Westmorland

Last updated
Westmorland
FlagOfWestmorland.png
Flag
Westmorland en 1851.svg
Ancient extent of Westmorland
Area
  1831485,990 acres (1,966.7 km2) [1]
  1911505,330 acres (2,045.0 km2) [2]
  1961504,917 acres (2,043.33 km2) [2]
Population
  191163,575 [2]
  196167,180 [2]
History
  Origin Barony of Kendal,
Barony of Westmorland
  Created13th century
  Succeeded by Cumbria
Status Historic county (current) [3] [4] [5]
Ceremonial county (until 1974)
Administrative county (1889-1974)
Chapman code WES
Government Westmorland County Council (1889-1974)
   HQ Appleby (historic county town)
County Hall, Kendal (1889-1974)
Westmorland arms.png
Arms of Westmorland County Council
Subdivisions
  Type Baronies, Wards (ancient)

Westmorland ( /ˈwɛstmərlənd/ ; formerly also spelt Westmoreland; [6] even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is a historic county in north west England. It formed an administrative county between 1889 and 1974, after which the whole county was administered by the new administrative county of Cumbria. In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, Eric Pickles, formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Westmorland. [3] [4] [5]

Contents

Early history

At the time of Domesday Book in 1086, parts of the county were considered either to form part of Yorkshire or to be within the separate Kingdom of Strathclyde. The Normans conquered the area that is now Cumbria in 1092 during the reign of William II and created the baronies of Kendal and Westmorland. These were originally distinct jurisdictions with separate sheriffs, but were formed into a single county of Westmorland in 1226/7. [7] Before 1226 the Barony of Kendal was connected to the Earldom or Honour of Lancaster while that of Westmorland was part of the Earldom of Carlisle.

The historic county boundaries are with Cumberland to the north, County Durham and Yorkshire to the east, and Lancashire to the south and west. Windermere forms part of the western border with Lancashire north of the sands, and Ullswater part of the border with Cumberland.

The highest point of the county is Helvellyn at 3,117 ft (950m). According to the 1831 census the county covered an area of 485,990 acres (1,966.7 km2). [1]

Appleby, the historic county town, formed a historic borough and was not reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, although reform came in 1885. Kendal was reformed as a municipal borough in 1835.

Division into wards

Rather than being divided into hundreds, Westmorland was subdivided into the two baronies of Westmorland (or sometimes Appleby) and Kendal.

The baronies were each further subdivided into two wards:

Modern history

In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, a county council was created for Westmorland, taking functions from the Quarter Sessions. Westmorland had no county boroughs throughout its history, so the administrative county, the area under the control of the county council, was coterminous with the geographic county. The county council was based at Kendal, rather than the historic county town of Appleby.

Aside from the two municipal boroughs of Kendal and Appleby, the Local Government Act 1894 divided the county into urban districts and rural districts:

In 1905 a new Shap urban district was formed, while Windermere absorbed the neighbouring Bowness UD.

A County Review Order in 1935 reduced the number of districts in the county:

Despite their title, many of Westmorland's urban districts, such as Lakes, Grasmere, and Shap, were quite rural in character.

According to the 1971 census, Westmorland was the second least populated administrative county in England, after Rutland. The distribution of population was as follows: [12]

DistrictPopulation
Municipal Borough of Appleby 1,944
Municipal Borough of Kendal 21,602
Lakes Urban District 5,815
Windermere Urban District 8,065
North Westmorland Rural District 14,778
South Westmorland Rural District 20,633

In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the county council was abolished and its former area was combined with Cumberland and parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire to form the new county of Cumbria, administered by a new Cumbria County Council. [13] The area now forms parts of the districts of South Lakeland and Eden.

Coat of arms

Westmorland County Council was granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms in 1926. The design of the shield referred to the two components of the county: on two red bars (from the arms of the de Lancaster family, Barons of Kendal) was placed a gold apple tree (from the seal of the borough of Appleby, for the Barony of Westmorland). The crest above the shield was the head of a ram of the local Herdwick breed. On the ram's forehead was a shearman's hook, a tool used in the handling of wool. The hook was part of the insignia of the borough of Kendal, the administrative centre of the county council. [14]

Legacy

Map of Westmorland, 1824 Gray1824.westmoreland.jpg
Map of Westmorland, 1824

Westmorland is still used as a place name by organisations and businesses in the area such as:

The southern part of the county, the former Barony of Kendal or that part of Westmorland that is part of South Lakeland, is included in the Westmorland and Lonsdale parliamentary constituency.

