Western Thrace

Last updated

Location map of Thrace (Greece).svg
Thrace (blue) within Greece
Replaced as administrative region by Eastern Macedonia and Thrace 1987
Capital Komotini
Regional units
   Deputy Minister Theodoros Karaoglou  [ el ] ( New Democracy )
  Total8,578 km2 (3,312 sq mi)
(2011 census) [1]
  Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Thracian
Largest City
Website www.pamth.gov.gr

Western Thrace or West Thrace (Greek : [Δυτική] Θράκη, [Dytikí] Thráki [ˈθraci] / Turkish: Batı Trakya; Bulgarian : Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; East Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.


Inhabited since paleolithic times, it has been under the political, cultural and linguistic influence of the Greek world since the classical era; [2] [3] Greeks from the Aegean islands extensively colonized the region (especially the coastal part) and built prosperous cities such as Abdera (home of Democritus, the 5th-century B.C. philosopher who developed an atomic particle theory, and of Protagoras, a leading sophist) and Sale (near present-day Alexandroupoli). [2] Under the Byzantine Empire, Western Thrace benefited from its position close to the imperial heartland and became a center of medieval Greek commerce and culture; later, under the Ottoman Empire, a number of Muslims settled there, marking the birth of the Muslim minority of Greece.

Topographically, Thrace alternates between mountain-enclosed basins of varying size and deeply cut river valleys. It is divided into the three regional units (former prefectures): Xanthi, Rhodope and Evros, which together with the Macedonian regional units of Drama, Kavala and Thasos form the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace.

The Fourth Army Corps of the Hellenic Army has its headquarters in Xanthi; in recent years, the region has attracted international media attention after becoming a key entering point for illegal immigrants trying to enter European Union territory; Greek security forces, working together with Frontex, are also extensively deployed in the Greco-Turkish land border.


Flag of revolutionaries of Western Thrace and Samothrace during the Greek War of Independence Greek flag (black cross).svg
Flag of revolutionaries of Western Thrace and Samothrace during the Greek War of Independence

The approximate area of Western Thrace is 8,578  km² with a population of 371,208 according to the 2011 census. [1] It's estimated that two-thirds (67%) of the population are Orthodox Christian Greeks, while 30% (120,000) are Muslims who are an officially recognised minority of Greece. Of these, about half are of Turkish origin, while another third are Pomaks who mainly inhabit the mountainous parts of the region. The Romani of Thrace are also mainly Muslim, unlike their ethnic kin in other parts of the country who generally profess the Orthodox faith of the Greek majority.

Thrace is bordered by Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the east, the Aegean Sea (Greece) to the south and the Greek region of Macedonia to the west. Alexandroupoli is the largest city, with a municipal population of 72,959 according to the 2011 census. [1] Below is a table of the five largest Thracian cities: [1]

CityGreekTown population
Municipality population
Alexandroupoli Αλεξανδρούπολη58,12572,959
Komotini Κομοτηνή54,27266,919
Xanthi Ξάνθη56,15165,133
Orestiada Ορεστιάδα20,21137,695
Didymoteicho Διδυμότειχο9,36719,493


Ruins of the ancient city of Abdera Abdera.JPG
Ruins of the ancient city of Abdera
The ancient theatre of Maroneia 20100913 Ancient Theater Marwneia Rhodope Greece panoramic 2.jpg
The ancient theatre of Maroneia
Roman mosaics in Plotinopolis, modern Didymoteicho Plotinupolis mosaics Dydimoteicho Evros Greece 3.jpg
Roman mosaics in Plotinopolis, modern Didymoteicho

After the Roman conquest, Western Thrace further belonged to the Roman province of Thracia founded in 46 AD. At the beginning of the 2nd AD century Roman emperor Trajan founded here, as a part of the provincial policy, two cities of Greek type (i.e. city-states), Traianoupolis and Plotinopolis. From this region passed the famous Via Egnatia, which ensured the communication between East and West, while its ramifications were connecting the Aegean world with Thracian hinterland (i.e. upper and middle valley of Evros river). From the coast also passed the sea route Troad–Macedonia, which the Apostle Paul had used in his journeys in Greece. During the great crisis of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century AD, Western Thrace suffered from the frequent incursions of the barbarians until the reign of Diocletian, when it managed to prosper again thanks to its administrative reforms. [4]

