Western Maori

Last updated

Western Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Eastern Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Western Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Hauāuru and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Contents

Tribal areas

The Western Maori electorate extended from South Auckland and the Waikato to Taranaki and the Manawatu. The seat originally went to Wellington. With MMP it was replaced by the Te Tai Hauāuru and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates in 1996.

The electorate included the following tribal areas: Tainui, Taranaki

History

The first member of parliament for Western Maori from 1868 was Mete Paetahi. [1] At the nomination meeting in Wanganui, held at the Courthouse, Paetahi was the only candidate proposed. [2] He was thus elected unopposed. [3] He represented the electorate of Western Maori from 1868 to 1870. He contested the electorate again at the 1871 general election, but of the three candidates, he came last. He was defeated by Wiremu Parata, with Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui in second place. [4]

In the 1879 election there was some doubt about the validity of the election result, and a law was passed to confirm the result in Western Maori and two other electorates. [5]

From the 1890s to the 1930s the seat was held by various Reform Party MPs. In 1935, Toko Ratana the eldest son of the founder of the Ratana Church won the seat and became the second Ratana MP; he became a Labour MP following the Labour-Ratana pact. From this point until the abolition of the seat prior to the 1996 election the seat was held by Labour MPs.

Toko Ratana died in 1944 and was succeeded by his younger brother, Matiu Rātana. He died in 1949 shortly before the 1949 general election. His wife Iriaka Rātana stood in his stead, despite significant opposition from those supporting traditional leadership roles, with Te Puea Herangi speaking out against her claim to "captain the Tainui canoe". Only the strong backing of the Rātana church and her threat to stand as a Rātana Independent secured her the Labour Party nomination. She became the first woman Maori MP, getting a similar majority (6317) to her husband in 1946 (his majority then was 6491), but no less than seven independent candidates (and one Kauhananui candidate, K Nutana) stood against her; they got 116 to 326 votes each. [6]

Candidates for the National Party (who usually came second) included Hoeroa Marumaru (1946, 1949 & 1951) and Pei Te Hurinui Jones (1957, 1960 and 1963; also earlier).

Members of Parliament

Western Maori was represented by 15 Members of Parliament: [7]

Key

  Independent     Reform     Ratana     Labour   

ElectionWinner
1868 Māori election Mete Paetahi
1871 election Wiremu Parata
1876 election Hoani Nahi
1879 election Wiremu Te Wheoro
1881 election
1884 election Te Puke Te Ao
1886 by-election Hoani Taipua
1887 election
1890 election
1893 election Ropata Te Ao
1896 election Henare Kaihau
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Māui Pōmare
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1930 by-election Taite Te Tomo
1931 election
1935 election Toko Ratana
1938 election
1943 election
1945 by-election Matiu Ratana [lower-alpha 1]
1946 election
1949 election Iriaka Rātana
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election Koro Wētere
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election

Election results

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known. There is contradictory information about the affiliation of Henare Kaihau. In Wilson's New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984, the authoritative work covering parliamentary history, Kaihau is listed as a Reform Party supporter from the party's inception in 1908. [8] Kaihau does, however, appear on a poster of the Liberal Party in 1910. [9] The New Zealand Herald , in its 1905 election reporting, also lists him as a government supporter, i.e. a Liberal. [10]

Another example of contradictory reporting is for the 1911 election. Three newspapers, The Marlborough Express , The New Zealand Herald , and the Auckland Star reported political affiliations. Two papers have Māui Pōmare as an independent, whilst the third has him as a Labour supporter. Henare Kaihau is given three different affiliations: independent, Liberal, and Reform. Pepene Eketone is categorised as Labour by two of the papers, whilst the third has him as a Liberal supporter. The Auckland Star lists another Labour supporter, but the name is a composite of first and last names of two of the candidates. [11] [12] [13]

1871 election

1871 general election: Western Maori [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Wiremu Parata 258 43.07
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 18631.05
Independent Mete Paetahi 15525.88
Majority7212.02
Turnout 599

1876 election

1876 general election: Western Maori [14] [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Hoani Nahi 671 46.24
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 49033.77+2.72
Independent Wiremu Parata 29019.99-23.09
Majority18112.47+0.45
Turnout 1,451

1879 election

1879 general election: Western Maori [16] [17] [18]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 1,053 70.48
Independent Hoani Taipua 44129.52
Majority61240.96+31.05
Turnout 1,494