In June 1994, during the 1990s UK local government reform, the Local Government Commission published draft recommendations suggesting that Westmorland's border with Yorkshire and Lancashire be restored for ceremonial purposes. The final recommendations, published in October 1994, did not include such recommendations, apparently due to lack of expression of support for the proposal to the commission.

In September 2011, the Westmorland Association, a local society which promotes the county's identity, successfully registered the Flag of Westmorland with the Flag Institute.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Cumbria Ceremonial (geographic) county of England, UK

Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county; the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the south-western tip of the county.

Ambleside Human settlement in England

Ambleside is a town in Cumbria, in North West England. Historically in Westmorland, it marks the head of Windermere, England's largest natural lake. In the Lake District National Park, it is south of the highest road pass in the country, Kirkstone Pass and both places are the meeting point of well-marked paths and mountain hiking trails.

Kendal Human settlement in England

Kendal, once Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish in the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. Historically in Westmorland, it lies 8 miles (13 km) south-east of Windermere, 19 miles (31 km) north of Lancaster, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness and 38 miles (61 km) north-west of Skipton, in the dale of the River Kent, from which comes its name. The 2011 census found a population of 28,586. making it the third largest town in Cumbria after Carlisle and Barrow. It is known today mainly as a centre for tourism, the home of Kendal mint cake, and a producer of pipe tobacco and snuff. Its grey limestone buildings have earned it the nickname "Auld Grey Town", in common with Dunfermline, Scotland.

Appleby-in-Westmorland Town in Cumbria, England

Appleby-in-Westmorland, a market town and civil parish in the Eden district of Cumbria, England, had a population was 3,048 at the 2011 Census. Traversed by the River Eden, Appleby is the county town of the historic county of Westmorland. It was known simply as Appleby until 1974, when its council of the successor parish to the borough, changed its name to preserve the name Westmorland, which had been disappeared with the county under the Local Government Act 1972. It lies 13.7 miles south-east of Penrith, 32.2 miles south-east of Carlisle, 27.2 miles north-east of Kendal, 45.2 miles west of Darlington and 61.2 miles west of Middlesbrough.

Kirkby Lonsdale Human settlement in England

Kirkby Lonsdale is a small town and civil parish in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, England, on the River Lune. Historically in Westmorland, it lies 13 miles (21 km) south-east of Kendal on the A65. The parish had a population of 1,771 recorded in the 2001 census, increasing to 1,843 at the 2011 Census. Notable buildings include St Mary's Church, a Norman building with fine carved columns. The view of the River Lune from the churchyard is known as Ruskin's View after John Ruskin, who called it "one of the loveliest views in England". It was painted by J. M. W. Turner.

South Lakeland District in England

South Lakeland is a local government district in Cumbria, England. The population of the non-metropolitan district at the 2011 Census was 103,658. Its council is based in Kendal. It includes much of the Lake District as well as northwestern parts of the Yorkshire Dales.

Civil parishes in Cumbria Wikimedia list article

A civil parish in England is the lowest unit of local government. There are 284 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of Cumbria, with most of the county being parished, and Allerdale, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland being entirely parished. At the 2001 census, there were 359,692 people living in those 284 parishes, accounting for 73.8 per cent of the county's population.

Westmorland and Lonsdale (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983 onwards

Westmorland and Lonsdale is a constituency in the south of Cumbria, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Tim Farron, the former leader of the Liberal Democrats (2015–2017).

Lakes, Cumbria Human settlement in England

Lakes is a large civil parish in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, England, with a population of 5,127 according to the 2001 census, decreasing to 4,420 at the 2011 Census. It covers the small town of Ambleside, and the villages and hamlets of Clappersgate, Rydal, Grasmere, Troutbeck, Chapel Stile, Elterwater, Little Langdale and Waterhead.

