Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated
Westminster
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Westminster1868.png
Westminster in London 1868-85
Westminster1885.png
Westminster in London 1885-1918
1545–1918
Number of memberstwo to 1885, then one
Replaced by Westminster Abbey (abolished 1950)
Westminster St George's (also known as Westminster, St George's Hanover Square) (received Knightsbridge exclave)
Created from Middlesex
During its existence contributed to new seat(s) of: Strand (abolished 1918)
St George's, Hanover Square (abolished 1950)

Westminster was a parliamentary constituency in the Parliament of England to 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain 1707–1800 and the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801. It returned two members to 1885 and one thereafter.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Parliament of Great Britain parliament from 1708 to 1800

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

Parliament of the United Kingdom Supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, and domestically simply as Parliament or Westminster, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. The two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London.

Contents

The constituency was first known to have been represented in Parliament in 1545 and continued to exist until the redistribution of seats in 1918. The constituency's most famous former representatives are John Stuart Mill and Charles James Fox. The most analogous contemporary constituency is Cities of London and Westminster.

John Stuart Mill British philosopher and political economist

John Stuart Mill, usually cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control.

Charles James Fox 18th/19th-century British statesman

Charles James Fox, styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. He rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era.

Cities of London and Westminster (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1950 onwards

Cities of London and Westminster is a constituency returning a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons in the United Kingdom Parliament. It is a borough constituency for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer. As with all constituencies, the election is decided using the first past the post system of election. Since its creation at the 1950 general election, the constituency has always elected the candidate nominated by the Conservative Party. It has been represented since 2001 by Mark Field. This is the constituency in which the British Parliament is located.

Boundaries and boundary changes

The constituency was formed in 1545 from part of the county constituency of Middlesex and returned two members of parliament until 1885.

Middlesex is a former constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and finally of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It returned two members by various voting systems including hustings.

The City of Westminster is a district of Inner London. Its southern boundary is on the north bank of the River Thames. It is today combined with Marylebone to the north. It is west of the diminutive City of London, fixed with four MPs in 1298, and the north part of Lambeth, created a broad constituency in 1832. It is south-west of Holborn and St. Pancras which in 1832 were both placed in a wider seat named Finsbury and to the east of Kensington and Chelsea which were dealt with similarly in a seat named Chelsea.

City of Westminster City and borough in London

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Inner London Place in England

Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the interior part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. With its origins in the Bills of mortality, it became fixed as an area for statistics in 1847 and was used as an area of local government from 1855 to 1965 principally as the County of London or earlier as the Metropolitan Board of Works Area (metropolis). It now has two common definitions. The first is the statutory definition delineated in the London Government Act 1963, coming into force on 1 April 1965, comprising twelve Inner London boroughs and almost identical to the County of London that was abolished at the same time. The second is the current definition used by the Office for National Statistics comprising eleven of the statutory Inner London boroughs and two of the statutory Outer London boroughs, and the City of London.

River Thames river in southern England

The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second-longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.

In the 1885 redistribution of seats the constituency (virtually identical to the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster which was created in 1900) was divided into three single-member seats. The south-eastern part, including the traditional heart of Westminster and such important centres of power as the Houses of Parliament and the seat of government in Whitehall, continued to be a constituency called Westminster. By official definition the areas retained were "the Westminster district and Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter"; a seat named Strand was created in the north-east and a seat, St George's, Hanover Square, in the west.

Metropolitan Borough of Westminster

The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a metropolitan borough in the County of London, England, from 1900 to 1965.

Palace of Westminster Meeting place of the Parliament of the United Kingdom,

The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England.

Whitehall road in the City of Westminster, in central London

Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea. It is the main thoroughfare running south from Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square. The street is recognised as the centre of the Government of the United Kingdom and is lined with numerous departments and ministries, including the Ministry of Defence, Horse Guards and the Cabinet Office. Consequently, the name 'Whitehall' is used as a metonym for the British civil service and government, and as the geographic name for the surrounding area.

