Wendy Hiller

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Wendy Hiller

DBE
Wendy Hiller in Sailor of the King.jpg
Hiller in Sailor of the King (1953)
Born
Wendy Margaret Hiller

(1912-08-15)15 August 1912
Bramhall, Cheshire, England
Died14 May 2003(2003-05-14) (aged 90)
Resting placeSt Mary Churchyard, Radnage, Buckinghamshire, England
Years active1935–1993
Spouse(s)
Ronald Gow
(m. 1937;his death 1993)

Dame Wendy Margaret Hiller, DBE (15 August 1912 – 14 May 2003) was an English film and stage actress, who enjoyed a varied acting career that spanned nearly sixty years. The writer Joel Hirschorn, in his 1984 compilation Rating the Movie Stars, described her as "a no-nonsense actress who literally took command of the screen whenever she appeared on film". Despite many notable film performances, she chose to remain primarily a stage actress.

Contents

She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Separate Tables (1958). [1]

Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner.

<i>Separate Tables</i> (film) 1958 film by Delbert Mann

Separate Tables is a 1958 American drama film starring Rita Hayworth, Deborah Kerr, David Niven, Burt Lancaster, and Wendy Hiller, based on two one-act plays by Terence Rattigan that were collectively known by this name. Niven and Hiller won Academy Awards for their performances. The picture was directed by Delbert Mann and adapted for the screen by Rattigan, John Gay and an uncredited John Michael Hayes. Mary Grant and Edith Head designed the film's costumes.

Early years

Born in Bramhall, Cheshire, the daughter of Frank Watkin Hiller, a Manchester cotton manufacturer, and Marie Stone, Hiller began her professional career as an actress in repertory at Manchester in the early 1930s. She first found success as slum dweller Sally Hardcastle in the stage version of Love on the Dole in 1934. The play was an enormous success and toured the regional stages of Britain. This play saw her West End debut in 1935 at the Garrick Theatre. She married the play's author Ronald Gow, fifteen years her senior, in 1937 (the same year as she made her film debut in Lancashire Luck , scripted by Gow).

Hazel Grove and Bramhall was a civil parish and urban district in north east Cheshire, England from 1900 to 1974.

Cheshire County of England

Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester (118,200); the largest town is Warrington (209,700). Other major towns include Crewe (71,722), Ellesmere Port (55,715), Macclesfield (52,044), Northwich (75,000), Runcorn (61,789), Widnes (61,464) and Winsford (32,610)

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

Career

Stage

The huge popularity of Love on the Dole took the production to New York in 1936, where her performance attracted the attention of George Bernard Shaw. Shaw recognised a spirited radiance in the young actress, which was ideally suited for playing his heroines. Shaw cast her in several of his plays, including Saint Joan , Pygmalion and Major Barbara and his influence on her early career is clearly apparent. She was reputed to be Shaw's favourite actress of the time. Unlike other stage actresses of her generation, she did relatively little Shakespeare, preferring the more modern dramatists such as Henrik Ibsen and new plays adapted from the novels of Henry James and Thomas Hardy among others.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

George Bernard Shaw Irish playwright, critic and polemicist, influential in Western theatre

George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist and political activist. His influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman (1902), Pygmalion (1912) and Saint Joan (1923). With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, and in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

<i>Saint Joan</i> (play) play

Saint Joan is a play by George Bernard Shaw about 15th century French military figure Joan of Arc. Premiering in 1923, three years after her canonization by the Roman Catholic Church, the play dramatises what is known of her life based on the substantial records of her trial. Shaw studied the transcripts and decided that the concerned people acted in good faith according to their beliefs. He wrote in his preface to the play:

There are no villains in the piece. Crime, like disease, is not interesting: it is something to be done away with by general consent, and that is all [there is] about it. It is what men do at their best, with good intentions, and what normal men and women find that they must and will do in spite of their intentions, that really concern us.

In the course of her stage career, Hiller won popular and critical acclaim in both London and New York. She excelled at rather plain but strong willed characters. After touring Britain as Viola in Twelfth Night (1943) she returned to the West End to be directed by John Gielgud as Sister Joanna in The Cradle Song (Apollo, 1944). The string of notable successes continued as Princess Charlotte in The First Gentleman (Savoy, 1945) opposite Robert Morley as the Prince Regent, Pegeen in Playboy of the Western World (Bristol Old Vic, 1946) and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (Bristol Old Vic, 1946, transferring to the Piccadilly Theatre in the West End in 1947), which was adapted for the stage by her husband.

