Western Province, Sri Lanka

Last updated

Western Province

බස්නාහිර පළාත
மேல் மாகாணம்
Colombo City, Sri Lanka.jpg
Sri Lanka Western Province locator map.svg
Location within Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 06°50′N80°05′E / 6.833°N 80.083°E / 6.833; 80.083 Coordinates: 06°50′N80°05′E / 6.833°N 80.083°E / 6.833; 80.083
Country Sri Lanka
Created1 October 1833
Provincial council 14 November 1987
Capital Colombo
Largest City Colombo
Districts
Government
  Type Provincial council
  Body Western Provincial Council
   Governor Roshan Goonatilake
Area
[1]
  Total3,684 km2 (1,422 sq mi)
  Land3,593 km2 (1,387 sq mi)
Area rank9th (5.61% of total area)
Population
 (2012 census) [2]
  Total5,821,710
  Rank1st (28.73% of total pop.)
  Density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Ethnicity
(2012 census) [2]
   Sinhalese 4,905,425 (84.26%)
   Sri Lankan Moors 450,505 (7.74%)
   Sri Lankan Tamil 335,751 (5.77%)
   Indian Tamil 61,826 (1.06%)
  Other68,203 (1.17%)
Religion
(2012 census) [3]
   Buddhist 4,288,797 (73.67%)
   Christian 752,993 (12.93%)
   Muslim 500,992 (8.61%)
   Hindu 274,336 (4.71%)
  Other4,592 (0.08%)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (Sri Lanka)
Post Codes
00000-19999
Telephone Codes 011, 031, 033, 034, 036, 038
ISO 3166 code LK-1
Vehicle registration WP
Website www.wp.gov.lk

The Western Province (Sinhala : බස්නාහිර පළාතBasnahira Palata; Tamil : மேல் மாகாணம்Mael Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. [4] [5] The province is the most densely populated province in the country and is home to the legislative capital Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte as well to Colombo, the nation's administrative and business center.

Contents

History

Parts of present-day Western Province were part of the pre-colonial Kingdom of Kotte. The province then came under Portuguese, Dutch and British control. In 1815 the British gained control of the entire island of Ceylon. They divided the island into three ethnic based administrative structures: Low Country Sinhalese, Kandyan Sinhalese and Tamil. The Western Province was part of the Low Country Sinhalese administration. In 1833, in accordance with the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission, the ethnic based administrative structures were unified into a single administration divided into five geographic provinces. [6] The districts of Chilaw, Colombo, Kalutara, Puttalam, Seven Korales (present day Kurunegala District), Three Korales, Four Korales and Lower Bulatgama (present day Kegalle District) formed the new Western Province. [7] Chilaw District, Puttalam District and Seven Korales were transferred to the newly created North Western Province in 1845. [8] Three Korales, Four Korales and Lower Bulatgama were transferred to the newly created Sabaragamuwa Province in 1889. [9]

It is planned to create a planned Megacity under the Western Region Megapolis Plan in the Western Province designed by Surbana. Originally initiated in 2004 by Ranil Wickremesinghe it was stopped after his election defeat and was restarted again after his return to power in 2015. The project plans to merge Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara districts and introduce zoning [10] [11]

Geography and climate

Western Province is located in the southwest of Sri Lanka. It has an area of 3,684 square kilometres (1,422 sq mi). [1] The province is surrounded by the Laccadive Sea to the west, North Western Province to the north, Sabaragamuwa Province to the east and the Southern Province to the south.

The Western Province is vulnerable to recurrent flooding as a result of an increase in average rainfall coupled with heavier rainfall events, with knock-on impacts on the infrastructure, utility supply, and the urban economy of the Province. As the most urbanised province in Sri Lanka, these climate events pose a number of problems due to the rapid urban growth the province has undergone. [12]

Administrative divisions

Districts

The Western Province is divided into three administrative districts, 40 Divisional Secretary's Divisions (DS Divisions) and 2,505 Grama Niladhari Divisions (GN Divisions).