The region had been under the rule of the Byzantine Empire from the time of the division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western empires in the early fourth century AD. The Ottoman Empire conquered most of the region in the 14th century and ruled it till the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. During Ottoman rule, Thrace had a mixed population of Turks and Bulgarians, with a strong Greek element in the cities and the Aegean Sea littoral. A smaller number of Pomaks, Jews, Armenians and Romani also lived in the region. At 1821, several parts of Western Thrace, such as Lavara, Maroneia, and Samothraki rebelled and participated in the Greek War of Independence.

Greek administration stamp in Western Thrace, 1920 Stamp Thrace Greek occ 1920 2l ovpt.jpg
Greek administration stamp in Western Thrace, 1920

During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro) fought against the Ottoman Empire and annexed most of its European territory, including Thrace. Western Thrace was occupied by Bulgarian troops who defeated the Ottoman army. On November 15, 1912 on the right bank of the river Maritza Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps captured the Turkish corps of Yaver Paha, which defends the Eastern Rhodopes and Western Thrace from invading Bulgarians.

View of the old town of Xanthi To Arkhontiko Kougioumtzoglou, sta sokakia tes palias poles tes Ksanthes - panoramio.jpg
View of the old town of Xanthi

The victors quickly fell into dispute on how to divide the newly conquered lands, resulting in the Second Balkan War. In August 1913 Bulgaria was defeated, but gained Western Thrace under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest.

In the following years, the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire), with which Bulgaria had sided, lost World War I and as a result Western Thrace was withdrawn from Bulgaria under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly. [5] Western Thrace was under temporary management of the Entente led by French General Charles Antoine Charpy. In the second half of April 1920 in San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers (except the US) Western Thrace was given to Greece.

Throughout the Balkan Wars and World War I, Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey each forced respective minority populations in the Thrace region out of areas they controlled. A large population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace, and Black Sea coastal and southern Bulgaria, was expelled south and west into Greek-controlled Thrace. Concurrently, a large population of Bulgarians was forced from the region into Bulgaria by Greek and Turkish actions. Turkish populations in the area were also targeted by Bulgarian and Greek forces and pushed eastward. As part of the Treaty of Neuilly, and subsequent agreements, the status of the expelled populations was legitimized. This was followed by a further population exchange which radically changed the demographics of the region toward increased ethnic homogenization within the territories each respective country ultimately was awarded.

This was followed by the large-scale Greek-Turkish population exchanges of 1923 (Treaty of Lausanne), which finalized the reversal of Western and Eastern Thrace region's pre-Balkan War demography. The treaty granted the status of a minority to the Muslims in Western Thrace, in exchange for a similar status for the ethnic Greek minority in Istanbul and the Aegean islands of Imbros and Tenedos.

After the German invasion (April 1941), the area was occupied by Bulgarian troops, as part of the triple Axis occupation of Greece, during World War II. During this period (1941-1944) the demographic distribution was further changed, with the arrest of the region's approximately 4,500 Jews by the Bulgarian police and their deportation to death camps administered by Germany. None of them survived. [6]


Old silk factory in Soufli ImagevisitTzivreSoufli.jpg
Old silk factory in Soufli

The economy of Thrace in recent years[ when? ] has become less dependent on agriculture. A number of Greek-owned high-tech industries belonging to the telecommunications industry have settled in the area. The Egnatia Odos motorway which passes through Thrace, has contributed to the further development of the region. Tourism is slowly becoming more and more important as the Aegean coast has a number of beaches, and there is also the potential for winter tourism activities in the Rhodopi mountains [ citation needed ], the natural border with Bulgaria, which are covered by dense forest.


