Craven on set of Scream 4 in 2010
Wesley Earl Craven
August 2, 1939
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||August 30, 2015 76) (aged|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Alma mater|| Wheaton College |
Johns Hopkins University
|Occupation||Director, writer, producer, actor, novelist|
(m. 1964;div. 1969)
(m. 1984;div. 1987)
(m. 2004;his death 2015)
|Children||2, including Jonathan|
Wesley Earl Craven (August 2, 1939 – August 30, 2015) was an American film director, writer, producer, and actor. He was known for his pioneering work in the genre of horror films, particularly slasher films, where his impact on the genre was considered prolific and influential. Due to the success and cultural impact of his works in the horror film genre, Craven has been called a "Master of Horror".
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit fear. Initially inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, and Mary Shelley, horror has existed as a film genre for more than a century. The macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction, and thriller genres.
A slasher film is a film in the subgenre of horror films involving a violent psychopath stalking and murdering a group of people, usually by use of bladed tools. Although the term "slasher" is often used informally as a generic term for any horror film involving murder, film analysts cite an established set of characteristics which set these films apart from other subgenres, such as splatter films and psychological horror films.
He is best known for creating A Nightmare on Elm Street and Scream, featuring the characters of Freddy Krueger and Ghostface respectively. Some of his other films include The Last House on the Left , The Hills Have Eyes , Swamp Thing , The Serpent and the Rainbow , The People Under the Stairs , Vampire in Brooklyn , and Red Eye .
A Nightmare on Elm Street is an American horror franchise that consists of nine slasher films, a television series, novels, and comic books. The films began with the film A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) created by Wes Craven. The series revolves around the fictional character Freddy Krueger, a former child killer who after being burned alive by the vengeful parents of his victims, returns from the grave to terrorize and kill the teenage residents of Springwood, Ohio in their dreams. The original film was written and directed by Craven, who returned to co-script the second sequel, A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors (1987), and to write and direct New Nightmare (1994). The films collectively grossed over $457 million at the box-office worldwide.
Scream is an American slasher film franchise created by Kevin Williamson and Wes Craven. Starring Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, and David Arquette, the film series grossed over $604 million in worldwide box-office receipts and consists of four motion pictures directed by Craven. The first series entry, Scream, was released on December 20, 1996 and is currently the highest-grossing slasher film in the United States. The second entry Scream 2 was released on December 12, 1997 followed by a third installment, Scream 3, released February 4, 2000. Eleven years after the previous film, Scream 4 was released on April 15, 2011. The films follow Sidney Prescott, and her war against a succession of murderers who adopt the guise of Ghostface to stalk and torment their victims. Sidney receives support in the films from town deputy Dewey Riley, reporter Gale Weathers, and film-geek Randy Meeks. A television spin-off of the film series was launched by MTV on June 30, 2015. The TV series follows different characters and new storylines which are not connected to the film series.
FrederickCharles "Freddy" Krueger is a character from the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series. He first appeared in Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) as a burnt serial killer who uses a gloved hand with razors to kill his victims in their dreams, causing their deaths in the real world as well. In the dream world, he is a powerful force and almost completely invulnerable. However, whenever Freddy is pulled into the real world, he has normal human vulnerabilities.
Craven was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Caroline (née Miller) and Paul Eugene Craven.He was raised in a strict Baptist family. Craven earned an undergraduate degree in English and psychology from Wheaton College in Illinois and a master's degree in philosophy and writing from Johns Hopkins University.
Cleveland is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 388,072, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, and the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U.S., with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States.
English studies is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline. English includes: the study of literature written in the English language, the majority of which comes from Britain, the United States, and Ireland ; English composition, including writing essays, short stories, and poetry; English language arts, including the study of grammar, usage, and style; and English sociolinguistics, including discourse analysis of written and spoken texts in the English language, the history of the English language, English language learning and teaching, and the study of World Englishes. English linguistics is usually treated as a distinct discipline, taught in a department of linguistics.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.
Craven briefly taught English at Westminster College and was a humanities professor at Clarkson College of Technology (later named Clarkson University) in Potsdam, New York.He additionally taught at Madrid-Waddington High School in Madrid, New York. During this time, he purchased a used 16 mm film camera and began making short movies. When his friend Steve Chapin informed him of a messenger position at a New York City film production co where his brother, future folk-rock star Harry Chapin worked. Craven moved into the building where his friend Steve Chapin lived at 136 Hicks St. in Brooklyn Heights. . His first creative job in the film industry was as a sound editor.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training.
