West Punjab

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West Punjab
مغربی پنجاب
Former Province of Pakistan
14 August 1947–14 October 1955
West Punjab map.gif
Capital Lahore
Area 
 
205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi)
History 
 Established
14 August 1947
 Disestablished
14 October 1955
Preceded by
Succeeded by
British Raj Red Ensign.svg Punjab Province (British India)
Punjab, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.svg
Islamabad Capital Territory Flag of Pakistan.svg
Government of Punjab
Coat of arms of Pakistan.svg
This article is part of the series
Former administrative units of Pakistan

West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi), including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The capital was the city of Lahore and the province was composed of four divisions (Lahore, Sargodha, Multan and Rawalpindi). The province was bordered by the Indian states of East Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir to the east, the princely state of Bahawalpur to the south, the provinces of Balochistan and Sind to the southwest, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, and Azad Kashmir to the northeast.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Islamabad Capital Territory Federal district in Pakistan

Islamabad Capital Territory is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan. The territory is bounded by Punjab on the south, west and east and by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on the north. The territory includes Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan, which covers 906 km2 (349.8 mi2) out of the total of 1165.5 km2 (450 mi2). The territory is represented in the National Assembly constituencies NA-52, NA-53 and NA-54.

Lahore Metropolitan area in Punjab, Pakistan

Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities, with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, and historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.

Contents

History

The Independence of Pakistan in 1947 led to the division of the Punjab Province of British India into two new provinces. The largely Sikh and Hindu East Punjab became part of the new nation of India while the largely Muslim West Punjab became part of the new nation of the Dominion of Pakistan. The name of the province was shortened to Punjab in 1950. West Punjab was merged into the province of West Pakistan in 1955 under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhary Muhammad Ali. When that province was dissolved, the area of the former province of West Punjab was combined with the former state of Bahawalpur to form a new Punjab Province.

East Punjab former state of India

East Punjab was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947. The mostly Muslim western parts of the old Punjab became Pakistan's West Punjab, later renamed as Punjab Province, while the mostly Hindu and Sikh eastern parts went to India.

India Country in South Asia

India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Dominion of Pakistan state in Asia 15 August 1947 – 23 March 1956

Pakistan, also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan. The dominion, which included much of modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was conceived under the two-nation theory as an independent country composed of the Muslim-majority areas of the former British India.

Demographics

At Independence there was a Muslim majority in West Punjab with significant Hindu and Sikh minority. Nearly all of these minorities left West Punjab for India, to be replaced by large numbers of Muslims fleeing from the opposite direction. The official language of West Punjab was Urdu but most of the population spoke Punjabi. The linguist George Abraham Grierson in his multi volume Linguistic Survey of India (1904–1928) considered the various dialects up to then called "Western Punjabi", spoken in North, West, and South of Lahore in what is now Pakistani Punjab, as constituting instead a distinct language from Punjabi. (The local dialect of Lahore is the Majhi dialect of Punjabi, which has long been the basis of standard literary Punjabi.) Grierson proposed to name this putative language "Lahnda", and he dubbed as "Southern Lahnda" the coherent dialect cluster now known as Saraiki spoken in Multan Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur division and "North Lahnda" now known as Potwari spoken in Rawalpindi division and "Western Lahnda" now known as Hindko spoken in the regions bordering Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Urdu National language and lingua franca of Pakistan; one of the official languages of India; standardized register of Hindustani

Urdu —or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi.

Punjabi language Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

George Abraham Grierson Irish linguistic scholar and civil servant

Sir George Abraham Grierson was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India. He worked in the Indian Civil Services but an interest in philology and linguistics led him to pursue studies in the languages and folklore of India during his postings in Bengal and Bihar. He published numerous studies in the journals of learned societies and wrote several books during his administrative career but proposed a formal linguistic survey at the Oriental Congress in 1886 at Vienna. The Congress recommended the idea to the British Government and he was appointed superintendent of the newly created Linguistic Survey of India in 1898. He continued the work until 1928, surveying people across the British Indian territory, documenting spoken languages, recording voices, written forms and was responsible in documenting information on 179 languages, defined by him through a test of mutual unintelligibility, and 544 dialects which he placed in five language families. He published the findings of the Linguistic Survey in a series that consisted of 19 volumes.

Government

The offices of Governor of West Punjab and Chief Minister of West Punjab lasted from 15 August 1947, until 14 October 1955. The first Governor was Sir Francis Mudie with Iftikhar Hussain Khan as the first Chief Minister. Both offices were abolished in 1955, when the province of West Pakistan was created. The last Governor of West Punjab, Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani, became the first Governor of West Pakistan.