Eski Mosque in Komotini 20120718 Eski Mosque Komotini Thrace Greece Panoramic.jpg
Eski Mosque in Komotini

The Muslim minority of Thrace are Greek citizens of diverse ethnic origins and is recognised as religious minority in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne which Greece has signed with Turkey, and along with the Greek Constitution, enshrines the fundamental rights of the Turks and other ethnic groups of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and the obligations towards them. The Greek government is not referring to the Muslim minority by a specific ethnic background, as it includes Turks, Pomaks and Roma Muslims.

The minority was exempted from the 1922-1923 Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey and was granted special rights within the framework of the Treaty of Lausanne, such as religious freedom and education in the Turkish language.

The estimated numbers of the minority's constituent ethnic groups are according to a document of the Greek Consulate in Berlin,[ citation needed ] the following:

Turkey, a signatory state of the Lausanne Treaty, initially claimed the whole of the Muslim minority to be strictly an ethnic Turkish minority even though it consists of multiple ethnic groups. However, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, during his historic December 7, 2017 visit to Greece as President of Turkey, acknowledged for the first time the multi-ethnic nature of the Muslim minority. [8] [9] [10] [11]

Historical demographics

The port of Alexandroupoli Alexandroupolis Port (April 2017).jpg
The port of Alexandroupoli
Orestiada Die Athanasiou Pantazidou Strasse im Stadtzentrum (2017).jpg
Samothrace island View of Samothraki.jpg
Samothrace island

The last censuses which asked about ethnicity were held in the transitional period before the region became part of Greece.[ citation needed ] A number of estimates and censuses during the 1912-1920 period gave the following results about the ethnic distribution of the area that would become known as Western Thrace: [12]

General Distribution of Population in Western Thrace (1912-1920)
1912 estimate120,000-40,00060,0004,000224,000
1919 Bulgarian79,53917,36987,94128,64710,922224,418
1919 Bulgarian77,72620,30981,45732,5538,435220,480
1920 French74,73011,84854,09256,1147,906204,690
1920 Greek93,273-25,67774,4166,038201,404

The Pomak population depending on the source was sometimes counted together with the Turks (Muslims) following the Ottoman system of classifying people according to religion, while in other occasions was specified separately. According to the Bulgarian view, they are considered "Bulgarian Muslims" and an integral part of the Bulgarian nation. [12]

By the Bulgarian census in 1919, held on the request of the Entente, [13] of the population of Western Thrace [14] was 219 723 of whom: Turks 35.4% (77 726 Muslims), Bulgarians 46.3% (101 766 - 81 457 Christians and 20 309 Muslims), Greeks 14.8% (32 553 Christians), Jews 1.4% (3066) Armenians 1.5% (2369), others 0,9% (1243). The area ceded to the Entente also included Karaagach and its environs, which became part of Turkey after the Treaty of Lausanne.

1919 Bulgarian Census of Western Thrace [13]
DistrictsTotalTurksBulgarian ChristiansBulgarian Muslims (Pomaks)GreeksJewsArmeniansOthers
Karaagach 25,669-12,874-11,133284835443
Dimotika 25,0815816,070-16,8561,15229847
Soflu 16,74833912,280-4,09792150
Dedeagach 18,38062517,036-1816446572
Gumurdjina 92,23555,75421,87910,8023641,2006501,579
Xanthi 41,61920,35010,5759,50085250100-
Total219,72377,726 (35.4%)81,457 (37.1%)20,309 (9.2%)32,553 (14.8%)3,066 (1.4%)2,369 (1.5%)2,243 (0.6%)

Western Thrace was ceded to the Entente in December 1919, after which many Bulgarians left the region, while many Greeks moved in. The Government of the Entente (led by French general Sharpe) held its own census in 1920, [15] [ full citation needed ] according to which Western Thrace had a population of 204,700, of whom: Turks 36.5% (74,720 Muslims), Bulgarians 32.2% (65,927 = 54,079 Christians and 11,848 Muslims), Greeks 27.4% (56,114 Christians), Jews 1.5% (2985) Armenians 0.9% (1880), others 3066. At the time this census was conducted, a part of the Greek population of Ksanthi, who left massively the Ksanthi district after the Balkan wars (1913), returned. [12]