In the 1918 redistribution the three seats were cut to two: Westminster St George's in the west and Westminster Abbey in the east, the latter wholly containing and slightly larger than the 1885–1918 Westminster seat (except for its Knightsbridge exclave which lay some way off in the west).

Westminster St George's, originally named St George's, Hanover Square, was a parliamentary constituency in Central London. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system of election.

Westminster Abbey was a constituency in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons by the first past the post system of election.

Knightsbridge district in central London

Knightsbridge is a residential and retail district in central London, south of Hyde Park. It is identified in the London Plan as one of two international retail centres in London, alongside the West End.

History

This was a prestigious constituency, because it represented the centre of British government and had such a large electorate that it was independent of the control of a patron.

Before the Reform Act 1832 the right to vote was held by the male inhabitants paying Scot and Lot (a kind of local property tax). This was an extensive franchise, by the standards of that era. Westminster had the largest electorate of any borough in the Kingdom. Only the largest county constituency of Yorkshire had more voters. Sedgwick estimated the electorate at about 8,000 in the first half of the eighteenth century. Namier and Brooke estimated that there were about 12,000 voters later in the century. The large size of the electorate made contested elections immensely expensive.

In the sixteenth century the Church officials associated with Westminster Abbey had a large influence in the area, but as the community became bigger that became less important. The Court (or His Majesty's Treasury) had some legitimate influence (by the standards of the age), because of the royal residences and government offices in the borough. The use of public funds to bribe the electorate was not unknown, during close elections (see the comments about the cost of the 1780 and 1784 contests below). Local landowners who were prepared to stir up ill-will by threatening to evict or raise the rents of tenants voting the wrong way, could also affect the result.

Unlawful means were sometimes used to make sure that the right candidates were elected. In 1722 the election of two Tories was declared void because of rioting which prevented some Whigs voting. In 1741 a Whig returning officer called upon the assistance of some troops to close the poll before the Tory candidates could catch up to the Whig votes.

The House of Commons declared the 1741 election void with the ringing resolution that "the presence of a regular body of armed soldiers at an election of members to sit in Parliament, is a high infringement of the liberties of the subject, a manifest violation of the freedom of election and an open defiance of the laws and constitution of this kingdom".

By the eighteenth century it was normal for the members to be Irish peers, the sons of peers or baronets, as it was thought appropriate for them to be of high social standing so as to be worthy to represent the seat.

The Treasury spent the enormous sums of more than £8,000 in 1780 and £9,000 in 1784, in unsuccessful attempts to defeat the opposition Whig leader Charles James Fox. So expensive were these contests that for the next general election in 1790, the government and opposition leaders reached a formal agreement for each to have one member returned unopposed. However, in the event a second Whig candidate did appear, but the Tory (the famous Admiral Lord Hood) and Fox were re-elected without too much difficulty.

The last MP for this constituency, William Burdett-Coutts, was connected with a family prominent in City of Westminster politics since the eighteenth century. He himself was born in the United States in 1851, his grandparents on both sides having been British subjects. After he married Baroness Burdett-Coutts in 1881 he changed his surname from Bartlett to Burdett-Coutts. He represented the area from 1885 until 1918 and continued to sit for the Abbey division until his death in 1921.

Lists of Members of Parliament

The English civil year started on 25 March until 1752 (Scotland having changed to 1 January in 1600). The years used in this article have been converted to the new style where necessary. Old style dates would be a year earlier than the new style for days between 1 January and 24 March. No attempt has been made to compensate for the eleven days which did not occur in September 1752 in both England and Scotland as well as other British controlled territories (when the day after 2 September was 14 September), so as to bring the British Empire fully in line with the Gregorian calendar.

Members of Parliament 1545–1660

Some of the members elected during this period have been identified. The year first given is for the initial meeting of the Parliament, with the month added where there was more than one Parliament in the year. If a second year is given this is a date of dissolution. Early Parliaments sometimes only existed for a few days or weeks, so dissolutions in the same year as the first meeting are not recorded in this list If a specific date of election is known this is recorded in italic brackets. The Roman numerals in brackets, following some names, are those used to distinguish different politicians of the same name in 'The House of Commons' 1509–1558 and 1558–1603.