Clarkson University is a private research university with its main campus located in Potsdam, New York, and additional graduate program and research facilities in New York State's Capital Region and Beacon, N.Y. It was founded in 1896 and has an enrollment of about 4,300 students studying toward bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in each of its schools or institutes: the Institute for a Sustainable Environment, the School of Arts & Sciences, the School of Business and the Wallace H. Coulter School of Engineering. Clarkson University ranks #8 among "Top Salary-Boosting Colleges" nationwide. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies Clarkson University as a "Doctoral University [with] Moderate Research Activity".
Potsdam is a town in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States. The town population was 17,029 at the 2010 census. The ZIP Code is 13676. Potsdam is a cultural and educational hub of Northern New York. When SUNY Potsdam and Clarkson University are in session, the population increases by approximately 8,000 students. The town is named after the city of Potsdam in Germany. The Town of Potsdam also contains a village named Potsdam. Potsdam is centrally located within the county and northeast of Canton, the county seat.
Recalling his early training, Craven said in 1994, "Harry was a fantastic film editor and producer of industrials. He taught me the Chapin method [of editing]: 'Nuts and bolts! Nuts and bolts! Get rid of the shit!'" Craven afterward became the firm's assistant manager, and broke into film editing with You've Got to Walk It Like You Talk It or You'll Lose That Beat (1971).
Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which increasingly involves the use of digital technology.
Sponsored film, or ephemeral film, as defined by film archivist Rick Prelinger, is a film made by a particular sponsor for a specific purpose other than as a work of art: the films were designed to serve a specific pragmatic purpose for a limited time. Many of the films are also orphan works since they lack copyright owners or active custodians to guarantee their long-term preservation.
You've Got to Walk It Like You Talk It or You'll Lose That Beat is a 1971 comedy-drama film directed by Peter Locke.
Craven left the academic world for the more lucrative role of pornographic film director.In the documentary Inside Deep Throat , Craven says on camera he made "many hardcore X-rated films" under pseudonyms. While his role in Deep Throat is undisclosed, most of his early known work involved writing, film editing, or both. Craven's first feature film as director was The Last House on the Left, which was released in 1972. Craven expected the film to be shown at only a few theaters, which according to him "gave me a freedom to be outrageous, and to go into areas that normally I wouldn't have gone into, and not worry about my family hearing about it, or being crushed." Ultimately the movie was screened much more widely than he assumed leaving him ostracized due to the content of the film.
Inside Deep Throat is a 2005 American documentary film about the 1972 pornographic film Deep Throat, at the forefront of the Golden Age of Porn, and its effects on American society.
Deep Throat is a 1972 American pornographic film that was at the forefront of the Golden Age of Porn (1969–1984). The film was written and directed by Gerard Damiano, who was listed in the credits as "Jerry Gerard"; produced by Louis Peraino, credited as "Lou Perry"; and starring Linda Lovelace, the pseudonym given to Linda Susan Boreman.
After the negative experience of Last House, Craven attempted to move out of the horror genre, and began writing non horror films with his partner Sean S. Cunningham, none of which attracted any financial backing.Finally, based on advice from a friend about the ease of filming in the Nevada deserts, Craven began to write a new horror film based on that locale. The resulting film, The Hills Have Eyes , cemented Craven as a "horror film director" with Craven noting "It soon became clear that I wasn't going to do anything else unless it was scary,"
Craven frequently collaborated with Sean S. Cunningham. In Craven's debut feature, The Last House on the Left, Cunningham served as producer. They pooled all of their resources and came up with $90,000.[ citation needed ] Later, in Craven's best-known film, A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984), Cunningham directed one of the chase scenes, although he was not credited. Their characters, Freddy Krueger and Jason Voorhees, appeared together in the slasher film Freddy vs. Jason (2003) with Cunningham acting as producer, while screenwriter Victor Miller is credited as "Character Creator". Later, in The Last House on the Left remake (2009), Cunningham and Craven share production credits.
Craven had a hand in launching actor Johnny Depp's career by casting him in A Nightmare on Elm Street, Depp's first major film role.
Although known for directing horror/thriller films, he had worked on two films which are outside this genre: Music of the Heart (1999), and as one of the 22 directors responsible for Paris, je t'aime (2006).
Craven created Coming of Rage, a five-issue comic book series, with 30 Days of Night writer Steve Niles.The series was released in digital form in 2014 by Liquid Comics with a print edition scheduled for an October 2015 debut.