District Capital District Secretary DS
Divisions
GN
Divisions
[13] [14] [15]
Total
Area
(km2) [1]
Land
Area
(km2) [1]
Population (2012 Census) [2] Population
Density
(/km2)
Sinhalese Sri Lankan Moors Sri Lankan Tamil Indian Tamil OtherTotal
Colombo Colombo Sunil Kannangara135666996761,771,319242,728231,31827,33637,1082,309,8093,304
Gampaha Gampaha J. J. Rathnasiri131,1771,3871,3412,079,11595,50180,07110,87929,0752,294,6411,654
Kalutara Kalutara U. D. C. Jayalal147621,5981,5761,054,991112,27624,36223,6112,0201,217,260762
Total402,5053,6843,5934,905,425450,505335,75161,82668,2035,821,7101,580

Major cities and towns

Kalutara Fort Kalutara Fort.jpg
Kalutara Fort
City/town District Population
(2001
census)
[16]
Colombo Colombo 647,100
Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Colombo 210,546
Moratuwa Colombo 177,563
Negombo Gampaha 121,701
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Colombo 116,366
Gampaha Gampaha 57,461
Kalutara Kalutara 37,451

Demographics

Population

The Western Province's population was 5,821,710 in 2012. [2] The majority of the population are Sinhalese, with a minority Sri Lankan Moor and Sri Lankan Tamil population.

Ethnicity

Population of Western Province by ethnic group 1981 to 2012 [2] [17]
Year Sinhalese Sri Lankan Moors Sri Lankan Tamil Indian Tamil OtherTotal
No.
No.%No.%No.%No.%No.%
1981 Census3,321,83084.74%238,7286.09%228,5165.83%59,4021.51%71,3311.82%3,919,807
2001 Census4,530,91884.20%374,7296.96%325,7066.05%61,3371.14%88,5071.64%5,381,197
2012 Census4,905,42584.26%450,5057.74%335,7515.77%61,8261.06%68,2031.17%5,821,710

Religion

Population of Western Province by religion 1981 to 2012 [3] [18]
Year Buddhist Christian [lower-alpha 1] Muslim Hindu OtherTotal
No.
No.%No.%No.%No.%No.%
1981 Census2,885,78973.62%556,58114.20%279,6397.13%194,0004.95%3,7980.10%3,919,807
2001 Census3,942,17173.26%721,11513.40%441,3978.20%271,7775.05%4,7370.09%5,381,197
2012 Census4,288,79773.67%752,99312.93%500,9928.61%274,3364.71%4,5920.08%5,821,710

Economy

Colombo the commercial capital of Sri Lanka ColomboSkyline October2016.jpg
Colombo the commercial capital of Sri Lanka

The Western province provides the highest contribution to the Gross Domestic Product contributing 41.2% of the Provincial Gross Domestic Product(PGDP) and has a nominal PGDP growth rate of 5.8% as of 2015. Agriculture only made up 1.7% of the GDP the lowest among the nine provinces while Industrial sector made up 34.6% the highest in the country and service sector represented 56.5%. [19]

The province is undergoing rapid development with several of the largest infrastructure development projects happening in the province such as the Colombo International Financial City(CIFC) which is an International Financial Zone and the Western Region Megapolis Planning Project(WRMPP) [20] [21] [22] [23] Western province is also undergoing a major real estate and construction boom with residential and commercial buildings and skyscrapers changing the skylines of cities such as Colombo and Rajagiriya. Several major residential, office and hotel buildings as well as resorts and malls are either proposed or under construction. [24] [25] [26]

The Colombo Harbour is also a major driver of economic growth being the busiest port in South Asia. It has both privately run and state owned terminals and is being expanded. [27] [28]

Education

Almost all the premier educational institutions in the island are located in the Western Province. Universities in the province includes the University of Colombo, University of Kelaniya, University of Moratuwa, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Open University, Sri Lanka, Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, National Institute of Business Management and the Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology. Having the highest population in all the provinces, Western Province has the largest number of schools in the country, which includes national, provincial, private and international schools.

See also

Notes

  1. Roman Catholic and Other Christian.

Related Research Articles

Provinces of Sri Lanka 1st level administrative subdivisions of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, provinces are the first level administrative division. They were first established by the British rulers of Ceylon in 1833. Over the next century most of the administrative functions were transferred to the districts, the second level administrative division. By the middle of the 20th century the provinces had become merely ceremonial. This changed in 1987 when, following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization, the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Currently there are nine provinces.

Eastern Province, Sri Lanka Province in Sri Lanka

The Eastern Province is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Between 1988 and 2006 the province was temporarily merged with the Northern Province to form the North Eastern Province. The capital of the province is Trincomalee.