<i>Twelfth Night</i> play by William Shakespeare

Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–1602 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season. The play centres on the twins Viola and Sebastian, who are separated in a shipwreck. Viola falls in love with Duke Orsino, who in turn is in love with Countess Olivia. Upon meeting Viola, Countess Olivia falls in love with her thinking she is a man.

John Gielgud English actor and theatre director

Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades. With Ralph Richardson and Laurence Olivier, he was one of the trinity of actors who dominated the British stage for much of the 20th century. A member of the Terry family theatrical dynasty, he gained his first paid acting work as a junior member of his cousin Phyllis Neilson-Terry's company in 1922. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art he worked in repertory theatre and in the West End before establishing himself at the Old Vic as an exponent of Shakespeare in 1929–31.

The First Gentleman is a 1945 historical play by the British writer Norman Ginsbury. It portrays the relationship between the future George IV, his daughter Princess Charlotte of Wales and her husband Leopold. It is set during the Regency era and features many other prominent figures of the time.

In 1947, Hiller originated the role of Catherine Sloper, the painfully shy, vulnerable spinster in The Heiress on Broadway. The play, based on the Henry James novel Washington Square , also featured Basil Rathbone as her emotionally abusive father. The production enjoyed a year-long run at the Biltmore Theatre in New York and would prove to be her greatest triumph on Broadway. On returning to London, Hiller again played the role in the West End production in 1950.

The Heiress is a 1947 play by American playwrights Ruth and Augustus Goetz adapted from the 1880 Henry James novel Washington Square. Two years later the play was adapted into the film The Heiress starring Olivia de Havilland.

<i>Washington Square</i> (novel) novel by Henry James

Washington Square is a short novel by Henry James. Originally published in 1880 as a serial in Cornhill Magazine and Harper's New Monthly Magazine, it is a structurally simple tragicomedy that recounts the conflict between a dull but sweet daughter and her brilliant, unemotional father. The plot of the novel is based upon a true story told to James by his close friend, British actress Fanny Kemble. The book is often compared with Jane Austen's work for the clarity and grace of its prose and its intense focus on family relationships. James was not a great fan of Washington Square. He tried to read it over for inclusion in the New York Edition of his fiction (1907–1909) but found that he could not, so the novel was not included. Readers, though, have sufficiently enjoyed the book to make it one of the more popular of James' works.

Basil Rathbone British actor

Philip St. John Basil Rathbone MC was a South African-born English actor. He rose to prominence in the United Kingdom as a Shakespearean stage actor and went on to appear in more than 70 films, primarily costume dramas, swashbucklers and, occasionally, horror films.

Her stage work remained a priority and continued with Ann Veronica (Piccadilly, 1949), which was adapted by Gow from the novel by H. G. Wells [2] with his wife in the leading role. She did a two-year run in N. C. Hunter's Waters of the Moon (Haymarket, 1951–52), alongside Sybil Thorndike and Edith Evans. A season at the Old Vic in 1955–56 produced a notable performance as Portia in Julius Caesar among others. Other stage work at this time included The Night of the Ball (New Theatre, 1955), the new Robert Bolt play Flowering Cherry (Haymarket, 1958, Broadway, 1959), Toys in the Attic (Piccadilly, 1960), The Wings of the Dove (Lyric, 1963), A Measure of Cruelty (Birmingham Repertory, 1965), A Present for the Past (Edinburgh, 1966), The Sacred Flame (Duke of York's, 1967) with Gladys Cooper, The Battle of Shrivings (Lyric, 1970) with John Gielgud and Lies (Albery, 1975).

In 1957, Hiller returned to New York to star as Josie Hogan in Eugene O'Neill's A Moon for the Misbegotten , a performance which gained her a Tony Award nomination as Best Dramatic Actress. The production also featured Cyril Cusack and Franchot Tone. Her final appearance on Broadway was as Miss Tina in the 1962 production of Michael Redgrave's adaptation of The Aspern Papers , from the Henry James novella.

