West Herzegovina Canton

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West Herzegovina Canton

Županija Zapadnohercegovačka
West Herzegovina in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg
Status Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital
and largest city
Široki Brijeg
Official languages Croatian and Bosnian
Ethnic groups
(2013 [1] )
98.7% Croats
0.8% Bosniaks
0.5% others
Demonym(s) West Herzegovinian
Government Parliamentary system
Zdenko Ćosić (HDZ BiH)
LegislatureAssembly of the West Herzegovina Canton
Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Establishment
12 June 1996
Area
 Total
1,362 km2 (526 sq mi)
Population
 2013 census
94,898
 Density
71.87/km2 (186.1/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2019 estimate
 Per capita
17.835 USD
GDP  (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
USD 375.825 million
 Per capita
USD 7.256
HDI 0.792
high
Currency BAM
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving side right
Website
vladazzh.com

The West Herzegovina Canton (Croatian : Županija Zapadnohercegovačka, Bosnian : Zapadnohercegovački kanton) is one of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The West Herzegovina Canton is in the Herzegovina region in the southwest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its seat of government is in Široki Brijeg, while other municipalities within the Canton are Grude, Ljubuški and Posušje. It has 94,898 inhabitants, of whom more than 98% are ethnic Croats.

Contents

History

The majority of the present-day West Herzegovina Canton was part of Zachlumia, the medieval South Slavic principality. In the 15th century it became part of the Duchy of Saint Sava under Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, who proclaimed himself the herzog (duke), thus giving the name for the whole region - Herzegovina. The Ottomans conquered Herzegovina in 1483, when the territory of the West Herzegovina Canton became part of the Sanjak of Herzegovina. In 1833 the Sanjak of Herzegovina became more autonomous under Ali-paša Rizvanbegović, who became pasha of the Herzegovina Eyalet, however, after his death, Herzegovina once again became a sanjak. In 1878 the whole territory was occupied and later in 1908 annexed by the Austria-Hungary, who held it until 1918. During that time, the territory of the West Herzegovina Canton was part of the District of Mostar in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ruins of an ancient fort dating back to the Roman Period, in Humac Bigeste-detalj hipokaust.jpg
Ruins of an ancient fort dating back to the Roman Period, in Humac

After the collapse of the Austria-Hungary and after the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the territory of the West Herzegovina Canton remained part of the District of Mostar. However, with creation of banovinas in 1929, the territory became part of the Littoral Banovina, and in 1939 it was incorporated in the Banovina of Croatia, where it de iure remained until 1943.

During the World War II, the territory of the West Herzegovina Canton became part of the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi-affiliated puppet state created in April 1941. Administratively, it was part of the County of Hum, having Mostar as its capital. The puppet state collapsed in May 1945.

The Yugoslav Partisans formed the People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (later renamed to Socialist Republic), as a federal unit of Yugoslavia, of which the territory of the West Herzegovina Canton became part as well. However, in the process of the collapse of the communist regime, ethnic Croats formed the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, which encompassed all Croat-majority municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including those of the West Herzegovina Canton.

During the course of the Bosnian War, the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia was later proclaimed a republic in 1993. The following year, in 1994, it became part of the Croat-Bosniak Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which led to the formation of ten cantons in June 1996, including the West Herzegovina Canton.

Geography

West Herzegovina Canton is located in the Herzegovina region of south west Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has Čvrsnica mountain to the north, Croatia to the west and south, and the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton to the east. The area of the Canton is 1,363 km² [2] (526 sq miles).

The canton has three rivers: Lištica, Trebižat and Ričina, and the Blidinje Lake. Its highest peak is Pločno on the Čvrsnica mountain, 2,228 metres. [2]

Kravica waterfalls Kravica waterfalls 2019-08-24 - 7.jpg
Kravica waterfalls

The canton is a very mountainous area especially in Posušje (where it also becomes mountainous) and the northern parts of Široki Brijeg. The region is interlaced with karst fields with which the mountains of western and northern Herzegovina descend to the sea. Dugo polje (1150 - 1250 m) is the first step, followed by Rakitno polje (870 - 910 m), Posuško polje (580 - 610 m), Bekijsko polje (260 - 300 m), Mostarsko blato (220 m) and Ljubuško polje (80 - 100 m) with which the descent ends. The rivers Lištica and Tihaljina flow through western Herzegovina, Ričina sometimes flows through the Posusje field and Ugrovača through the Kočerin field. The territory as a whole belongs to the Neretva basin or the Adriatic Sea. The highest mountains are: Čvrsnica (municipality of Posušje), Čabulja (municipality of Široki Brijeg), Štitar (municipality of Posušje), Zavelim (municipality of Posušje), Kušanovac (municipality of Posušje) and (municipality of Široki Brijeg) and Radovanj ( Municipality of Posušje).

Climate

In all towns in the canton of western Herzegovina, the sub-Mediterranean climate type prevails, except in Ljubuški, where the Mediterranean climate predominates. There is also a significant difference between the sub-Mediterranean climate in Posušje and the sub-Mediterranean climate in Široki Brijeg and Grude. In Posušje, mountain and Mediterranean influences collide, so the sub-Mediterranean climate in Posušje is harsher and closer to the temperate mountain climate prevailing in the area of Tribistovo, Radovnje, etc. Summers in western Herzegovina are hot and temperatures exceed 35 degrees. In winter, snow is also not impossible in Ljubuški, but it is more frequent and common in the northernmost towns, especially in Posušje, where it sometimes falls profusely and remains for a long time.