YearFirst memberSecond member
1545–1547 Robert Smallwood John Russell (II)
1547–1552(Sir) George Blagge, died
and repl.Jan 1552 by
Robert Nowell
John Rede (I)
1553 (Mar)(Sir) Robert Southwell Arthur Stourton
1553 (Oct)(Sir) Robert Southwell William Gyes
1554 (April) William Gyes Richard Hodges
1554 (Nov)-1555 William Jennings William Gyes
1555 Arthur Stourton Richard Hodges
1558 Nicholas Newdigate John Best
1559 (elected 7 January 1559) Richard Hodges John Best
1563–1567 (elected 1562/3) Robert Nowell William Bowyer (II)
1571Sir William Cordell William Staunton
1572–1583 Thomas Wilbraham, died
and repl. 1576 by
John Osborne
John Dodington
1584–1585Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1586–1587 Hon. Robert Cecil Thomas Knyvett
1589 (elected 20 December 1588) Thomas Knyvett Peter Osborne
1593 Richard Cecil Thomas Cole
1597–1598 (elected 27 September 1597) Thomas Knyvett Thomas Cole died
and repl. January 1598 by
Anthony Mildmay
1601 (elected 26 September 1601) Thomas Knyvett William Cooke (II)
1604 Sir Thomas Knyvett Sir Walter Cope
1614Sir Humphrey May Edmund Doubleday
1621 Sir Edward Villiers Edmund Doubleday
(died before taking his seat and replaced by
William Mann)
1624 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1625 Sir Edward Villiers William Mann
1626 Sir Robert Pye Peter Heywood
1628 Joseph Bradshaw Thomas Morice
Apr 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Nov 1640 Sir John Glynne William Bell
Glynne disabled 7 September 1647 but restored 7 June 1648
Glynne and Bell both possibly secluded in Pride's Purge
Westminster unrepresented in the Rump and Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Latham Thomas Falconbridge
1656 Colonel Edward Grosvenor Edward Cary
1659 Edward Grosvenor Richard Sherwyn

Members of Parliament 1660–1918

ElectionFirst MemberFirst PartySecond MemberSecond Party
1660 Gilbert Gerard Non-partisan Thomas Clarges Non-partisan
1661 Philip Warwick Non-partisan Richard Everard Non-partisan
Feb. 1679 Stephen Fox Non-partisan William Pulteney Non-partisan
Sep. 1679 Francis Wythens Non-partisan
1680 William Waller Non-partisan
Mar. 1685 Charles Bonython Tory Michael Arnold Tory
Nov. 1685 Parliament prorogued
1689 William Pulteney Whig Philip Howard Whig
1690 Walter Clarges Tory
1691 Stephen Fox Non-partisan
1695 Charles Montagu Non-partisan
1698 James Vernon Non-partisan
Jan. 1701 Thomas Crosse Tory
Dec. 1701 Henry Colt Non-partisan
1702 Walter Clarges Tory Thomas Crosse Tory
1702 Henry Boyle Non-partisan Henry Colt Non-partisan
1708 Thomas Medlycott Non-partisan
1710 Thomas Crosse Tory
1715 Edward Wortley Montagu Whig
Mar. 1722 Archibald Hutcheson Tory John Cotton Tory
Dec. 1722 Charles Montagu Whig George Carpenter Whig
1727 Charles Cavendish Whig William Clayton Whig
1734 Charles Wager Whig
1741 John Perceval Tory Charles Edwin Tory
1747 Granville Leveson-Gower Whig Peter Warren Whig
1752Seat vacant
1753 Edward Cornwallis Whig
1754 John Crosse Non-partisan
1761 William Pulteney Non-partisan
1762 Edwin Sandys Non-partisan
1763 Hugh Percy Non-partisan
1770 Robert Bernard Non-partisan
1774 Thomas Pelham-Clinton Non-partisan
1776 Charles Stanhope Non-partisan
1779 George Capel-Coningsby Non-partisan
1780 George Brydges Rodney Whig [1] Charles James Fox Whig [1]
1782 Cecil Wray Whig [1]
1784 Samuel Hood Tory [1]
1788 John Townshend Whig [1]
1790 Samuel Hood Tory [1]
1796 Alan Gardner Tory [1]
Oct. 1806 Hugh Percy Whig [1]
Nov. 1806 Samuel Hood Tory [1] Richard Brinsley Sheridan Whig [1]
1807 Francis Burdett Radical [2] [3] Thomas Cochrane Whig [1]
Jul. 1818 Samuel Romilly Whig [1] [2]
Nov. 1818Seat vacant
1819 George Lamb Tory [1]
1820 John Hobhouse Radical [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]
1833 De Lacy Evans Radical [9] [10] [11] [12]
May. 1837 Conservative [1] [9]
Jul. 1837 John Temple Leader Radical [1] [12] [13]
1841 Henry John Rous Conservative [1] [9]
1846 De Lacy Evans Radical [1] [10] [11] [12]
1847 Charles Lushington Whig [11]
1852 John Shelley Whig [10]
1859 Liberal [9] Liberal [9]
1865 Robert Grosvenor Liberal [9] John Stuart Mill Liberal [9]
1868 William Henry Smith Conservative [9]
1874 Charles Russell Conservative [9]
1882 Algernon Percy Conservative [9]
1885 William Burdett-Coutts Conservative [9] Seat reduced to one member
1918 Seat abolished