Census in 1920 conducted by the Entente Powers in Western Thrace. [12]
DistrictsTotalTurksBulgariansPomaks (Bulgarian Muslims)GreeksJewsArmeniansOthers
Karaagach 27,193510,200-15,0453704501,123
Dimotika 26,3131,2474,956-18,856878157192
Soflu 21,2502,77010,995-7,435--50
Dedeagach 16,31764011,543-3,355165512102
Gumurdjina 64,96139,60114,7942,3414,7731,2926511,559
Xanthi 48,66630,5381,5919,5076,650280200-
Total204,70074,720 (36.5%)54,079 (26.4%)11,848 (5,8%)56,114 (27.4%)2,985 (1.5%)1,880 (0.9%)3,066 (1.5%)

According to the Turkish researches [16] the population of Western Thrace in 1923 was 191,699, of whom 129,120 (67%) were Turks/Muslims (also includes the Pomaks) and 33,910 (18%) were Greeks; the remaining 28,669 (15%) were mostly (Christian) Bulgarians, along with small numbers of Jews and Armenians (before the population exchange).

General Distribution of Population in Western Thrace in 1923, prior to the Greek-Turkish population exchange, according to Turkish claims (based on of 1913) [17]
Soufli 31,76814,73611,5425,490--
Alexandroupolis 27,47311,7444,80010,227253449
Komotini 80,16559,9678,8349,9971,007360
Xanthi 52, 25542,6718,728522220114
Total191,699129,120 (67,4%)33,910 (17,7%)26,266 (13,7%)1,480 (0,8%)923 (0,5%)
General Distribution of Population in Western Thrace in 1923, according to Greek delegation in Laussane [18]
Didymoteicho 34,62131,4083,213---
Soufli 32,29925,7585,4541,117--
Orestiada 39,38633,7646,072---
Alexandroupolis 38,55326,8562,7059,102--
Komotini 104,10845,51650,0816,6091,1121,183
Xanthi 64,74436,85927,882---
Total314,235199,704 (63,6%)95,407 (30,4%)16,828 (5,4%)1,112 (0,4%)1,183 (0,4%)

The population of the region, according to the official census of 1928 and 1951 conducted by the local authorities, per mother tongue, was as follows: [19]

Population in Western Thrace per mother tongue, 1928 (official census)
Evros 122,730102,68816,6265205921,0101,870
Xanthi 89,26644,34327,5622943717514,2576941,904
Rodopi 91,17536,21649,52124526212,4811,1781,487
Total303,171183,247 (60,4%)93,709 (30,9%)1,059 (0,3%)68 (<0,1%)205 (<0,1%)16,740 (5,5%)2,882 (1%)5,261 (1,7%)
Population in Western Thrace per mother tongue, 1951 (official census)
Evros 141,340126,22910,0610184,12111218781
Xanthi 89,89146,14726,0108535416,9262439
Rodopi 105,72345,50557,7850251,6288790
Total336,954217,881 (64,7%)93,856 (27,9%)8 (<0,1%)25 (<0,1%)4,480 (1,3%)18,666 (5,5%)28 (<0,1%)2,010 (1,7%)


Nestos river outside the city of Xanthi Nestos river.jpg
Nestos river outside the city of Xanthi

See also

Related Research Articles

Pomaks Slavic Muslims

Pomaks is a term used for Bulgarian-speaking Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and mainly northwestern Turkey. The c. 220,000 strong ethno-confessional minority in Bulgaria is known officially as Bulgarian Muslims. The term has also been used as a wider designation, including also the Slavic Muslim populations of North Macedonia and Albania.

Eastern Rumelia Autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire from 1878-1885

Eastern Rumelia was an autonomous territory in the Ottoman Empire, created in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin and de facto ended in 1885, when it was united with the Principality of Bulgaria, also under Ottoman suzerainty. It continued to be an Ottoman province de jure until 1908, when Bulgaria declared independence.

Megali Idea Irredentist concept aiming to establish a Greek state encompassing all historically Greek-inhabited areas

The Megali Idea was an irredentist concept that expressed the goal of reviving the Byzantine Empire, by establishing a Greek state, which would include the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the end of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1828) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks since ancient times.

