its metropolitan area has 381,432 inhabitants and has a population density of 29.88 inhabitants per square kilometers. Monclova is the third largest city and metropolitan area in the state in terms of population, after Torreón and Saltillo.
In 1810 Mexico was ruled by Spain and called New Spain. On September 16, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Roman Catholic priest, triggered the Mexican War of Independence with his speech, called in Mexico the "grito." Among Padre Hidalgo's followers were Ignacio Allende and Juan Aldama, both captains in the Spanish army. A citizen's army, numerous but poorly equipped and trained, quickly formed around these leaders. On September 22, 1810, Hidalgo, who had no military experience, was named by his followers as captain general of the revolutionary army. Allende was second in command with the rank of lieutenant general. The rebel army under Hidalgo enjoyed early successes but was decisively defeated by the royalist army supporting Spanish rule on January 17, 1811 in the Battle of Calderón Bridge near Guadalajara. Along with the remnants of the rebel army, Allende, Aldama and Hidalgo, and others fled northward with the goal of getting to the United States and hoping that they would receive military and financial support from the U.S.The military leaders blamed Hidalgo for the loss at Calderon Bridge, forced him to resign his command, and threatened to execute him if he resisted. Thereafter, Hidalgo was effectively a prisoner of Allende and the rebel army.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Francisco Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor; 8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel iˈðalɣo], was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
Meanwhile, another rebel general, José Mariano Jiménéz, was leading a separate army of 7,000 men from San Luis Potosi toward Saltillo. A royalist force of 700 men chose to defect to Jiménez rather than fight and on January 8, 1811 he entered the city of Saltillo. Jiménez sent out parts of his army to take control of several northern cities, including Parras, Monterrey, and Monclova. To command in Monclova, Jiménez dispatched Pedro de Aranda, 73 years old and a heavy drinker of alcohol. In Monclova, Aranda chose a retired militia officer, Ignacio Elizondo, to take charge of royalist prisoners. Elizondo was converted to the royalist cause by his prisoners, He was asked to continue to pretend he supported the rebels to gain intelligence about the plans of Allende and Hidalgo.The royalist sympathizers in Monclova included a group of large landowners of the region led by José Melchor Sanchez Navarro.
Parras de la Fuente is a city located in the southern part of the Mexican state of Coahuila. The city serves as the municipal seat of the surrounding Parras Municipality, which has an area of 9,271.7 km2 (3,579.8 sq mi).
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$ 123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is often regarded as its most "Americanized".
The Sánchez Navarro latifundio (1765-1866) in Mexico was the largest privately owned estate or latifundio in all of Latin America. At its maximum extent, the Sánchez Navarro family owned more than 16,500,000 acres (6,700,000 ha) of land, an area almost as large as the Republic of Ireland and larger than the American state of West Virginia. The Sánchez Navarro latifundio was more than five times the size of the largest ranch, the XIT, in the United States and extended 350 kilometres (220 mi) from north to south. The latifundio was located in the Chihuahuan Desert, mostly in Coahuila, but also in Nuevo Leon, Durango, and Zacatecas.
The remnants of the retreating rebel army under Allende and Aldama joined Jiménez in Saltillo on February 24. Hidalgo arrived with a rear guard on March 4 or 5.As royalist armies were advancing on Saltillo, the rebels made plans to continue their flight toward the United States. The principal route to the U.S. was through Monclova and the best source of water enroute to Monclova was the Wells of Baján.
The royalist sympathizers in Monclova sent two prominent citizens as spies to Saltillo to ascertain the plans of the rebels. The spies won the confidence of Allende and the other leaders and volunteered to guide the rebels to Texas. They told Allende that Elizondo would meet them the Wells of Baján and escort them to Monclova. In Monclova, the royalists seized key points in the city, capturing the inebriated Aranda, the rebel commander in the city, and blocking all roads out of Monclova to prevent the news that they had taken control from reaching Allende and Hidalgo. Elizondo, his adherence to the royalists unsuspected by the rebels, was sent with 150 men to the Wells of Bajan to capture the rebel leaders.