Fictional Member of Parliament

Westminster was the constituency of fraudulent businessman Augustus Melmotte, who gained election as a Conservative, in Anthony Trollope's satirical novel, The Way We Live Now (published 1875).

Elections

General notes

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one or two candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected.

In by-elections and all elections after 1885, to fill a single seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In two-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by two. To the extent that electors did not use both their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote. Change figures at by-elections are from the preceding general election or the last intervening by-election. Change figures at general elections are from the last general election.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as Non Partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the nineteenth century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the eighteenth century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late seventeenth century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the eighteenth century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results for elections before 1790 were taken from the History of Parliament Trust publications on the House of Commons. The results from 1790 until the 1832 general election are based on Stooks Smith and from 1832 onwards on Craig. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information to the other sources this is indicated in a note.

Dates of Westminster general and by-elections 1660–1918

  • -2 Apr 1660 GE
  • -- Apr 1661 GE
  • 27 Feb 1679 GE
  • 19 Sep 1679 GE
  • 15 Nov 1680 BE
  • 10 Feb 1681 GE
  • 23 Mar 1685 GE
  • 21 Jan 1689 GE
  • 13 Mar 1690 GE
  • -9 Nov 1691 BE
  • 29 Oct 1695 GE
  • 22 Jul 1698 GE
  • 21 Jan 1701 GE
  • -9 Dec 1701 GE
  • -6 Aug 1702 GE
  • 30 May 1705 GE
  • -7 Jul 1708 GE
  • -9 Oct 1710 GE
  • -- --- 1713 GE
  • 24 Jan 1715 GE
  • 27 Mar 1722 GE (1)
  • -3 Dec 1722 BE
  • 15 Aug 1727 GE
  • 22 Apr 1734 GE
  • -8 May 1741 GE (1)
  • 31 Dec 1741 BE
  • -1 Jul 1747 GE
  • 15 May 1750 BE
  • 16 Jan 1753 BE
  • 20 Apr 1754 GE
  • 25 Mar 1761 GE
  • 27 Apr 1762 BE
  • 15 Mar 1763 BE
  • 16 Mar 1768 GE
  • 30 Apr 1770 BE
  • 26 Oct 1774 GE
  • 17 Dec 1776 BE
  • 20 Apr 1779 BE
  • 10 Oct 1780 GE
  • -3 Apr 1782 BE
  • 12 Jun 1782 BE
  • -7 Apr 1783 BE
  • 17 May 1784 GE
  • -4 Aug 1788 BE
  • -2 Jul 1790 GE
  • 13 Jun 1796 GE
  • 15 Jul 1802 GE
  • 13 Feb 1806 BE
  • -7 Oct 1806 BE
  • 19 Nov 1806 GE
  • 23 May 1807 GE
  • -8 Oct 1812 GE
  • -5 Jul 1814 (2)
  • 16 Jul 1814 BE
  • -4 Jul 1818 GE
  • -3 Mar 1819 BE
  • 25 Mar 1820 GE
  • -- --- 1826 GE
  • -- --- 1830 GE
  • -- --- 1831 GE
  • -- Feb 1832 BE
  • -- --- 1832 GE
  • -4 Apr 1833 BE
  • 11 May 1833 BE
  • -- --- 1835 GE
  • 12 May 1837 BE
  • 27 Jul 1837 GE
  • -1 Jul 1841 GE
  • 19 Feb 1846 BE
  • 30 Jul 1847 GE
  • -9 Jul 1852 GE
  • -- --- 1857 GE
  • -- --- 1859 GE
  • 12 Jul 1865 GE
  • 18 Nov 1868 GE
  • -7 Feb 1874 GE
  • 11 Aug 1877 BE
  • -- --- 1880 GE
  • 10 Feb 1882 BE
  • 29 Jun 1885 BE
  • 26 Nov 1885 GE
  • -- --- 1886 GE
  • -- --- 1892 GE
  • -- --- 1895 GE
  • -- --- 1900 GE
  • -- --- 1906 GE
  • -- Jan 1910 GE
  • -- Dec 1910 GE