Craven's works tend to share a common exploration of the nature of reality. A Nightmare on Elm Street, for example, dealt with the consequences of dreams in real life.New Nightmare has actress Heather Langenkamp play herself as she is haunted by the villain of the film in which she once starred. At one point in the film, the audience sees on Wes Craven's word processor a script he has written, which includes the conversation he just had with Heather—as if the script were being written as the action unfolds. The Serpent and the Rainbow portrays a man who cannot distinguish between nightmarish visions and reality.
In Scream , the characters frequently reference horror films similar to their situations, and at one point, Billy Loomis tells his girlfriend that life is just a big movie. This concept was emphasized in the sequels, as copycat stalkers re-enact the events of a new film about the Woodsboro killings (Woodsboro being the fictional town where Scream is set) occurring in Scream.Scream included a scene mentioning an urban legend about Richard Gere and a sex act involving a hamster. Craven stated in interviews that he received calls from agents telling him that if he left that scene in, he would never work again. The last film that he directed before his death was Scream 4 .
During his career, Wes Craven was nominated for and won several awards, including the Saturn Award.
In 1977, he won the critic's award at the Sitges Film Festival for his film The Hills Have Eyes .The Gérardmer Film Festival granted him the Grand Prize in 1997 for Scream. In 2012, the New York City Horror Film Festival awarded Craven the Lifetime Achievement Award.
Craven designed the Halloween 2008 logo for Googleand was the second celebrity personality to take over the YouTube homepage on Halloween.
Craven had a letter published in the July 19, 1968, edition of Life, praising that periodical's coverage of contemporary rock music, in particular Frank Zappa's.
Craven's first marriage, to Bonnie Broecker, produced two children: Jonathan Craven (born 1965) and Jessica Craven (born 1968). Jonathan is a writer and director.Jessica was a singer-songwriter in the group the Chapin Sisters. The marriage ended in 1970. In 1982, Craven married a woman who became known professionally as actress Mimi Craven. The two later divorced, with Wes Craven stating in interviews that the marriage dissolved after he discovered it "was no longer anything but a sham". In 2004, Craven married Iya Labunka; she frequently worked as a producer on Craven's films.
Craven was a birder; in 2010, he joined Audubon California's Board of Directors.His favorite films included Night of the Living Dead (1968), The Virgin Spring (1960) and Red River (1948).
Craven was an atheist, once telling FANGORIA magazine that "Formally, I don't believe in God" and that "I believe religions have done much more harm than they've done good."
On August 30, 2015, Craven died of brain cancer at his home in Los Angeles, 4 weeks after his 76th birthday.
Many actors paid tribute to him, including David Arquette, Johnny Depp, Adrienne Barbeau, Angela Bassett, Courteney Cox, Scott Foley, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Kadeem Hardison, Jamie Kennedy, Heather Langenkamp, Rose McGowan, Cillian Murphy, Mitch Pileggi, Kristy Swanson and Amanda Wyss.Depp stated, "Wes Craven was the guy who gave me my start, from my perspective, for almost no reason in particular. I read scenes with his daughter when I auditioned for the part. At the time, I was a musician. I wasn't really acting. It was not anything very near to my brain or my heart, which is pretty much how it remains to this day. But Wes Craven was brave enough to give me the gig based on his daughter's opinion, I guess she had read with a bunch of actors, and after the casting sessions, she said, 'No, that's the guy.' I always think of her for putting me in this mess, and certainly Wes Craven for being very brave to give me this gig. But he was a good man — so rest in peace, old Wes." Robert Englund, one of Craven's most frequent acting collaborators said Craven was "a brilliant, kind, gentle and very funny man." Neve Campbell, who starred in Scream's franchise, said, "We lost a great deal of magic yesterday. I'm devastated to hear of Wes's passing. My life wouldn't be what it is without him. I will be forever grateful for his brilliant direction, his wicked sense of humour and his consummate kindness and friendship. He has entertained us all for decades and inspired so many to follow in his path. I loved Wes dearly and will miss him always. Thank you Wes!!!".