1881 election

1881 general election: Western Maori [19] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 991 69.20 -1.28
Independent Hāmiora Mangakāhia 22315.57
Independent Mita Karaka1439.99
Independent William Hughes755.24
Majority76853.63+12.67
Turnout 1,432

1884 election

1884 general election: Western Maori [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Te Puke Te Ao 356 25.21
Independent Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 28420.11
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 15510.98
Independent Wetere Te Rerenga 1419.99
Independent Henare Kaihau 1379.70
Independent Mita Karaka1369.63-0.35
Independent Hāmiora Mangakāhia 1258.85-6.72
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga 785.52
Majority725.10-48.53
Turnout 1,412

1886 by-election

1886 Western Maori by-election [22] [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Hoani Taipua 1,258 56.67
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 51923.38+12.40
Independent Henare Kaihau 22510.14+0.43
Independent Sydney Taiwhanga 1486.67+1.14
Independent Ngawaka Taurua 703.15
Majority73933.29+28.19
Turnout 2,220

1887 election

1887 general election: Western Maori [24] [25]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Hoani Taipua 1,691 53.68 -2.98
Independent Wiremu Te Wheoro 1,06733.87+10.49
Independent Pepene Eketone 1986.29
Independent John Ormsby 1534.86
Independent Takarangi Mete Kingi411.30
Majority62419.81-13.48
Turnout 3,150

1890 election

1890 general election: Western Maori [26] [27]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Hoani Taipua [lower-alpha 2]
Pepene Eketone
Kipa Te Whatanui [lower-alpha 3]
Te Kahui Kararahe
Tatana Te Whataupoko
Majority
Turnout 1,916 [28]

1893 election

1893 general election: Western Maori [29] [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Ropata Te Ao 817 42.64
Pepene Eketone 72737.94
Te Wirihana Hunia36519.05
Ngarangi Katitia33417.43
Reha Aperahama27414.30
Eruera Whakaahu22411.69
Majority904.70
Turnout 1,916

1896 election

1896 general election: Western Maori [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Henare Kaihau 1,60526.70
Liberal Ropata Te Ao 87414.54-28.10
Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui 85414.20
Ngarangi Katitia65510.89-6.54
John Ormsby 5759.56
Te Aohau Nikitini4317.17
Pepene Eketone 3515.84-32.11
Wiremu Ngapaki2614.34
Reha Aperahama1863.09-11.21
Te Remana Nutana1582.63
Te Wirihana Hunia370.62-18.43
Hohepa Horomona80.13
Majority73112.16+7.46
Turnout 6,012 [lower-alpha 4]

1899 election

1899 general election: Western Maori [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Henare Kaihau 2,68552.69+25.99
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 87317.13
Te Aohau Nikitini58111.40+4.23
Waata Hipango4408.63
Hone Patene1993.91
Takarangi Mete Kingi1733.39
Wiremu Ngapaki1452.85-1.50
Majority1,81235.56+23.40
Turnout 5,096

1902 election

1902 general election: Western Maori [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Henare Kaihau 3,32453.05+0.36
Ngarangi Katitia95415.23
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 84013.41-3.73
Eruera te Kahu67310.74
Te One Teehi3996.37
Te Weraro Kingi761.21
Majority2,37037.82+2.27
Turnout 6,266

1905 election

1905 general election: Western Maori [34] [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Henare Kaihau 3,02650.14-2.91
Independent Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 1,33822.17+8.76
Liberal Eruera te Kahu99116.42
Independent Pitiera Taipua3946.53
Independent Te Weraro Kingi1622.68+1.47
Independent Hare Teimana1242.05
Majority1,68827.97-9.85
Turnout 6,035

1908 election

1908 general election: Western Maori [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Henare Kaihau 2,37532.65-17.49
Pepene Eketone 1,61822.24
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V 1,37518.90-3.27
Hema Te Ao1,17816.19
Eruera te Kahu72810.01-6.41
Majority75710.41-17.56
Turnout 7,274

1911 election

1911 general election: Western Maori [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Māui Pōmare 2,464 35.24
Henare Kaihau 1,89927.16-5.49
Pepene Eketone 1,47021.02-1.22
Tarapipipi Taingakawa5818.31
Ngarangi Katitia5608.01
Pomare Hetaraka190.27
Majority5658.08-2.33
Turnout 6,993