Notes:

Election results (Parliament of England) 1660–1690

General Election 2 April 1660: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Gilbert Gerard UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Clarges UnopposedN/AN/A
General election c. April 1661: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Philip Warwick ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Richard Everard ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Clarges DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Elliot DefeatedN/AN/A
General Election 27 February 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Stephen Fox ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Pulteney ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Philip Matthews DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Waller DefeatedN/AN/A
General Election 19 September 1679: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Pulteney ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Francis Wythens ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Waller DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Cutler DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Philip Matthews DefeatedN/AN/A
General election 10 February 1681: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Pulteney ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Waller ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Richard Tufton DefeatedN/AN/A
General election 23 March 1685: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Charles Bonython ElectedN/AN/A
Tory Michael Arnold ElectedN/AN/A
Whig Gilbert Gerard DefeatedN/AN/A
Whig William Dolbern DefeatedN/AN/A
General election 21 January 1689: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig William Pulteney ElectedN/AN/A
Whig Philip Howard ElectedN/AN/A
Tory Roger Langley DefeatedN/AN/A
Tory Charles Bonython DefeatedN/AN/A
Radical Philip Matthews DefeatedN/AN/A
Tory Walter Clarges DefeatedN/AN/A
Radical James Dewey DefeatedN/AN/A