Eastern Macedonia and Thrace administrative region of Greece

Eastern Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the northeastern parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace, and the islands of Thasos and Samothrace.

Evros (regional unit) Regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece

Evros is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace. Its name is derived from the river Evros, which appears to have been a Thracian hydronym. Evros is the northernmost regional unit. It borders Turkey to the east, across the river Evros, and it borders Bulgaria to the north and the northwest. Its capital is Alexandroupoli. Together with the regional units Rhodope and Xanthi, it forms the geographical region of Western Thrace. The population density was 34.77 per km2 (2011).

Rhodope (regional unit) Regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece

Rhodope is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace. Its name is derived from the Rhodope Mountains, which cover the northern part of its territory. Together with the regional units Evros and Xanthi, it forms the geographical region of Western Thrace. The capital of the prefecture is the city of Komotini. The second largest town is Sapes. Most of the Muslims of Thrace, the only officially recognized minority in Greece, are settled in this area, where they form around half of the population.

Xanthi Place in Greece

Xanthi is a city in the region of Western Thrace, northeastern Greece. It is the capital of the Xanthi regional unit of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace.

Komotini Place in Greece

Komotini is a city in the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, northeastern Greece. It is the capital of the Rhodope regional unit. It was the administrative centre of the Rhodope-Evros super-prefecture until its abolition in 2010, by the Kallikratis Plan. The city is home to the Democritus University of Thrace, founded in 1973. Komotini is home to a sizeable Turkish-speaking Muslim minority.

Islam in Greece

Islam in Greece is represented by two distinct communities; Muslims that have lived in Greece since the times of the Ottoman Empire and Muslim immigrants that began arriving in the last quarter of the 20th century, mainly in Athens and Thessaloniki. Muslims in Greece are mainly immigrants from The Middle East, Other Balkan Regions & North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt.

Minorities in Greece are small in size compared to Balkan regional standards, and the country is largely ethnically homogeneous. This is mainly due to the population exchanges between Greece and neighboring Turkey and Bulgaria, which removed most Muslims and those Christian Slavs who did not identify as Greeks from Greek territory. The treaty also provided for the resettlement of ethnic Greeks from those countries, later to be followed by refugees. There is no official information for the size of the ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities because asking the population questions pertaining to the topic have been abolished since 1951.

History of modern Macedonia (Greece)

In the 19th century, the national revival in the Balkans began; national and religious antagonism flared, and conflict was heightened by the Ottoman policy of playing one group against the other. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire lost control over the major sections of Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria, each of which claimed Macedonia on historical or ethnical grounds.

Turks of Western Thrace Turkish ethnic minority living in Western Thrace region of Greece

Turks of Western Thrace are ethnic Turks who live in Western Thrace, in the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece.

Muslim minority of Greece only explicitly recognized minority in Greece

The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece. It numbered 97,605 according to the 1991 census, and unofficial estimates ranged up to 140,000 people or 1.24% of the total population, according to the United States Department of State.

Provisional Government of Western Thrace

The Provisional Government of Western Thrace, later renamed to Independent Government of Western Thrace, was a small, short-lived unrecognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km².

East Thrace

East Thrace or Eastern Thrace, also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe. It accounts for 3% of Turkey's land area but comprises 14% of its total population. The rest of much of the country is located on the Anatolian Peninsula as well as the Armenian Highlands, geographically in Western Asia. The largest city of the region is Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus between Europe and Asia.

<i>Destruction of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913</i>

The Destruction of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913 is a book published by the Bulgarian academic Lyubomir Miletich in 1918, which describes the mass extermination and ethnic cleansing of the Bulgarian population in Eastern Thrace and Eastern Rhodope Mountains during the Second Balkan War and in a short period after it.