Gampaha District Administrative District in Western, Sri Lanka

Gampaha District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. It is the second most populous district of Sri Lanka after Colombo District. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the town of Gampaha. Negombo however is the largest city and the commercial hub of Gampaha district. The district was carved out of the northern part of Colombo District in September 1978.

Colombo District Administrative District in Western, Sri Lanka

Colombo District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the city of Colombo. The district of Colombo was officially recorded in 2016 as having the highest income on average, per household.

Kilinochchi District Administrative District in Northern, Sri Lanka

Kilinochchi District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the town of Kilinochchi.

Mullaitivu District Administrative District in Northern, Sri Lanka

Mullaitivu District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the town of Mullaitivu.

Kuppiyawatta West Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Kuppiyawatta West Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Gangodavila East Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 526C.

Kollupitiya Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Kollupitiya Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Bambalapitiya Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Bambalapitiya Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Borella South Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Borella South Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Milagiriya Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Milagiriya Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Slave Island Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Slave Island Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Colombo Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Mahanuwara Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Mahanuwara Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Kandy Four Gravets & Gangawata Korale Divisional Secretariat of Kandy District of Central Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 257.

Welikada North Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Welikada North Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 514D.

Bloemendhal Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Bloemendhal Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Colombo Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Rajagiriya (Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte) Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Rajagiriya Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 514B.

Aluthkade East Grama Niladhari Division Grama Niladhari Division in Sri Lanka

Aluthkade East Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Colombo Divisional Secretariat of Colombo District of Western Province, Sri Lanka.

Ruwanpura Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Attanagalla Divisional Secretariat of Gampaha District of Western Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 370B.

Kobawaka South Grama Niladhari Division is a Grama Niladhari Division of the Bulathsinhala Divisional Secretariat of Kalutara District of Western Province, Sri Lanka. It has Grama Niladhari Division Code 813B.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Area of Sri Lanka by province and district" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  3. 1 2 "A3 : Population by religion according to districts, 2012". Census of Population & Housing, 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  4. "Provinces of Sri Lanka". Statoids.
  5. "Provincial Councils". Government of Sri Lanka.
  6. Mills, Lennox A. (1933). Ceylon Under British Rule (1795 - 1932). London: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–68.
  7. Mendis, G. C. (1946). Ceylon Under the British (2nd (revised) ed.). Colombo: The Colombo Apothecaries Co. pp. 39–40.
  8. Medis, G. C. (1946). Ceylon Under the British (2nd (revised) ed.). Colombo: The Colombo Apothecaries Co. p. 51.
  9. Medis, G. C. (1946). Ceylon Under the British (2nd (revised) ed.). Colombo: The Colombo Apothecaries Co. p. 85.
  10. "What is the Singapore-styled Western Region Megapolis plan for Colombo? | Adaderana Biz English | Sri Lanka Business News". bizenglish.adaderana.lk. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  11. "Project Megapolis explained - Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara to merge - Newsfirst". Sri Lanka News - Newsfirst | News1st | newsfirst.lk | Breaking. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  12. Integrating urban agriculture and forestry into climate change action plans: Lessons from Sri Lanka, Marielle Dubbeling, the Climate and Environment Knowledge Network, 2014
  13. "Grama Niladhari Divisions". Colombo District Secretariat.
  14. "Grama Niladhari Divisions". Gampaha District Secretariat.
  15. "Grama Niladhari Divisions". Kalutara District Secretariat.
  16. "Population of principal towns by sex, census years" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  17. "Population by ethnic group and district, Census 1981, 2001" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  18. "Population by religion and district, Census 1981, 2001" (PDF). Statistical Abstract 2011. Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka.
  19. "Provincial Gross Domestic Product – 2015" (PDF). cbsl.gov.lk.
  20. "Government Signs Tripartite Agreement for Colombo International Financial City".
  21. "Sri Lanka to create international financial zone where people can also park their money".
  22. "Megapolis: Part 1 ‒ What To Expect".
  23. "The Western Region Megapolis Master Plan and the Megapolis Authority".
  24. Nizar, Ahamed. "The Colombo Skyline - Roar.lk". roar.lk. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  25. Haniff, Hakiem. "Colombo's Changing Skyline (Part II) - Roar.lk". roar.lk. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  26. "Real Estate Market Update: Roaring Rajagiriya | The Sunday Times Sri Lanka". www.sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  27. "Colombo breaks through as South Asia's next big transshipment port". www.joc.com. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  28. "Sri Lanka: An Emerging Logistics Hub in South Asia | Hong Kong Means Business". Hong Kong Means Business. Retrieved 31 January 2017.