Sir Robert Francis Mudie KCSI, KCIE, OBE was a member of the Indian Civil Service during the British Raj. He was the last British Governor of Sind and after the partition of India and Pakistan in August 1947, he continued to serve as Governor of the West Punjab.

TenureGovernor of West Punjab [1]
15 August 1947 – 2 August 1949 Sir Francis Mudie
2 August 1949 – 24 November 1951Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar
24 November 1951 – 2 May 1953 Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar
2 May 1953 – 24 June 1954Mian Aminuddin
26 September 1954 – 26 November 1954Habib Ibrahim Rahmatullah
27 November 1954 – 14 October 1955Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani
14 October 1955Province of West Punjab dissolved
TenureChief Minister of West Punjab [1] Political Party
15 August 1947 – 25 January 1949Iftikhar Hussain Khan
25 January 1949 – 5 April 1952Governor's Rule
5 April 1952 – 3 April 1953Mian Mumtaz Daultana Pakistan Muslim League
3 April 1953 – 21 May 1955 Malik Firoz Khan Nun Pakistan Muslim League
21 May 1955 – 14 October 1955Abdul Hamid Khan Dasti
14 October 1955Province of West Punjab dissolved

Contemporary usage

Today the term Western Punjab is used in Pakistan to describe the whole part of Pakistan's Punjab province except the Lahore/Central Region, [2] while in India it is often used to refer to the entire Pakistani Punjab. [3]

See also

Haryana State in northern India

Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis. It is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats.

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Saraiki language dialect of Punjabi

Saraiki is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan. It was previously known as Multani, after its main dialect.

The Punjabis or Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. They speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The name Punjab literally means the land of five waters in Persian: panj ("five") āb ("waters"). The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent. The historical Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.

The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in the far north of Punjab, as well as in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir and in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari.

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Sikh Empire Empire in the Indian subcontinent that existed from 1799 to 1849

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Former administrative units of Pakistan Former Provinces of Pakistan v

The former administrative units of Pakistan are states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were established. The former units have no administrative function today but some remain as historical and cultural legacies. In some cases, the current provinces and territories correspond to the former units – for example the province of Punjab includes almost all the territory of the former province of West Punjab.

Divisions of Pakistan

The four provinces and autonomous territories of Pakistan are subdivided into administrative "divisions", which are further subdivided into districts, tehsils and finally union councils. These divisions were abolished in 2000, but restored in 2008. The divisions do not include the Islamabad Capital Territory or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which were counted at the same level as provinces, but in 2018 the Federally Administered Tribal Areas were subsumed into Khyber-Paktunkhwa Province.

Lahnda also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi, is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves. The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari. The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.

Hindkowans are an Indo-Aryan linguistic-cultural group, which is native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan. Hindkowans speak various Hindko dialects of the Punjabi language, in contrast to Pashto.

The provincial languages of Pakistan are a set of languages that are spoken and used in the four Provinces of Pakistan. However, provincial languages have no official status in Pakistan, except Sindhi in Sindh, given the fact that Urdu and English are the official languages of the country. Shown below are the main languages of each the provinces:

Punjabi dialects

The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. A distinction is usually made between Punjabi in the east and the diverse group of "Lahnda" in the west. The literary languages that have developed on the basis of dialects of this area are Punjabi in eastern and central Punjab, Saraiki in the southwest, Hindko in the northwest, and Pothwari in the north. The varieties of "Greater Punjabi" have a number of characteristics in common, for example the preservation of the Prakrit double consonants in stressed syllables. Nevertheless, there is disagreement on whether they form part of a single language group, with some proposed classifications placing them all within the Northwestern zone of Indo-Aryan, while others reserving this only for the western varieties, and assigning the eastern ones to the Central zone alongside Hindi.

Punjab is one of the four provinces of Pakistan.It is the largest province by population and second largest by land. There are 36 districts in the province. The provincial capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. Largest cities in Punjab include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Attock, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Multan, Sialkot, Bahawalpur, Gujrat, Sheikhupura, Jhelum and Sahiwal.

Thali dialect Saraiki dialect of Pakistan

Thaḷī is a Lahnda dialect spoken in parts of the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It has a widespread area, starting from Tank to Muzzafargarh on eastern end of Indus River and from Bannu runs down to D I khan at western end of Indus River. It is classified as a northern dialect of Saraiki, although it has also been described as transitional between Shahpuri and the central Saraiki Multani dialect. Its name is derived from the Thal Desert.

References

  1. 1 2 Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Pakistan Provinces" . Retrieved 3 October 2007.
  2. The political divides within – Dawn
  3. Excavated Sites – Government of Punjab (India)

Coordinates: 31°00′N72°00′E / 31.000°N 72.000°E / 31.000; 72.000