Oraio is a settlement in the municipality Myki in the Xanthi regional unit of Greece. Oraio is a Pomak Muslims minority village. It was founded in the 12th century AD, when its population was still Bulgarian Christian. The conversion to Islam occurred during the period 17th-18th century. Following the First Balkan War, Bulgaria took possession of Oraio in 1912, but after a period of eight months it was taken back by the Greek army. Shortly thereafter, as part of the accords concluding the Balkan Wars, Oraio and Western Thrace were ceded to Bulgaria and remained a part of the latter until the end of World War I. Following the Bulgarian defeat in this war, Western Thrace, and thus Oraio, was given to Greece in the second half of April 1920 at San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers. Later in 1923 it was left to Greece with the rest of Western Thrace region by the Treaty of Lausanne. It was occupied by Bulgaria in the period 1941–1944 during World War II. Later in 1944 it was left to Greece.

Albanian-speakers form a linguistic minority in Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace along the border with Turkey. They speak the Northern Tosk subbranch of Tosk Albanian and are descendants of the Albanian population of Eastern Thrace who migrated during the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s. They are known in Greece as Arvanites, a name applied to all groups of Albanian origin in Greece, but which primarily refers to the southern dialectological group of Arbëreshë. The Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace and Macedonia use the common Albanian self-appellation, Shqiptar.

The Party of Friendship, Equality and Peace is a Greek political party founded to represent the interests of native Muslims of Greece. The recognised muslim minority in Greece consists mainly of Pomaks, muslims of Turkish and Bulgarian heritage and Roma.

The Treaty of Athens between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece, signed on 14 November 1913, formally ended hostilities between them after the two Balkan Wars and ceded Macedonia—including the major city of Thessaloniki— most of Epirus, and many Aegean islands to Greece.


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Announcement of the results of the 2011 Population Census for the Resident Population" (PDF). Piraeus: Hellenic Statistical Authority. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
  2. 1 2 "Thrace - region, Europe". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. Σαμσάρης, Δημήτριος Κ (14 January 1980). "Ο εξελληνισμός της Θράκης κατά την Ελληνική και Ρωμαϊκή αρχαιότητα" via olympias.lib.uoi.gr.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. D. C. Samsaris, Historical Geography of Western Thrace during the Roman Antiquity (in Greek), Thessaloniki 2005
  5. "World War I Document Archive". wwi.lib.byu.edu.
  6. (eds.), Bruno De Wever ... (2006). Local government in occupied Europe : (1939 - 1945). Gent: Academia Press. p. 206. ISBN   978-90-382-0892-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. "Οι Πομάκοι στη Θράκη". www.patrides.com.
  8. "No Turkish President Had Gone to Greece in 65 Years. So Why Now?". New York times. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  9. "Turkish president recognises Pomak element in Thrace, calls them 'compatriots'". News.In.gr. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  10. "Eight answers to the questions about Erdogan's visit (Original title in Greek: Οκτώ απαντήσεις στις ερωτήσεις για την επίσκεψη Ερντογάν)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  11. "About good neighborly relations, Erdogan stressed from Thrace (Original title in Greek: Για καλή γειτονία Ελλάδας - Τουρκίας έκανε λόγο ο Ερντογάν από τη Θράκη)". The Editors' Newspaper. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Vemund Aarbakke (2000). The muslim minority of Greek Thrace. Phd thesis / University of Bergen.
  13. 1 2 "St. Trifonov, Antantata v Trakija - 3". www.promacedonia.org.
  14. Иван Алтънов, Междусъюзнишка Тракия, София 1921г. pg 35
  15. L’Echo de Bulgarie, N 1963, 4 mai 1920.
  16. Whitman 1990 , 1
  17. Öksüz 2004 , 255.
  18. Huseyinoglu, Ali (2012). "The Development of Minority Education at the South-easternmost Corner of the EU: The Case of Muslim Turks in Western Thrace, Greece" (PDF). University of Sussex. p. 123. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  19. Kotzamanis, Byron. "Θράκη: εκατονταετία πληθυσμιακών ανακατατάξεων" (PDF). University of Thessaly. Retrieved 30 April 2013.


Commons-logo.svg Media related to Western Thrace at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 41°06′00″N25°25′00″E / 41.1000°N 25.4167°E / 41.1000; 25.4167