A system of plant taxonomy, the Wettstein system recognised the following main groups, according to Richard Wettstein's Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik (1901–1924).
The Magnoliales are an order of flowering plants.
The order Pinales in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, comprises all the extant conifers. The distinguishing characteristic is the reproductive structure known as a cone produced by all Pinales. All of the extant conifers, such as cedar, celery-pine, cypress, fir, juniper, larch, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew, are included here. Some fossil conifers, however, belong to other distinct orders within the division Pinophyta.
Piperales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. It necessarily includes the family Piperaceae but otherwise has been treated variously over time. Well-known plants which may be included in this order include black pepper, kava, lizard's tail, birthwort, and wild ginger.
Descriptive botanical names are scientific names of groups of plants that are irregular, not being derived systematically from the name of a type genus. They may describe some characteristics of the group in general or may be a name already in existence before regularised scientific nomenclature.
An early system of plant taxonomy developed by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, the de Jussieu System' (1789), is of great importance as a starting point of botanical nomenclature at the rank of family, together with Michel Adanson's Familles naturelles des plantes (1763). While Adanson introduced the concept of families, Jussieu arranged them hierarchically into Divisions, Classes and Orders.
One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler (1844–1930), and is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored. His influence is reflected in the use of the terms "Engler School" and "Engler Era". Engler's starting point was that of Eichler who had been the first to use phylogenetic principles, although Engler himself did not think that his was.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards. It is usually compared to the Cronquist system. It admits paraphyletic groups.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Eichler system was the first phylogenetic (phyletic) or evolutionary system. It was developed by August W. Eichler (1839–1887), initially in his Blüthendiagramme (1875–1878) and then in successive editions of his Syllabus (1876–1890). After his death his colleague Adolf Engler (1844–1930) continued its development, and it became widely accepted.
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.
The De Candolle system is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778−1841).
A system of plant taxonomy, the Bessey system was published by Charles Bessey in 1915.
Lilianae is a botanical name for a superorder of flowering plants. Such a superorder of necessity includes the type family Liliaceae. Terminations at the rank of superorder are not standardized by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), although the suffix -anae has been proposed.
Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (1887–1915) by Adolf Engler (1844–1930) and Karl Anton Prantl is a complete revision of plant families down to generic level and often even further. As such it forms part of the Engler system of plant taxonomy.
Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (1892–) by Adolf Engler (1844–1930) is a complete revision of plant families down to generic level and often even further. As such it forms part of the Engler system of plant taxonomy.
Banksia elderiana, commonly known as the swordfish banksia, is a species of shrub in the plant genus Banksia. It is a tangled, bushy shrub with stiff, serrated leaves and spikes of yellow flowers. It occurs in two disjunct areas in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia. One population extends over a large area from west of Kalgoorlie south to Ravensthorpe, with another population in the Great Victoria Desert north of the Queen Victoria Spring.
Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1824–1873), also known by its standard botanical abbreviation Prodr. (DC.), is a 17-volume treatise on botany initiated by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. De Candolle intended it as a summary of all known seed plants, encompassing taxonomy, ecology, evolution and biogeography. He authored seven volumes between 1824 and 1839, but died in 1841. His son, Alphonse de Candolle, then took up the work, editing a further ten volumes, with contributions from a range of authors. Volume 17 was published in October 1873. The fourth and final part of the index came out in 1874. The Prodromus remained incomplete, dealing only with dicotyledons.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc.
Friedrich Markgraf was a German botanist.
An early system of plant taxonomy, the Lindley system, was first published by John Lindley as An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany. This was a minor modification of that of de Candolle (1813). He developed this further over a number of publications, including the Nixus plantarum (1833) and a second edition of Natural History (1836), in which he introduced the concept of a higher order of taxonomic rank, the Alliances, in which to embedded the Tribes (families). He also expanded his ideas on Exogens in his entry of that name in the Penny Cyclopedia (1838). In 1839 he revised his division of the plant kingdom into classes in an article in the Botanical Register. Lindley's system culminated in the three editions of his Vegetable Kingdom.
The Strobiloideae are an obsolete taxonomic name, a subclass of both Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons proposed by Charles Bessey in 1915 in his taxonomic classification of plants. In this sense by not being unique it breaks the rules of botanical nomenclature as currently used, however Bessey actually used a qualifying hyphenation, a distinction not always recognised in reference to this scheme.