The 10th episode of Scream was dedicated in his memory.
|2013||Coming of Rage|
|1972||The Last House on the Left||Yes||Yes||Also editor|
|1975||The Fireworks Woman||Yes||Yes||Credited as Abe Snake;|
|1977||The Hills Have Eyes||Yes||Yes||Also editor|
|1984||A Nightmare on Elm Street||Yes||Yes|
|1985||The Hills Have Eyes Part II||Yes||Yes|
|1987||A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors||executive||Yes|
|1988||The Serpent and the Rainbow||Yes|
|1991||The People Under the Stairs||Yes||executive||Yes|
|1994||Wes Craven's New Nightmare||Yes||executive||Yes|
|1995||Vampire in Brooklyn||Yes|
|1999||Music of the Heart||Yes|
|Paris, je t'aime||Yes||Yes||Segment Père-Lachaise|
|2007||The Hills Have Eyes 2||Yes||Yes||Remake|
|2010||My Soul to Take||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|2011||Scream 4||Yes||Yes||Final film|
|1995||Mind Ripper||aka The Hills Have Eyes III|
|2003||Dracula II: Ascension|
|2005||Dracula III: Legacy|
|2006||The Hills Have Eyes||Remake|
|The Breed||Executive producer|
|2009||The Last House on the Left||Remake|
|2015||The Girl in the Photographs|
|1978||The Evolution of Snuff||Cinematographer|
|Here Come the Tigers||Gaffer|
|1994||Wes Craven's New Nightmare||Himself|
|1995||The Fear||Dr. Arnold|
|1996||Scream||"Fred" (school janitor)||Cameo|
|2001||Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back||Himself|
|2004||Tales from the Crapper|
|The Cutting Edge: The Magic of Movie Editing|
|2005||Inside Deep Throat|
|2006||Paris, je t'aime||Vampire's Victim||Segment Père-Lachaise|
|2007||The Tripper||Top hat-wearing hippy||Cameo|
|2008||Diary of the Dead||Radio voice|
|2011||Scream 4||Coroner at the Randalls||Cameo;|
|1978||Stranger in Our House||Yes||aka Summer of Fear;|
|1984||Invitation to Hell||Yes||TV movie|
|The Twilight Zone||Yes||5 episodes|
|1986||Casebusters||Yes||Episode of anthology TV series Disneyland|
|1989||The People Next Door||Yes||Yes||Co-creator|
|1990||Night Visions||Yes||Yes||Yes||TV movie|
Executive Producer Only
|1981||Kent State||TV movie|
|Don't Look Down|
|Carnival of Souls|
|2002||They Shoot Divas, Don't They?|
|1998||Don't Look Down||TV movie|
|Carnival of Souls|
|1993||Body Bags||Pasty faced man at gas station||Cameo|
|2004||The 100 Scariest Movie Moments||Himself||TV special|
Episode: "Spring Fever"
Episode: "Scared to Death"
Scream is a 1996 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. The film stars David Arquette, Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, Matthew Lillard, Rose McGowan, Skeet Ulrich, and Drew Barrymore. Released on December 20, 1996, Scream follows the character of Sidney Prescott (Campbell), a high school student in the fictional town of Woodsboro, California, who becomes the target of a mysterious killer known as Ghostface. The film combines black comedy and "whodunit" mystery with the violence of the slasher genre to satirize the clichés of the horror movie genre popularized in films such as Halloween (1978) and Friday the 13th (1980). The film was considered unique at the time of its release for featuring characters who were aware of real world horror films and openly discussed the clichés that Scream attempted to subvert.
Jack Earle Haley is an American actor. His earliest roles included Moocher in Breaking Away (1979) and Kelly Leak in The Bad News Bears (1976), The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training (1977) and The Bad News Bears Go to Japan (1978). After spending many years as a producer and director of television commercials, he revived his acting career with a supporting role in All the King's Men (2006). This was followed by his performance as pedophile Ronald James McGorvey in Little Children (2006), for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
Wes Craven's New Nightmare is a 1994 American slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven, the original creator of A Nightmare on Elm Street. Although it is the seventh film in the franchise, it is not part of the series continuity, instead portraying Freddy Krueger as a fictional movie villain who invades the real world, and haunts the cast and crew responsible for his films. In the film, Freddy is depicted as closer to what Craven originally intended, being much more menacing and much less comical, with an updated attire and appearance.
The Last House on the Left is a 1972 American exploitation horror film written, edited, and directed by Wes Craven and produced by Sean S. Cunningham. The film stars Sandra Peabody, Lucy Grantham, David A. Hess, Fred Lincoln, Jeramie Rain, and Marc Sheffler. The plot revolves around two teenage girls who are taken into the woods and tortured by a gang of murderous thugs. The story is inspired by the 1960 Swedish film The Virgin Spring, directed by Ingmar Bergman, which in turn is based on a Swedish ballad, "Töres döttrar i Wänge".