Barony of Kendal Historic Barony of Westmorland

The Barony of Kendal is a subdivision of the English historic county of Westmorland. It is one of two ancient baronies that make up the county, the other being the Barony of Westmorland. In 1974, the entire county became part of the modern county of Cumbria and ceased to have an administrative function. At the same time, Kendal borough along with some other rural and urban districts in Westmorland was merged with the neighbouring parts of Lancashire, Furness and Cartmel, and also the Sedbergh Rural District of the West Riding of Yorkshire into the new South Lakeland district of the new county.

The Barony of Westmorland also known as North Westmorland, the Barony of Appleby, Appleshire or the Bottom of Westmorland, was one of two baronies making up the English historical county of Westmorland, the other being the Barony of Kendal. Geographically, the barony covered the northern part of the larger county of the same name, and was divided into two wards – East Ward and West Ward. It covered an area similar to that of the Eden District of the new county of Cumbria, although it did not include Penrith, which is now the administrative capital of the district.

Westmorland in North West England no longer exists as a county, the original core of it having merged into the modern district of Eden within the county of Cumbria.

Hugill Human settlement in England

Hugill is a civil parish in the South Lakeland district of the English county of Cumbria. Hugill includes the village of Ings and the hamlets of Grassgarth, and Reston plus a large part of the village of Staveley and the west bank of the River Kent north of Barley Bridge. It was formerly a part of the Barony of Kendal. The parish has a population of 446, according to the 2011 Census. Approximately 60% of the population live in Staveley or the Kent valley.

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire Bus operator

Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is a major operator of bus services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, and has its origins in the purchase of Cumberland in 1987 and Ribble in 1988 from the National Bus Company. The head office of Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire is in Carlisle. It was previously known as Stagecoach North West until 1 September, when Stagecoach Merseyside joined Preston and Chorley depots to form Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire.

Flag of Westmorland Flag of the Historic County of Westmorland, UK

The Westmorland flag is the flag of the historic county of Westmorland. It was registered with the Flag Institute as the flag of the county in 2011.

The Cumbria Rugby Union is the governing body for the sport of rugby union in the county of Cumbria in England. The union is the constituent body of the Rugby Football Union (RFU) for Cumbria, and administers and organises rugby union clubs and competitions in the county. It also administers the Cumbria rugby representative teams.

The Westmorland and Furness Cup was a rugby union knock-out club competition first organised by the Westmorland and Furness Rugby Football Unions, before the two counties merged with Cumberland to form Cumbria in the 1970s. The original incarnation of the cup was believed to have been formed in the 1890s around the same time as the better known Cumberland Challenge Cup but records of its history are scarce. The modern version of the Westmorland and Furness Cup was first introduced during the 1964–65 season and was won by Windermere.

References

  1. 1 2 1831 Census cited in Vision of Britain - Ancient county data
  2. 1 2 3 4 Vision of Britain - Westmorland population (density and area)
  3. 1 2 "Eric Pickles: celebrate St George and England's traditional counties". Department for Communities and Local Government. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  4. 1 2 Kelner, Simon (23 April 2013). "Eric Pickles's championing of traditional English counties is something we can all get behind". London: The Independent. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  5. 1 2 Garber, Michael (23 April 2013). "Government 'formally acknowledges' the Historic Counties to Celebrate St George's Day". Association of British Counties. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  6. R. Wilkinson The British Isles, Sheet The British Isles. Vision of Britain
  7. 1 2 F.A. Youngs, Guide to the Local Administrative units of England, Vol.II, Northern England, London, 1991
  8. Vision of Britain - History of East ward
  9. Vision of Britain - History of West ward
  10. Vision of Britain Archived 2011-08-14 at the Wayback Machine - History of Kendal ward
  11. Vision of Britain Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine - History of Lonsdale ward
  12. 1971 Census; Small Area Statistics
  13. "Local Government Act 1972". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  14. W.C. Scott-Giles, Civic Heraldry of England and Wales, 2nd edition, London, 1953
  15. "The history of the festival" . Retrieved 22 January 2014.

Coordinates: 54°30′N2°35′W / 54.500°N 2.583°W / 54.500; -2.583