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|White Clay Creek|
Tributary to Christina River
|Counties||Chester, New Castle|
|Source||West Branch White Clay Creek|
|• location||Penn Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania|
|2nd source||Middle Branch White Clay Creek|
|• location||Londonderry Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania|
|• location||London Britain, Chester County, Pennsylvania|
|• elevation||259 ft (79 m)|
|New Castle County, Delaware|
|0 ft (0 m)|
|Length||18.5 mi (29.8 km)|
|Basin size||107 sq mi (280 km2)|
|Progression||Christina River → Delaware River → Delaware Bay → Atlantic Ocean|
|• left||East Branch White Clay Creek, Bogy Run, Middle Run, Pike Creek, Mill Creek, Red Clay Creek|
|Designated||October 24, 2000|
White Clay Creek is an 18.5-mile-long (29.8 km) tributary of the Christina River in southern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. It is renowned for its scenic character and is largely federally protected.
The 107-square-mile (280 km2) White Clay Creek watershed is home to nearly 100,000 people and includes parts of Chester County, Pennsylvania and New Castle County, Delaware. The Pennsylvania portion still retains a rural character while the Delaware portion is more suburbanized. Sediment eroded from the rolling hills of Chester County is carried into the White Clay, probably accounting for the creek's name.
The majority of the stream is in the Piedmont region which is characterized by rolling hills, plateaus, and stream valleys. The southern portion of the stream, near Newark is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a relatively flat area that is dotted with large tidal wetlands. The White Clay Creek empties into the Christina River at Churchman’s Marsh.
The East Branch, 13.5 miles (21.7 km) long, arises near the hamlet of Upland in West Marlborough Township. Flowing southward, it passes through Avondale, where it is joined by Trout Run. From Avondale, the former Pomeroy and Newark Railroad, abandoned in 1939, follows the creek southward. Further south, after the confluence of Egypt Run, the creek begins to turn and meander in a narrow gorge, passing through Landenberg, formerly a mill town and the junction of the Pomeroy & Newark with the Wilmington and Western Railroad. Exiting the gorge into a broader valley, the creek receives Broad Run shortly after entering the White Clay Creek Preserve. It joins the main body of the White Clay Creek in the Preserve, at the lost community of Yeatman.
The Middle Branch, 11.4 miles (18.3 km) long, originates in Londonderry Township. Flowing southward along the western edge of West Grove, it turns east, south again, and then east again to meet Indian Run. Turning south, it cuts sharply through the hills near Chesterville and meets the West Branch to form the main stem.
The West Branch, 8.0 miles (12.9 km) long, rises near Kelton and flows south and east through New London Township, gradually turning to the east where it meets the Middle Branch to form the main stem.
The main stem of White Clay Creek is formed by the junction of the West and Middle branches. From here, it enters a narrow valley and then the White Clay Creek Preserve, meeting the East Branch at Yeatman. It flows south through the White Clay Creek Preserve and enters New Castle County, Delaware and White Clay Creek State Park approximately 12 miles (19 km) west of Wilmington. Trails parallel the creek, some of them using parts of the Pomeroy & Newark roadbed, which follows the creek to the outskirts of Newark. The creek then turns away to the east, receiving Middle Run and Pike Creek. As it approaches the Christina estuary, the valley opens up, and it passes Delaware Park. Mill Creek flows into it, shortly followed by its largest tributary, Red Clay Creek. The conjoined streams turn southwest and then back to the east as they loop around Bread and Cheese Island, formed between the Red Clay, White Clay, and Hershey Run by a backchannel now filled. Just after passing the island, White Clay Creek enters the Christina approximately 5 miles (8 km) southwest of Wilmington at Churchman's Marsh.
The river's historical sites include lime kilns and 19th-century mills. Its lower course includes the most extensive Piedmont forests remaining in Delaware that are home to several key species, including the federally listed endangered bog turtle. In 2000, the United States Congress designated 190 miles (310 km) of White Clay Creek and its tributaries as part of the National Wild and Scenic River program.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 13,539 square miles (35,070 km2) in four U.S. states: Delaware, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles (674 km) into Delaware Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May in New Jersey and Cape Henlopen in Delaware. Not including Delaware Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles (624 km). The Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition.
Newark is a city in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. It is located 12 miles (19 km) west-southwest of Wilmington. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 31,454. Newark is home to the University of Delaware.
The East Coast Greenway is a 3,000-mile (4,800 km) rail trail linking the major cities of the Atlantic coast of the United States, from Calais, Maine, to Key West, Florida. The spine route and branching complementary routes are for non-motorized human transportation for everything from local commutes to long-distance trips.
The Christina River is a tributary of the Delaware River, approximately 35 miles (56 km) long, in northern Delaware in the United States, also flowing through small areas of southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland. Near its mouth the river flows past downtown Wilmington, Delaware, forming the city's harbor for traffic on the Delaware River. The Port of Wilmington, opened in 1923 at the river's mouth, handles international cargo and trade.
Brandywine Creek is a tributary of the Christina River in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. The Lower Brandywine is 20.4 miles (32.8 km) long and is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River with several tributary streams. The East Branch and West Branch of the creek originate within 2 miles (3 km) of each other on the slopes of Welsh Mountain in Honey Brook Township, Pennsylvania, about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of their confluence.