1914 election

1914 general election: Western Maori [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Māui Pōmare 3,416 50.29 +15.05
Liberal Hema Ropata te Ao [lower-alpha 5] 1,30919.27
Liberal Pepene Eketone 1,07415.81-5.21
Liberal–Labour Rangi Mawhete 70310.35
Independent Hori Tiro Paora1662.44
Reform Tuwhakaririka Patena [lower-alpha 6] 1251.84
Majority2,10731.02+22.94
Turnout 6,793

1930 by-election

1930 Western Maori by-election [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Taite Te Tomo 3,921 53.29
Ratana Toko Ratana 3,10142.14
Independent Pei Te Hurinui Jones 3364.57
Majority82011.14
Turnout 7,358

1931 election

1931 general election: Western Maori [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Taite Te Tomo 4,172 53.54
Ratana Toko Ratana 2,73635.11
Independent Rima Wakarua3945.06
Pepene Eketone 2933.76
Hane Henare Piahana1031.32
United Timi Takirihi (James Douglas)951.22
Majority1,43618.43
Turnout 7,793

1945 by-election

1945 Western Maori by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Matiu Ratana 4,697 53.63
National Pei Te Hurinui Jones 2,90833.20
Independent Winiata Piahana4525.16
Independent Takumaru Roetana Tupaea3714.24
Independent Rehe Parene Rewi Maniapoto Amohanga1111.27
Independent Pepiriri Reweti1081.23
Independent Labour Kaponga Erueti931.06
Independent Reha Kau Hou410.47
Majority1,78919.16
Informal votes554
Turnout 9,335

Notes

  1. Matiu Ratana died on 7 October 1949, shortly before the 1949 election. His wife stood for election instead.
  2. Final results were not reported in contemporary media
  3. Rankings from the third place down are based on preliminary results only
  4. The source says 6,022, but the votes add up to 6,012. Whilst the source states the count was final, McRobie states the number of votes cast as 6,072. [28]
  5. Some sources have Hema Ropata te Ao as an Independent
  6. Some sources have Tuwhakaririka Patena as an Independent

Related Research Articles

1996 New Zealand general election General election in New Zealand

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.

Māori electorates Electoral districts for Māori voters in New Zealand

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that until 1967 gave reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 any candidate of any ethnicity has been able to stand in a Maori electorate. Candidates now do not have to be Māori, or even on the Māori roll. Voters however who wish to vote in a Māori electorate have to register as a voter on the Māori roll and need to declare they are of Māori descent.

1938 New Zealand general election

The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 26th term. It resulted in the governing Labour Party being re-elected, although the newly founded National Party gained a certain amount of ground.

1949 New Zealand general election

The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.

1879 New Zealand general election Elections

The New Zealand general election of 1879 was held between 28 August and 15 September 1879 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 8 September. A total of 82,271 (66.5%) European voters turned out to vote, plus 14,553 Māori voters. Following the election, John Hall formed a new government.

1899 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1899 was held on 6 and 19 December in the European and Māori electorates, respectively, to elect 74 MPs to the 14th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The election was again won by the Liberal Party, and Richard Seddon remained Prime Minister.

1902 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1902 was held on Tuesday, 25 November, in the general electorates, and on Monday, 22 December in the Māori electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 15th session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 415,789 (76.7%) voters turned out to vote.

1922 New Zealand general election Election in New Zealand

The New Zealand general election of 1922 was held on Monday, 6 December in the Māori electorates, and on Tuesday, 7 December in the general electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 21st session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 700,111 (87.7%) voters turned out to vote. In one seat there was only one candidate.

1928 New Zealand general election Election of 1928

The New Zealand general election of 1928 was held on 13 and 14 November in the Māori and European electorates, respectively, to elect 80 MPs to the 23rd session of the New Zealand Parliament.

Henare Kaihau New Zealand politician

Henare Kaihau was a New Zealand Māori politician, serving as Member of the House of Representatives for the Western Maori electorate.

Tapihana Paraire Paikea New Zealand politician

Tapihana Paraire "Dobbie" Paikea, also known as Dobson, was a New Zealand politician and Ratana morehu who won the Northern Maori electorate for Labour in 1943. He was a Māori of Te Roroa, Te Parawhau and Ngāti Whātua descent. He was elected following the death of his father Paraire Karaka Paikea who had been the MP, and he held the parliamentary seat until his own death in 1963.