Election results (Parliament of Great Britain) 1715–1800

General election 24 January 1715: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Edward Wortley-Montagu UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Thomas Crosse UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 27 March 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Archibald Hutcheson 4,02432.7N/A
Tory John Cotton 3,85331.4N/A
Whig William Lowndes 2,21518.0N/A
Whig Thomas Crosse 2,19717.9N/A
By-Election 3 December 1722: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles Montagu 4,83530.9+30.9
Whig George Carpenter 4,51528.8+28.8
Tory John Cotton 3,48522.3-9.1
Tory Thomas Clarges 2,82718.1+18.1
General election 15 August 1727: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles Cavendish UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig William Clayton UnopposedN/AN/A
General election 22 April 1734: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles Wager UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig William Clayton UnopposedN/AN/A
General election 8 May 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles Wager 3,68627.0N/A
Whig William Clayton 3,53325.8N/A
Tory Edward Vernon 3,29024.1N/A
Tory Charles Edwin 3,16123.1N/A
By-Election 31 December 1741: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory John Perceval UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Charles Edwin UnopposedN/AN/A
General election 1 July 1747: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Granville Leveson-Gower 2,87342.3N/A
Whig Peter Warren 2,85842.1N/A
Tory Thomas Clarges 5448.0N/A
Tory Thomas Dyke 5147.6N/A
By-Election 15 May 1750: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Granville Leveson-Gower 4,81150.8+8.5
Tory George Vandeput [14] 4,65449.2+49.2
Majority1571.7N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 16 January 1753: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Edward Cornwallis UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 20 April 1754: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Edward Cornwallis 3,38548.1N/A
Non Partisan John Crosse 3,18445.2N/A
Non Partisan James Oglethorpe 2613.7N/A
Non Partisan Charles Sackville 2093.0N/A
General election 25 March 1761: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Edward Cornwallis UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Pulteney UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 27 April 1762: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Edwin Sandys UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 15 March 1763: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Hugh Percy UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 16 March 1768: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Edwin Sandys UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Hugh Percy UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 30 April 1770: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Robert Bernard UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 26 October 1774: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Government/Northite Hugh Percy 4,99433.8N/A
Government/Northite Thomas Pelham-Clinton 4,77432.3N/A
Radical Hervey Redmond Morres 2,53117.1N/A
Radical Charles Stanhope 2,34215.9N/A
Non Partisan Humphrey Cotes 1300.9N/A
By-Election 17 December 1776: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Charles Stanhope UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
By-Election 20 April 1779: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan George Capell-Coningsby UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General election 10 October 1780: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Brydges Rodney 4,99435.6+35.6
Whig Charles James Fox 4,87834.8+34.8
Tory Thomas Pelham-Clinton 4,15729.6-2.7
By-Election 3 April 1782: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 12 June 1782: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Cecil Wray UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 7 April 1783: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 17 May 1784: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Samuel Hood 6,58835.4+35.4
Whig Charles James Fox 6,12632.9-1.9
Whig Cecil Wray 5,89531.7+31.7
By-Election 4 August 1788: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Townshend 6,39253.4+53.4
Tory Samuel Hood 5,56946.6+11.2
Majority8236.9N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
General election 2 July 1790: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox 3,51641.8+8.9
Tory Samuel Hood 3,21738.2+2.8
Whig John Horne Tooke 1,67920.0+20.0
General election 13 June 1796: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox 5,16040.3-1.5
Tory Alan Gardner 4,81437.6-0.6
Whig John Horne Tooke 2,81922.0+2.1

Election results (Parliament of the United Kingdom)