As she matured, she demonstrated a strong affinity for the plays of Henrik Ibsen, as Irene in When We Dead Awaken (Cambridge, 1968), as Mrs. Alving in Ghosts (Edinburgh, 1972), Aase in Peer Gynt (BBC, 1972) and as Gunhild in John Gabriel Borkman (National Theatre Company, Old Vic, 1975), in which she appeared with Ralph Richardson and Peggy Ashcroft. Later West End successes such as Queen Mary in Crown Matrimonial (Haymarket, 1972) proved she was not limited to playing dejected, emotionally deprived women. She later revisited some earlier plays playing older characters, as in West End revivals of Waters of the Moon (Chichester, 1977, Haymarket, 1978) with Ingrid Bergman and The Aspern Papers (Haymarket, 1984) with Vanessa Redgrave. She was scheduled to return to the American stage in a 1982 revival of Anastasia with Natalie Wood, until Wood's death just weeks before rehearsals. Hiller made her final West End performance in the title role in Driving Miss Daisy (Apollo, 1988).

Film career

Scott Sunderland, Leslie Howard and Wendy Hiller in Pygmalion (1938) Pygmalion-1938.jpg
Scott Sunderland, Leslie Howard and Wendy Hiller in Pygmalion (1938)

At Shaw's insistence, she starred as Eliza Doolittle in the film Pygmalion (1938) with Leslie Howard as Professor Higgins. This performance earned Hiller her first Oscar nomination, a first for a British actress in a British film, and became one of her best remembered roles. She was also the first actress to utter the word "bloody" in a British film, when Eliza utters the line "Not bloody likely, I'm going in a taxi!".

Hiller, ca. 1939 Wendy Hiller, Boxoffice Barometer 1939.jpg
Hiller, ca. 1939

She followed up this success with another Shaw adaptation, Major Barbara (1941) with Rex Harrison and Robert Morley. Powell and Pressburger signed her for The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943), but her second pregnancy led to Deborah Kerr being cast instead. Determined to work with Hiller, the film makers later cast her with Roger Livesey again for I Know Where I'm Going! (1945), another classic of British cinema.

Despite her early film success and offers from Hollywood, she returned to the stage full-time after 1945 and only occasionally accepted film roles. With her return to film in the 1950s, she portrayed an abused colonial wife in Carol Reed's Outcast of the Islands (1952), but had already transitioned into mature, supporting roles with Sailor of the King (1953) and a memorable victim of the Mau Mau uprising in Something of Value (1957). She won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in 1959 for the film Separate Tables (1958), as a lonely hotel manager and mistress of Burt Lancaster. She remained uncompromising in her indifference to film stardom, as evidenced by her surprising reaction to her Oscar win: "Never mind the honour, cold hard cash is what it means to me." [3] She received a BAFTA nomination as Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of the domineering, possessive mother in Sons and Lovers (1960). [4] She reprised her London stage role in the southern gothic Toys in the Attic (1963), which earned her a Golden Globe nomination as the elder spinster sister in a film which also starred Dean Martin and Geraldine Page. [5]

She received a third Oscar nomination for her performance as the simple, unrefined, but dignified Lady Alice More, opposite Paul Scofield as Thomas More, in A Man for All Seasons (1966). Her role as the grand Russian princess in a huge commercial success, Murder on the Orient Express (1974), won her international acclaim and the Evening Standard British Film Award as Best Actress. Other notable roles included a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi Germany with her dying husband in Voyage of the Damned (1976), the formidable London Hospital matron in The Elephant Man (1980) and Maggie Smith's emotionally cold and demanding aunt in The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne (1987).

Television career

Hiller made numerous television appearances, in both Britain and the United States. In the 1950s and 1960s, she performed in episodes of American drama series such as Studio One and Alfred Hitchcock Presents among others. In 1965, she starred in an episode of the acclaimed dramatic series Profiles in Courage (1965), in which she played Anne Hutchinson, a free-thinking woman charged with heresy in Colonial America. In Britain, during the 1960s, she appeared in the drama series Play of the Month , as well as on the children's TV programme Jackanory , reading the stories of Alison Uttley.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, she appeared in many television films including a memorable Duchess of York in the BBC Television Shakespeare production of Richard II (1978), the irascible Edwardian Oxford academic in Miss Morrison's Ghosts (1981) and the BBC dramatisations of Julian Gloag's Only Yesterday (1986) and the Vita Sackville-West novel All Passion Spent (1986), in which she was the quietly defiant Lady Slane. This performance earned her a BAFTA nomination as Best Actress. Her last appearance, before retiring from acting, was the title role in The Countess Alice (1992), a BBC/WGBH-Boston television film with Zoë Wanamaker.