Iriaka Rātana New Zealand politician

Iriaka Matiu Rātana was a New Zealand politician and Rātana morehu who won the Western Maori electorate for Labour in 1949. She succeeded her husband Matiu Rātana to become the first woman to represent Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. She held the electorate until her retirement in 1969.

Southern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Eastern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Southern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tonga and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Northern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Eastern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Northern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Tokerau electorate.

Eastern Maori was one of New Zealand's four original parliamentary Māori electorates established in 1868, along with Northern Maori, Western Maori and Southern Maori. In 1996, with the introduction of MMP, the Maori electorates were updated, and Eastern Maori was replaced with the Te Tai Rawhiti and Te Puku O Te Whenua electorates.

Mete Paetahi

Mete Kīngi te Rangi Paetahi was a Member of Parliament in New Zealand. He was one of four Māori elected in the first Māori elections of 1868 for the new Māori electorates in the House of Representatives.

22nd New Zealand Parliament

The 22nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. Its composition was determined by the 1925 election, and it sat until the 1928 election.

The 1886 Western Maori by-election was a by-election held in the Western Maori electorate during the 9th New Zealand Parliament, on 23 December 1886. The by-election was caused by the death of the incumbent, Te Puke Te Ao, and was won by Hoani Taipua.

Adrian Rurawhe New Zealand politician

Adrian Paki Rurawhe is a New Zealand politician of Ngāti Apa descent and a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives (MP). He was first elected at the 2014 general election as a representative of the Labour Party for Te Tai Hauāuru and was re-elected in 2017.

References

  1. Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  2. "Latest News from Wanganui". Wellington Independent. XXII (2669). 18 April 1868. p. 5. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  3. Wilson 2003, p. 13.
  4. 1 2 "Result of the Maori Election". Wanganui Herald . IV (1100). 23 February 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  5. "Elections Validation Act, 1879". New Zealand Law online.
  6. Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. p. 402. ISBN   0-475-11200-8.
  7. Wilson 1985, p. 276.
  8. Wilson 1985, p. 209.
  9. "Members of the Liberal Party". NZ Liberal Party. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  10. 1 2 "The Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald . XLII (13055). 21 December 1905. p. 6. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  11. "The Maori Seats". The Marlborough Express . XLV (296). 20 December 1911. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  12. "The Candidates". The New Zealand Herald . XLVIII (14849). 28 November 1911. p. 9. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  13. "The Elections". Auckland Star . XLII (287). 2 December 1911. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  14. "Wanganui". Auckland Star . VII (1850). 21 January 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  15. "Maori Election: Western District". Bay of Plenty Times . IV (351). 19 January 1876. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  16. "The Western Maori District". The New Zealand Herald . XVI (5552). 2 September 1879. p. 4. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  17. "Speech by Mr. Te Wheoro, M.H.R." The New Zealand Herald . XVI (5566). 18 September 1879. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  18. Scott, Gary. "Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  19. "The Elections". The New Zealand Herald . XVIII (6266). 16 December 1881. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  20. "Wellington". Wanganui Herald . XV (4542). 13 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  21. "The Western Maori Election". Waikato Times . XXIII (1885). 5 August 1884. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  22. "Wanganui Herald". Wanganui Herald . XXI (6117). 11 January 1887. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  23. "The Western Maori Election". The Evening Post . XXXII (191). 30 December 1886. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  24. "The Maori Election". The Star (6036). 19 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  25. "The Maori Election". The Evening Post . XXXIV (69). 19 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  26. "Telegrams". Inangahua Times. XV (20887). 1 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  27. "By Telegraph". The Southland Times (11568). 28 October 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  28. 1 2 McRobie 1989, p. 133.
  29. "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  30. "Three Government Supporters". Auckland Star . XXIV (303). 22 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  31. "Untitled". Poverty Bay Herald. XXIV (7816). 4 January 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  32. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  33. "The General Election, 1902". National Library. 1903. p. 4. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  34. "The General Election, 1905". National Library. 1906. p. 6. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  35. "The General Election, 1908". National Library. 1909. p. 27. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  36. "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  37. "The General Election, 1914". National Library. 1915. pp. 31–33. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  38. "Reform Wins". The Evening Post . 9 October 1930.
  39. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014.