General election 15 July 1802: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox 2,67139.3-1.0
Tory Alan Gardner 2,43135.8-1.9
Radical John Graham 1,69324.9+24.9
By-Election 13 February 1806: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Charles James Fox UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
By-Election 7 October 1806: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Hugh Percy UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 19 November 1806: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Samuel Hood 5,47837.2+1.4
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 4,75832.3-7.0
Radical James Paull 4,48130.5+5.5
General election 23 May 1807: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Francis Burdett 5,13437.0+37.0
Whig Thomas Cochrane 3,70826.8+26.8
Whig Richard Brinsley Sheridan 2,61518.9-13.5
Tory John Elliot 2,13715.4-21.8
Radical James Paull 2691.9-28.5
General election 8 October 1812: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Francis Burdett UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig Thomas Cochrane UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 16 July 1814: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Thomas Cochrane UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General election 4 July 1818: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Samuel Romilly 5,33934.3N/A
Whig Francis Burdett 5,23833.7N/A
Tory Murray Maxwell 4,80830.9N/A
Radical Henry Hunt 840.5N/A
Whig Douglas Kinnaird 650.4N/A
Radical John Cartwright 230.2N/A
By-Election 3 March 1819: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Lamb 4,46553.38+22.47
Whig John Hobhouse 3,86146.2+46.2
Radical John Cartwright 380.5+0.3
Majority6047.2N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
General election 25 March 1820: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Francis Burdett 5,32736.4+2.7
Whig John Hobhouse 4,88233.3+33.3
Tory George Lamb 4,43630.3-0.6
General election 1826: Westminster (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Francis Burdett UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig John Hobhouse UnopposedN/AN/A
General election 1830: Westminster (2 seats) [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Francis Burdett Unopposed
Radical John Hobhouse Unopposed
Radical hold
Radical hold
General election 1831: Westminster (2 seats) [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Francis Burdett Unopposed
Radical John Hobhouse Unopposed
Radical hold
Radical hold
By-election, February 1832: Westminster [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Hobhouse Unopposed
Radical hold
General election 1832: Westminster (2 seats) [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Francis Burdett 3,24843.1N/A
Radical John Hobhouse 3,21442.6N/A
Radical De Lacy Evans 1,07614.3N/A
Majority2,13828.4N/A
Turnout 4,45338.5N/A
Registered electors 11,576
Radical hold Swing N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
By-election, 4 April 1833: Westminster [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Hobhouse Unopposed
Radical hold
By-election, 11 May 1833: Westminster [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical De Lacy Evans 2,02744.1+29.8
Radical John Hobhouse 1,83539.92.7
Tory Bickham Escott 73816.0N/A
Majority1,09723.84.6
Turnout 4,60039.7+1.2
Registered electors 11,576
Radical hold Swing N/A
General election 1835: Westminster (2 seats) [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical Francis Burdett 2,74740.03.1
Radical De Lacy Evans 2,58837.7+23.4
Conservative Thomas John Cochrane 1,52822.3N/A
Majority1,06015.413.0
Turnout 4,25432.16.4
Registered electors 13,268
Radical hold Swing N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
By-election, 12 May 1837: Westminster [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Francis Burdett 3,56753.9+31.6
Radical John Temple Leader 3,05246.131.6
Majority5157.8N/A
Turnout 6,61943.4+11.3
Registered electors 15,262
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +31.6
General election 27 July 1837: Westminster (2 seats) [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Temple Leader 3,79337.52.5
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,71536.71.0
Conservative George Murray 2,62025.9+3.6
Majority1,09510.84.6
Turnout 6,35041.6+9.5
Registered electors 15,262
Radical hold Swing 2.2
Radical hold Swing 1.4
General election 1 July 1841: Westminster (2 seats) [9] [1]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Henry John Rous 3,33833.8+7.9
Radical John Temple Leader 3,28133.24.3
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,25833.03.7
Majority570.6N/A
Turnout 6,59647.9+6.3
Registered electors 13,767
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +7.9
Radical hold Swing 4.1
By-election, 19 February 1846: Westminster [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,84356.910.7
Conservative Henry John Rous 2,90643.1+10.6
Majority93713.9N/A
Turnout 6,74945.62.3
Registered electors 14,801
Radical gain from Conservative Swing 10.7
General election 30 July 1847: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,13929.138.5
Whig Charles Lushington 2,83126.3N/A
Whig Charles Cochrane2,81926.2N/A
Conservative William Montagu 1,98518.416.1
Turnout 7,18549.3+1.4
Registered electors 14,572
Majority3082.9N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
Majority8467.9N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing N/A
General election 9 July 1852: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Shelley 4,19932.220.3
Radical De Lacy Evans 3,75628.80.3
Conservative William Montagu 3,37325.9+7.5
Radical William Coningham [10] 1,71613.2N/A
Turnout 6,522 (est)43.8 (est)5.5
Registered electors 14,883
Majority4433.44.5
Whig hold Swing 10.0
Majority3832.9
Radical hold Swing 3.9
General election 1857: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical ' De Lacy Evans'Unopposed
Whig ' John Shelley'Unopposed
Registered electors 13,182
Radical hold
Whig hold
General election 1859: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal ' De Lacy Evans'Unopposed
Liberal ' John Shelley'Unopposed
Registered electors 13,801
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
General election 12 July 1865: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Robert Grosvenor 4,53435.2N/A
Liberal John Stuart Mill 4,52535.1N/A
Conservative William Henry Smith 3,82429.7N/A
Majority7015.4N/A
Turnout 8,354 (est)66.6 (est)N/A
Registered electors 12,546
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General election 12 November 1868: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Henry Smith 7,64837.3+7.6
Liberal Robert Grosvenor 6,58432.13.1
Liberal John Stuart Mill 6,28430.64.5
Majority1,0645.2N/A
Turnout 14,082 (est)74.6 (est)+8.0
Registered electors 18,879
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.6
Liberal hold Swing 3.5
General election 7 February 1874: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Henry Smith 9,37135.7+17.0
Conservative Charles Russell 8,68133.1+14.4
Liberal Thomas Buxton 4,74918.114.0
Liberal William Codrington 3,43513.117.5
Majority3,93215.0+9.8
Turnout 13,118 (est)66.1 (est)8.5
Registered electors 19,845
Conservative hold Swing +16.4
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +15.1
By-election, 11 August 1877: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative ' William Henry Smith'Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1880: Westminster (2 seats) [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Henry Smith 9,09329.36.4
Conservative Charles Russell 8,93028.84.3
Liberal John Morley 6,56421.2+3.1
Liberal Arthur Hobhouse 6,44320.8+7.7
Majority2,3667.67.4
Turnout 15,515 (est)73.6 (est)+7.5
Registered electors 21,081
Conservative hold Swing 4.8
Conservative hold Swing 6.0
By-Election 10 February 1882: Westminster [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Algernon Percy Unopposed
Conservative hold
By-Election 29 June 1885: Westminster [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Henry Smith Unopposed
Conservative hold