On March 17, 1811, Generals Allende, Jiménez, and Aldama, Padre Hidalgo, and more than 1,000 soldiers of the rebel army departed Saltillo to march north to Monclova. The caravan was strung out on the road over a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi). An advance guard led the convoy, followed by more than 20 horse-drawn carriages transporting the rebel leaders. Following the carriages was a mule train with loads of supplies and silver bullion. Next came caissons of artillery, cumbersome ox-drawn carts carrying munitions, and, finally, the bulk of the soldiers and a rearguard. On the evening of March 20, the rebels camped 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from the Wells of Baján.
At dawn on March 21 a courier arrived with a letter for Jiménez ensuring the unsuspecting rebel general that Elizondo and his soldiers were waiting for them at the Wells of Baján and would welcome the arrival of the rebel army. The courier suggested to Jimenez that, due to shortages of water, the convoy arrive at Baján in stages to allow time for the wells to recharge after each draw down of water. He also suggested that the leaders arrive first so that they could continue rapidly on toward Monclova. Jimenez accepted the suggestion and the convoy set out that morning toward Baján without scouts or outriders and arrived at the Wells of Baján piecemeal.
Elizondo greeted the rebel leaders with an honor guard. He led the carriages behind a nearby hill not visible from the remainder of the rebel convoy. There, his men demanded the surrender of the rebel leaders. Padre Hidalgo, on horseback, drew a pistol but was restrained from firing by a royalist soldier. Allende and Jimenez were in the fifth carriage, and Allende opened fire. In the return fire Allende's son and several rebel soldiers were killed. The royalists tied the hands of the rebel leaders and their escorts and escorted them to a makeshift prison camp. This process of capturing elements of the rebel army continued all day long. As each new element arrived they were taken captive by Elizondo's men. By the end of the day the royalists had 893 prisoners and had killed about 40 of the royalists who resisted. The rear guard was the only contingent in the rebel army which sensed the danger and escaped capture.
The next day Elizondo divided the prisoners into three groups: the leaders of the rebels including Padre Hidalgo; captured rebel clergymen, and the common soldiers. All prisoners were taken to Monclova first and the lesser offenders remained there for trial. Ten captured clergymen were taken to Durango and 27 military leaders and Hidalgo were taken to Chihuahua for trial.
Allende, Aldama, and Jiménez were tried and found guilty in May 1811 and executed by firing squads and decapitated on July 26, 1811,Another leader, Mariano Abasolo, escaped execution due to his public denouncement of the insurgent cause and the intervention of his wife, María Manuela Rojas Taboada, whose family had connections with aristocrats of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. He was instead sentenced to life in prison in the Santa Catalina Castle at Cádiz, Spain, where he died of pulmonary tuberculosis April 14, 1816. Hidalgo was tried by the Mexican Inquisition by the bishop of Durango, Francisco Gabriel de Olivares, for an official defrocking and excommunication on 27 July 1811. He was then tried by a military court that found him guilty of treason and he was executed on July 30, 1811. There are many theories about how he was executed, the most famous that he was killed by firing squad and then decapitated on July 30 at 7:00 in the morning.
Before his execution, he thanked his jailers, two soldiers, Ortega and Melchor, for their humane treatment. At his execution, Hidalgo stated, "Though I may die, I shall be remembered forever; you all will soon be forgotten."Hidalgo is often called the "Father of Mexican Independence" and September 16, the date of his "grito" is celebrated as Mexico's independence day
Rafael Iriarte was the only senior rebel leader who escaped the encounter at the Wells of Baján and he delivered the news to Ignacio López Rayón, Miguel Hidalgo's secretary who had remained in Saltillo during their march north, that the insurgent leaders were captured. Iriarte was subsequently executed according to the previous instructions left by Allende, based on suspicions such as having freed General Felix Maria Calleja's wife.On 26 March 1811, the insurgent army in Saltillo, numbering about 3,500 men and 22 cannons, fled southward. López Rayón would go on to meet with Jose Maria Morelos and other insurgent leaders to establish a prototypical governing body known as the Council of Zitácuaro to continue the struggle for independent against the vice-regal structure.