Heather Elizabeth Anderson is an American actress, producer, and prosthetic makeup artist. She began her career as an extra in the Francis Ford Coppola films The Outsiders (1983) and Rumble Fish (1983) before becoming known for her role as Nancy Thompson in Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) and Chuck Russell's A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors (1987), followed by appearances in two of Craven's cult films: a victim in Shocker (1989) and a fictionalized version of herself in Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994).
The Hills Have Eyes is a 1977 American horror film written, directed, and edited by Wes Craven and starring Susan Lanier, Michael Berryman and Dee Wallace. The film follows the Carters, a suburban family targeted by a family of cannibal savages after becoming stranded in the Nevada desert.
Deadly Friend is a 1986 American science fiction horror film directed by Wes Craven. It is based on the 1985 novel Friend by Diana Henstell, which was adapted for the screen by Bruce Joel Rubin.
William Earl Brown is an American actor, writer, producer, and musician. He is perhaps best known for his role as Dan Dority on the HBO series Deadwood. He also played Kenny in the 1996 film Scream and Warren in the 1998 film There's Something About Mary. More recently, he voiced and filmed performance capture for the character Bill in Naughty Dog's 2013 survival horror action video game The Last of Us. He also appeared in the series American Crime and Preacher, and in the Johnny Depp true-crime film Black Mass (2015).
Sean Sexton Cunningham is an American filmmaker, director, producer, and writer. He is best known for directing and producing several horror films, beginning in the early 1970s.
Friday the 13th is an American horror franchise that comprises twelve slasher films, a television show, novels, comic books, video games, and tie‑in merchandise. The franchise mainly focuses on the fictional character Jason Voorhees, who drowned as a boy at Camp Crystal Lake due to the negligence of the camp staff. Decades later, the lake is rumored to be "cursed" and is the setting for a series of mass murders. Jason is featured in all of the films, as either the killer or the motivation for the killings. The original film, created to cash in on the success of Halloween (1978), was written by Victor Miller and was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham. The films have grossed over $464 million at the box-office worldwide.
Nancy Thompson is a fictional character in the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise. She was portrayed by actress Heather Langenkamp in the series' first three films, and by Rooney Mara in the 2010 remake, in which she was renamed Nancy Holbrook.
A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 2010 American slasher film directed by Samuel Bayer, and written by Wesley Strick and Eric Heisserer. The film stars Jackie Earle Haley, Kyle Gallner, Rooney Mara, Katie Cassidy, Thomas Dekker, and Kellan Lutz. It is a remake of Wes Craven's 1984 film of the same name. Produced by Michael Bay and Platinum Dunes, the film was designed to reboot the Nightmare on Elm Street franchise and is the ninth film in the series. The film is set in a fictitious town of Ohio and centers around a group of teenagers living on one street who are stalked and murdered in their dreams by a disfigured man named Freddy Krueger. The teenagers discover that they all share a common link from their childhood that makes them targets for Krueger.
Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy is a 2010 American four-hour direct-to-disc documentary film that chronicles the entire Nightmare on Elm Street franchise, except the 2010 remake. The documentary also features the rise of New Line Cinema. Written by Thommy Hutson, produced by Daniel Farrands and Thommy Hutson, and co-directed by Daniel Farrands and Andrew Kasch. Heather Langenkamp, who portrayed Nancy Thompson in three of the Nightmare films, served as the project's executive producer and narrator.
John Christopher Depp II is an American actor, director, song-writer, screen-writer, film producer,art director and musician. He started his film career by playing Glen Lantz in the 1984 horror film A Nightmare on Elm Street. He also appeared in the 1986 film Platoon with Charlie Sheen, Tom Berenger, and Willem Dafoe. In the 1990s, he starred as the title characters in the films Cry-Baby (1990), Edward Scissorhands (1990), Arizona Dream (1993), What's Eating Gilbert Grape (1993), Benny and Joon 1993 romantic drama Ed Wood (1994), Don Juan DeMarco (1995), Dead Man (1995) and Donnie Brasco (1997). He also starred in Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Hunter S. Thompson (1998), The Ninth Gate as Dean Corso (1999), and Sleepy Hollow as Ichabod Crane (1999).
Christina "Tina" Gray is a fictional character in the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise. She was created by Wes Craven. The character was portrayed by Amanda Wyss in the original film and Katie Cassidy in the 2010 film. A high school student whose death is the catalyst for the events of the series, Gray is the false protagonist of the 1984 original film. She also appears in the novels, Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994), Freddy vs. Jason (2003), 2010 reboot, merchandise based on the films, and a claymation version of the character is shown in the documentary Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy (2010). The imagery featuring Gray in the body bag during the dream sequences have been regarded as iconic.