|Vienna, Austrian National Library (Cod. 2759–64)|
|Place of origin|| Prague |
|Patron||Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia|
|Format||530 x 365 mm|
|Contents||Old Testament (Daniel, Minor Prophets and Maccabees missing)|
The Wenceslas Bible : Wenzelsbibel) or the Bible of Wenceslaus IV (Czech : Bible Václava IV.) is a multi-volume illuminated biblical manuscript written in the German language. The manuscript was commissioned by the King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia (that time also the King of the Romans) and made in Prague in the 1390s. The Wenceslas Bible is unique and very precious not only because of its text, which is one of the earliest German translations of the Bible, but also because of its splendid illuminations. This oldest German deluxe Bible manuscript remained uncompleted.(German
The Wenceslas Bible contains the text of one of the earliest Bible translations into German. The translation from the Latin Vulgata was commissioned by the wealthy burgher of Prague Martin Rotlev about 1375–1380.
Although Wenceslas' father Emperor Charles IV forbade Bible translations from Latin into vernacular languages as heresy in 1369, king Wenceslas with his second wife Sophia disrespected his father's order by their patronage of this spectacular edition of the new German Bible translation. Their own patronage confirms an inscription in the manuscript. It indicates the close relationship between the Bohemian royal court and the nascent Bohemian Reformation.
The Wenceslas Bible was never completed. The Book of Daniel, the Minor Prophets and the Books of Maccabees are lacking from the Old Testament and the New Testament was not even begun. The Bible contains 654 miniatures and initials; some were only scratched. The scribe left free spaces for more than 900 other illustrations. If the Bible were completed, it would have comprised about 1,800 leaves with circa 2,000 illuminations and would accordingly have surpassed all other medieval manuscripts in length, dimensions and wealth of artistic ornament.
John the Blind was the count of Luxembourg from 1313 and king of Bohemia from 1310 and titular king of Poland. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade.
Wenceslaus was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia from 1363 and by election, German King from 1376. He was the third Bohemian and fourth German monarch of the Luxembourg dynasty. Wenceslaus was deposed in 1400 as King of the Romans, but continued to rule as Bohemian king until his death, caused by frivolous pursuits.
Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor had a long and successful reign. Born Wenceslaus, he was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.
International Gothic is a period of Gothic art which began in Burgundy, France, and northern Italy in the late 14th and early 15th century. It then spread very widely across Western Europe, hence the name for the period, which was introduced by the French art historian Louis Courajod at the end of the 19th century.
Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon.
Bonne of Luxemburg or Jutta of Luxemburg, was born Jutta (Judith), the second daughter of John the Blind, king of Bohemia, and his first wife, Elisabeth of Bohemia. She was the first wife of King John II of France; however, as she died a year prior to his accession, she was never a French queen. Jutta was referred to in French historiography as Bonne de Luxembourg. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg. Among her children were Charles V of France, Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, and Joan, Queen of Navarre.
Elizabeth of Bohemia was a princess of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty who became queen consort of Bohemia as the first wife of King John the Blind. She was the mother of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia.
Sophia of Bavaria was a Queen of Bohemia and the spouse of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia and King of the Romans. She was briefly interim regent of Bohemia after the death of Wenceslaus in 1419.
Wenceslaus I was the first Duke of Luxembourg from 1354. He was the son of John the Blind, King of Bohemia, and Beatrice of Bourbon.
Jan z Jenštejna, German: Johann II. von Jenstein, Johannes VI. von Jenstein. Johann von Jenzenstein, Johann von Genzenstein was the Archbishop of Prague from 1379 to 1396. He studied in Bologna, Padova, Montpellier and Paris. He was also a poet, writer and composer.
Henry XIV, Duke of Bavaria, was Duke of Lower Bavaria.
Konrad Kyeser was a German military engineer, author of Bellifortis, a book on military technology popular throughout the 15th century. Originally conceived for King Wenceslaus, Kyeser dedicated the finished work to Rupert of Germany.
Master Theodoric, in Latin Magister Theodoricus is best documented Bohemian Gothic painter. He was favourite court painter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. and the first Bohemian painter whose name can be linked to a body of work. Theodoric is considered the chief representative of the phase of International Gothic known as "the Soft style". His masterpiece is the Chapel of the Holy Cross at Charles' newly completed Karlštejn Castle near Prague, containing a large series of slightly over-lifesize half-length panel portraits of saints and other notable figures on a gold ground. The whole decoration of the Chapel was commissioned in 1359 and completed over a number of years. Decoration of the Chapel of the Holy Cross was unique and unprecedented north of Alps. Theodoric´s oeuvre is not comparable to anything in European art after the mid-14th century (1360th).
Parler was a surname of a family of German architects and sculptors from the 14th century. Founder of the dynasty, Heinrich Parler, came from Cologne, but later lived and worked in Gmünd. His descendants were working in various parts of central Europe, especially in Bohemia. The family name was derived from the word Parlier, meaning "foreman".
Beatrice of Bourbon was a French noblewoman. A member of the House of Bourbon, she was by marriage Queen of Bohemia and Countess of Luxembourg.
Margaret of Bohemia, also known as Margaret of Luxembourg, was a Queen consort of Hungary by her marriage to Louis I of Hungary. She was the second child of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor by his first wife Blanche of Valois. She was a member of the House of Luxembourg.
This article is about a 15th-century illuminated manuscript Bible. For the 16th-century polyglot Bible printed in Antwerp, see Plantin Polyglot.
Conrad of Vechta was Bishop of Verden (1400–1402/1407), Bishop of Olomouc (1408–1413), Archbishop of Prague (1413–1421), and Master of the Mint (1401–1403) and Chancellor (1405–1412) of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The Votive Panel of Jan Očko of Vlašim is a Gothic panel painting currently housed in the National Gallery in Prague, Czech Republic. It is one of the most important artworks made in medieval Bohemia. The panel was painted for the Prague archbishop Jan Očko of Vlašim who is depicted kneeling before St. Adalbert of Prague in the lower part of the picture. The author(s) of the painting is (are) not known. The style of the painting stands between the works of Theodoric of Prague and the Master of the Třeboň Altarpiece.
The Veveri Madonna, also called the Madonna of Veveri, is an tempera painting by the unknown moravian, bohemian artist generally called Master of Vyšší Brod. The altarpiece was commissioned after 1344 by Margrave John Henry of Luxembourg for the romanesque church of Assumption of Our Lady, In the neighborhood of royal Veveří castle in Brno, Moravia, Czech Republic. Exhibited in Diocesan Museum in Brno. The panel was one of the first Madonnas painted by the artist. Albert Kutal a Czech scholar called it "a truly rare and extraordinary work".
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