Politics and government

Assembly

The Assembly of the West Herzegovina Canton (Croatian : Skupština Županije Zapadnohercegovačke) is the legislature of the West Herzegovina Canton, serving as the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the West Herzegovina Canton. It has 23 representatives elected directly at the Bosnian general election. The representatives have a four-year term. The Assembly enacts the local Constitution, laws and other regulations and elects the Government.

Government

Government seat in Siroki Brijeg Zupanija-zh09211.JPG
Government seat in Široki Brijeg

The Government of the West Herzegovina Canton (Croatian : Vlada Županije Zapadnohercegovačke) is led by the Prime Minister who has one deputy and it consists of seven ministries. The ministries have different seats, with each municipality having two ministries, while the capital Široki Brijeg serves as the seat of the Prime Minister.

PositionPortfolioSeatOfficeholderParty
Prime Minister Široki Brijeg Zdenko Ćosić HDZ BiH
Deputy Prime MinisterFinance Ljubuški Toni Kraljević HDZ BiH
MinisterInternal Affairs Ljubuški David Grbavac HDZ BiH
MinisterJustice and Administration Široki Brijeg Kristijan Zovko HDZ BiH
MinisterEconomy Posušje Dario Sesar HDZ BiH
MinisterUrban Development, Construction and Environment Posušje Miroslav Ramljak HDZ BiH
MinisterEducation, Science, Culture and Sports Široki Brijeg Ružica Mikulić HDZ BiH
MinisterHealthcare, Labor and Social Welfare Grude Tomislav Pejić HDZ BiH
MinisterVeterans Grude Mladen Begić HDZ BiH

Flag and coat of arms

The coat of arms of the canton under its constitution is a variant of the historical Croatian coat of arms. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and blue, with the coat of arms in the middle. [3] These symbols were also used by the former Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, and are used by Canton 10.

Economy

According to the data of the Federal Institute for Development Programming, the West Herzegovina Canton had the nominal GDP of 487.211 million BAM, the 7th largest in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, before the Canton 10, the Bosnian Podrinje Canton Goražde and the Posavina Canton. It generated 2.90% of the total GDP of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The West Herzegovina Canton has 5th largest GDP per capita, amounting to 5,973 BAM, while the average in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 7,188 BAM. [4]

The Mepas mall in Siroki Brijeg Mepas zgrada.jpg
The Mepas mall in Široki Brijeg
GDP of the West Herzegovina Canton 2007–2013 (mil. KM)
2007200820092010201120122013
398.322437.314442.805446.177462.491474.716487.211
Participation in total FBiH economy
2.90%2.90%2.92%2.90%2.90%2.90%2.90%
Unemployment in the West Herzegovina Canton 2007–2013 (mil. KM)
2007200820092010201120122013
43.5%39.9%39.0%36.1%36.4%37.2%39.3%
Average in the FBiH
47.0%44.0%45.4%45.4%45.7%46.8%47.4%

This region, before the war, was one of the poorest regions in BiH. Today it is one of the richest. [5] [6] Despite the canton's small size in area, its agricultural sector is important. In the canton, 30,000 ha (120 sq miles) is used for agriculture; 84,000 ha (320 sq miles) is forest. Around 6,000 ha of arable land is below 100 metres in altitude. The Canton has a strong potential [ clarification needed ] for the production of vegetables, fruit and wine, as well as meat and milk processing plants. [6]

Infrastructure

The West Herzegovina Canton has a central location in Herzegovina, and as such has favorable traffic characteristics. The future route of the motorway of the E73 corridor, where there is also a connection with the A1 motorway from Dubrovnik to Zagreb, which means the entire West Herzegovina Canton in encircled by two EU corridors, the E73 and the E65. The crossroad of these corridors is in the hinterland of Ploče port, making the Canton of West Herzegovina the "portal of the South East Europe". [7]

Demographics

According to the latest census data, the vast majority of the local population is made up of Croatians. The most dominant religion in the canton is Christianity, with Catholicism being the most numerous denomination. The most significant non-Christian minority are Muslims with 1.8% of the total population. Most of them were in Ljubuški.

Roman Catholic church of St. Elijah in Tihaljina, Grude Crkva sv. Ilije -Tihaljina02.jpg
Roman Catholic church of St. Elijah in Tihaljina, Grude

2013 Census

MunicipalityNationality
Total
Croats
%
Bosniaks
%
Serbs
%
Other
%
Ljubuški 27,32796.956892.44230.085561.9628,184
Široki Brijeg 28,81499.660.0450.2640.228,929
Posušje 20,42499.7420.0150.02120.0520,477
Grude 17,20699.4630.01100.05110.0617,308
Canton93,72598.767000.75830.263541.1194,898

Page text. [8]

Official holidays

Croatian Cultural and Artistic Society "Brda" KUD Brda u Sirokom.jpg
Croatian Cultural and Artistic Society "Brda"

According to local laws, the official holidays (non-working days) in the canton are:

See also

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References

Notes

  1. Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENZUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS (PDF). BHAS. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  2. 1 2 "Općenito o Županiji" (in Croatian). Government of the West Herzegovina Canton. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  3. "Ustav Županije Zapadnohercegovačke". Skupština Županije Zapadnohercegovačke. 21 December 2011.
  4. FZZPR 2014, p. 5.
  5. "Bakula: Nemamo izbora - smanjit ćemo plaće". Poskok.info. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Poljoprivreda". Government of the West Herzegovina Canton. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  7. REDAH 2010, p. 30.
  8. Link text, additional text.

Books

  • Group of authors (2010). Studija razvoja poslovnih zona u Zapadnohercegovačkoj županiji (in Croatian). Mostar: REDAH.

Coordinates: 43°24′N17°25′E / 43.400°N 17.417°E / 43.400; 17.417