Election results 1885–1918

Decades:

Elections in the 1880s

Beesly Edward Spencer Beesly National Portrait Gallery.jpeg
Beesly
General election 1885: Westminster [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,99169.7+11.6
Liberal Edward Spencer Beesly 1,73630.311.7
Majority2,25539.4+31.8
Turnout 5,72774.7+1.1 (est)
Registered electors 7,670
Conservative hold Swing +11.7
General election 1886: Westminster [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890s

Jones 1905 Leif Jones (Elliott & Fry).jpg
Jones
General election 1892: Westminster [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,54864.9N/A
Liberal Leif Jones 1,91635.1N/A
Majority1,63229.8N/A
Turnout 5,46468.5N/A
Registered electors 7,971
Conservative hold
General election 1895: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: Westminster [16] [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 2,71586.1N/A
Ind. Conservative H.H. Montague-Smith43913.9N/A
Majority2,27672.2N/A
Turnout 3,15442.8N/A
Registered electors 7,367
Conservative hold
General election 1906: Westminster [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,16760.7-25.4
Liberal Claud Hobart 2,05439.3N/A
Majority1,11321.4-50.8
Turnout 5,22169.3+26.5
Registered electors 7,539
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1910s

General election January 1910: Westminster
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,91769.1+8.4
Liberal Claud Hobart 1,75130.9-8.4
Majority2,16638.2+16.8
Turnout 7,28477.8+8.5
Conservative hold Swing +8.4
General election December 1910: Westminster [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Burdett-Coutts 3,39773.4+4.3
Liberal Harry de Pass1,22826.6-4.3
Majority2,16946.8+8.6
Turnout 7,28463.5-14.3
Conservative hold Swing +4.3

See also

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References

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  10. 1 2 3 4 Baer, Marc (2012). "Stories: Whig, Radical and Tory Westminster 1780–1890". The Rise and Fall of Radical Westminster, 1780–1890 (1st ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 31, 152. ISBN   9781137035295 . Retrieved 6 April 2018 via Google Books.
  11. 1 2 3 Seaber, Luke (2017). Brant, Clare; Saunders, Max (eds.). Incognito Social Investigation in British Literature: Certainties in Degradation (eBook ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p. 3. ISBN   9783319509624 . Retrieved 6 April 2018 via Google Books.
  12. 1 2 3 "John Bull" . 30 July 1837. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 24 October 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.Cite news requires |newspaper= (help)
  13. "County Chronicle, Surrey Herald and Weekly Advertiser for Kent" . 1 August 1837. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 24 October 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.Cite news requires |newspaper= (help)
  14. Betham, William (1803). The Baronetage of England, Or the History of the English Baronets, &c. 3. p. 205. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   9781349022984.
  16. Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  17. Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916

Bibliography