Red Clay Creek is a 12.7-mile-long (20.4 km) tributary of White Clay Creek, running through southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. As of 2000, portions of the creek are under wildlife habitat protection.
Antietam Creek is a 41.7-mile-long (67.1 km) tributary of the Potomac River located in south central Pennsylvania and western Maryland in the United States, a region known as the Hagerstown Valley. The creek became famous as a focal point of the Battle of Antietam during the American Civil War.
Tohickon Creek is a 29.5-mile-long (47.5 km) tributary of the Delaware River. Located entirely in Bucks County, in southeastern Pennsylvania, it rises in Springfield Township and has its confluence with the Delaware at Point Pleasant. It is dammed to form Lake Nockamixon.
Mill Creek Hundred is an unincorporated subdivision of New Castle County, Delaware. Hundreds were once used as a basis for representation in the Delaware General Assembly, and while their names still appear on all real estate transactions, they presently have no meaningful use or purpose except as a geographical point of reference.
White Clay Creek Hundred is an unincorporated subdivision of New Castle County, Delaware. Hundreds were once used as a basis for representation in the Delaware General Assembly, and while their names still appear on all real estate transactions, they presently have no meaningful use or purpose except as a geographical point of reference.
Chester Creek is a 9.4-mile-long (15.1 km) tributary of the Delaware River in Delaware County, Pennsylvania in the United States.
Chillisquaque Creek is a tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River in Montour County and Northumberland County, in Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is approximately 20.2 miles (32.5 km) long and flows through Derry Township, Washingtonville, and Liberty Township in Montour County and East Chillisquaque Township and West Chillisquaque Township in Northumberland County. The watershed of the creek has an area of 112 square miles (290 km2). Agricultural impacts have caused most of the streams in the watershed of the creek to be impaired. Causes of impairment include sedimentation/siltation and habitat alteration. The average annual discharge of the creek between 1980 and 2014 ranged from 48.2 to 146.0 cubic feet per second. Its watershed mainly consists of rolling agricultural land. The creek's channel flows through rock formations consisting of sandstone and shale. It is a warmwater stream.
Octoraro Creek is a 22.1-mile-long (35.6 km) tributary of the Susquehanna River, joining it 9 miles (14 km) above the Susquehanna's mouth at Chesapeake Bay. The Octoraro rises as an East and West Branch in Pennsylvania. The East Branch and Octoraro Creek form the southern half of the border between Lancaster and Chester counties until the creek crosses the Mason-Dixon line. It winds through northwestern Cecil County, Maryland before joining the Susquehanna.
White Clay Creek Preserve is a 1,255-acre (508 ha) Pennsylvania state park along the valley of White Clay Creek in London Britain Township in Chester County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park was donated by the DuPont Company in 1984 for the purpose of "preserving the diverse and unique plant and animal species, and the rich cultural heritage of the area". Dupont also donated an additional 528 acres (214 ha) for the adjoining White Clay Creek State Park to the state of Delaware. White Clay Creek Preserve is 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Newark, Delaware on Pennsylvania Route 896.
White Clay Creek State Park is a Delaware state park along White Clay Creek on 3,647 acres (1,476 ha) in New Castle County, near Newark, Delaware in the United States. North of the park is Pennsylvania's White Clay Creek Preserve, and the two were originally operated as bi-state parks to jointly protect the creek, but now they operate separately. The White Clay Creek is federally protected as part of the National Park Service's National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. White Clay Creek State Park offers 37 miles (60 km) of nature and fitness trails which are open to hiking and mountain biking 365 days a year with access at a number of seasonal day-use fee parking lots. Fee season is in effect March 1 - November 30. Fees are $4 for in-state vehicle or $8 for out of state vehicles. Annual passes can be purchased at any DE State Park Office or online. The park also preserves a number of historic structures and operates a nature center. It is part of the Northeastern coastal forests ecoregion.
Mill Creek is a 9.6-mile-long (15.4 km) stream principally located in northern New Castle County, Delaware, a tributary of the White Clay Creek. It takes its name from the large number of mills located along it during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Broad Run is a 4.3-mile-long (6.9 km) tributary of White Clay Creek located principally in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
Delaware Route 82 (DE 82) is a state highway in the northwest suburbs of Wilmington in New Castle County, Delaware. The route runs 5.49 miles (8.84 km) from DE 52 near Greenville to the Pennsylvania state line near Yorklyn, where the road continues into that state as Pennsylvania Route 82 (PA 82). The route runs through areas of woods and fields in northern New Castle County, with much of the route paralleling the Red Clay Creek. The entire route is a part of the Red Clay Scenic Byway, created in 2005. DE 82 was first numbered by 1952 on its current alignment. In 2010, the Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) proposed eliminating the route number, but the plan fell through due to public opposition.
The Pomeroy and Newark Railroad was a predecessor of the Pennsylvania Railroad in the U.S. states of Delaware and Pennsylvania. It connected Pomeroy, Pennsylvania to Newark, Delaware, and has mostly been abandoned.