The four heads of the executed insurgent leaders were hung from the corners of the Grain Exchange Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato, to discourage the independence movement.The heads remained hanging for ten years, until Mexico achieved its independence in 1821. Their bodies were then taken to Mexico City and eventually put to rest under el Ángel de la Independencia in 1910.
Of the more than 800 common soldiers and junior leaders captured several hundred were executed in Monclova; others were sentenced to work in mines and on haciendas scattered around Coahuila.
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
Ignacio López Rayón was a general who led the insurgent forces of his country after Miguel Hidalgo's death, during the first years of the Mexican War of Independence. He subsequently established the first government, Zitacuaro Council, and first constitution, Constitutional Elements, of the proposed independent nation.
Ignacio José de Allende y Unzaga, born Ignacio Allende y Unzaga, was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who came to sympathize with the Mexican independence movement. He attended the secret meetings organized by Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, where the possibility of an independent New Spain was discussed. He fought along with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in the first stage of the struggle, eventually succeeding him in leadership of the rebellion. Allende was captured by Spanish colonial authorities while he was in Coahuila and executed for treason in Chihuahua.
Juan Aldama was a Mexican revolutionary rebel soldier during the Mexican War of Independence in 1810.
José Mariano Jiménez was a Mexican engineer and rebel officer active at the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence.
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Francisco Javier Venegas de Saavedra y Ramínez de Arenzana, 1st Marquess of Reunión and New Spain, KOC was a Spanish general in the Spanish War of Independence and later viceroy of New Spain from September 14, 1810 to March 4, 1813, during the first phase of the Mexican War of Independence.
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Manuel María de Salcedo y Quiroga, (Málaga, Spain,, was a governor of Spanish Texas from 1808 until his execution in 1813. Salcedo gained leadership experience helping his father Juan Manuel de Salcedo, the 11th and last Spanish governor of Louisiana,. In 1807, the younger Salcedo was appointed governor of Texas, and he officially assumed that role on November 7, 1808. As governor, he and his uncle Nemesio Salcedo, the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces, often disagreed, especially on immigration issues.
Juan Bautista de las Casas led a revolt against the governor of Spanish Texas in 1811 and served as head of the province for 39 days until he was deposed.
The Battle of Calderón Bridge was a decisive battle in the Mexican War of Independence. It was fought in January 1811 on the banks of the Calderón River 60 km (37 mi) east of Guadalajara in present-day Zapotlanejo, Jalisco.
Francisco Ignacio Elizondo Villarreal,, was a royalist military officer during the Mexican war of independence against Spain. He is mostly known for his capture of insurgent leaders Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende, José Mariano Jiménez, and Juan Aldama at the Wells of Baján, Coahuila in 1811. Initially a supporter of Mexican independence who converted to the royalist cause, Elizondo is sometimes compared to the American Benedict Arnold. In 1813, after a successful campaign against rebel armies he was assassinated by one of his junior officers.
The Battle of Zacatecas was a military action of the Mexican War of Independence fought on 15 April 1811 at Zacatecas, Zacatecas. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown and the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The Mexican insurgents were commanded by General Ignacio López Rayón and the Spanish by José Manuel de Ochoa. The battle resulted in a victory for rebel forces.
coordinates 18.811810N, -98.955090W
Simón de Herrera y Leyva (1754–1813) was a lifelong political and military professional for Spain, primarily in the lands known as New Spain and at times ventured to Europe. He became an interim governor of Spanish Texas at San Antonio and a governor of Nuevo León.
The following is a timeline of the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821), its antecedents and its aftermath. The war pitted the royalists, supporting the continued adherence of Mexico to Spain, versus the insurgents advocating Mexican independence from Spain. After of struggle of more than 10 years the insurgents prevailed.
The Zitacuaro Council, also known under a variety of names such as the Supreme National American Meeting or Supreme Governmental Board of America, was a council established by insurgent leaders Ignacio López Rayón and José María Morelos, along with minor members José María Liceaga and José Sixto Verduzco, which would serve as a prototypical government independent of the Spanish crown.