Personal life

Hiller in later years Wendy Hiller.jpg
Hiller in later years

In the early 1940s, Hiller and husband Ronald Gow moved to Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, where they brought up two children, Ann (1939–2006) and Anthony (b. 1942), and lived together in the house called "Spindles" (now demolished). Ronald Gow died in 1993, but Hiller continued living at their home until her death a decade later. When not performing on stage or screen, she lived a completely private domestic life, insisting on being referred to as Mrs. Gow rather than by her stage name.

Regarded as one of Britain's great dramatic talents, she was awarded an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1971 and raised to Dame Commander (DBE) in 1975.

In 1984, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Manchester. In 1996, Hiller was honoured by the London Film Critics Circle with the Dilys Powell Award for excellence in British film. Her style was disciplined and unpretentious, and she disliked personal publicity. The writer Sheridan Morley described Hiller as being remarkable in her "extreme untheatricality until the house lights went down, whereupon she would deliver a performance of breathtaking reality and expertise." [6]

Despite a busy professional career, throughout her life she continually took an active interest in aspiring young actors by supporting local amateur drama societies, [7] as well as being the president of the Chiltern Shakespeare Company until her death. Chronic ill health necessitated her eventual retirement from acting in 1992. She spent the last decade of her life in quiet retirement at her home in Beaconsfield, where she died of natural causes at the age of 90. [8]

Filmography

Film

YearTitleRoleNotes
1937 Lancashire Luck Betty Lovejoy
1938 Pygmalion Eliza DoolittleNominated — Academy Award for Best Actress
1941 Major Barbara Major Barbara
1945 I Know Where I'm Going! Joan Webster
1952 Outcast of the Islands Mrs. Almayer
1953 Sailor of the King Lucinda Bentleyalso known as Single-Handed
1957 Something of Value Elizabeth McKenzie Newton
How to Murder a Rich Uncle Edith Clitterburn
1958 Separate Tables Pat Cooper Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
Nominated — Laurel Award for Top Female Supporting Performance
1960 Sons and Lovers Gertrude MorelNominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
1963 Toys in the Attic Anna BerniersNominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture
1966 A Man for All Seasons Alice More Nominated — Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated — Laurel Award for Top Female Supporting Performance
1974 Murder on the Orient Express Princess Dragomiroff Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actress
1976 Voyage of the Damned Rebecca Weiler
1979 The Cat and the Canary Allison Crosby
1980 The Elephant Man Mothershead
1981 Miss Morrison's Ghosts Miss Elizabeth Morrison
1982 Making Love Winnie Bates
1983 Attracta Attracta
1987 The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne Aunt D'Arcy
1992 The Countess Alice Countess Alice von Holzendorf(final film role)

Television

YearTitleRoleNotes
1969 David Copperfield Mrs. Micawber
1969The Growing SummerAunt DymphnaSilver medal at 1969 Venice Film Festival
1972 Clochemerle Justine Putet
1978 Richard II Duchess of York
1979Edward the Conqueror - Tales of the unexpected, Roald DahlLouisa
1980 The Curse of King Tut's Tomb Princess Vilma
1981 Play for Today Lady Carlion"Country"
1982The KingfisherEvelyn
1982 Witness for the Prosecution Janet Mackenzie
1985The Importance of Being EarnestLady Bracknell
1985The Death of the HeartMatchett
1986Lord Mountbatten: The Last ViceroyPrincess Victoriaas Dame Wendy Hiller
1986Only YesterdayMay Darleyfrom the novel by Julian Gloag
1986 All Passion Spent Lady SlaneNominated — British Academy Television Award for Best Actress
1987 Anne of Avonlea Mrs. Harrisas Dame Wendy Hiller
1988A Taste for DeathLady Ursula Berowne
1989Ending UpAdela
1991 The Best of Friends Laurentia McLachlan

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards

YearCategoryWorkResultWinner
1967 Best Supporting Actress A man for all seasons Nominated Sandy Dennis ( Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf? )
1959 Separate Tables Won---

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References

  1. "Awards for Separate Tables". Turner Classic Movies.
  2. "Ronald Gow (1897-1993)", doollee.com Gow is also co-credited with the book for the 1969 musical.
  3. "That Honor, That Cash" . Time . 20 April 1959.
  4. "BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org.
  5. "Wendy Hiller". www.goldenglobes.com.
  6. "Dame Wendy Hiller". The Daily Telegraph . 16 May 2003.
  7. The Young Theatre Archive: The Patrons of The Young Theatre. Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Wendy Hiller". Find A Grave . 16 May 2003. Retrieved 14 September 2017.