Cathedral of Wiener Neustadt
|• Mayor||Klaus Schneeberger (ÖVP)|
|• Total||60.94 km2 (23.53 sq mi)|
|Elevation||265 m (869 ft)|
|• Density||740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Wiener Neustadt (German pronunciation: [ˈviːnɐ ˈnɔʏ̯ʃtat] ( listen )) is a city located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, in northeast Austria. It is a self-governed city and the seat of the district administration of Wiener Neustadt-Land District. The city is the site of one of the world's oldest military academies, the Theresian Military Academy, which was established by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752 to train officers for the Austrian army.
The area once belonged to the County of Pitten, which had been inherited by Margrave Ottokar III of Styria in 1158. After the dynasty of the Otakars became extinct with the death of his son Ottokar IV, the Duchy of Styria passed to the Austrian House of Babenberg according to the Georgenberg Pact. Duke Leopold V of Austria established the town in 1194and financed the construction of a fortress close to the Hungarian border with the ransom paid for the English king Richard the Lionheart, whom he had previously captured and held as a hostage at Dürnstein Castle. In 1241, a small Mongol squadron raided Neustadt during the Mongol incursions in the Holy Roman Empire but was later repulsed by Duke Friederich and his knights. In 1246 it was the scene of a victory of the Hungarians over the Austrians.
Wiener Neustadt, meaning more or less New Vienna ("Viennese Newtown"), gained important privileges given to the city in order to enable it to prosper. It remained a part of Styria, which after the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld fell to the House of Habsburg and in 1379 became a constituent duchy of Inner Austria. In the 15th century, Wiener Neustadt experienced a population boom, when Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg took up a residence here and established the Diocese of Wiener Neustadt in 1469. His wife, Eleanor of Portugal, died in Wiener Neustadt in 1467, and the late Gothic church of the old Cistercian abbey contains a monument to her memory.The Wappenwand (coat-of-arms wall) at the local castle displays the coats of arms of his possessions in the middle. His son Maximilian I maintained his court in Wiener Neustadt and is buried here at St. George's Cathedral. The town then also had a significant Jewish commune with Rabbi Israel Isserlin as its most notable member, until all Jews were expelled by order of Emperor Maximilian I in 1496.
Habsburg's long-time rival King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary conquered the city in August 1487 after having laid siege to it for two years. According to legend he dedicated the magnificent Corvinus Cup to the inhabitants after his victory. Maximilian I managed to reconquer his native city in 1490. During the 16th century, Wiener Neustadt lost its status as imperial residence and much of its importance. However, it still fulfilled its function as bulwark against the Turks and the Kuruc.
It was at Neustadt that the emperor Rudolf II granted to the Bohemian Protestants, in 1609, the Majestätsbrief, or patent of equal rights. The revocation of this patent helped to precipitate the Thirty Years' War.
In 1751 the city received greater attention when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria decided to dedicate the First Military Academy, worldwide, inside the imperial castle. In 1752, the Theresian Military Academy took up its operations, which have continued to this day with only a few interruptions (Erwin Rommel was appointed commandant after the Austrian Anschluss in 1938). In 1768, Wiener Neustadt was destroyed by an earthquake that damaged the castle, which was rebuilt using plans made by the architect Nicolò Pacassi.In 1785, Emperor Joseph II of Habsburg transferred the see of the Wiener Neustadt diocese to Sankt Pölten.
In the 19th century the city, which was almost entirely rebuilt after a destructive fire in 1834,became an industrial town, especially after the opening of the Austrian Southern Railway in 1841. In 1909, the "first official Austrian airfield" was inaugurated north of the city. It served as a training ground for the flight pioneers Igo Etrich, Karl Illner and Adolf Warchalowski, who conducted their tests there.
The Austro-Hungarian strike of January 1918 was started in Wiener Neustadt by workers from the Austro-Daimler factory, which was engaged in arms production, and inspired by the Bolshevik seizure of power to take strike action to oppose the war. A key factor in the strike was the halving of the flour ration. Porsche met the workers and agreed to drive to Vienna to speak to the Minister of Food. However his plea to the workers to return to work was ignored and they marched on the Town Hall. Here they were joined by other workers from the locomotive factory, the radiator works, the aircraft factory and local ammunition plants of G. Rath and the Lichtenwörther. On 14 January over 10,000 workers gathered outside the town hall to complain about the halving of the flour ration. Inspired by the Russian Revolution the workers set up Workers Councils.
During World War II, strategic targets in Wiener Neustadt, including the marshalling yards, the Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF) factory,and two Raxwerke plants which used forced laborers imprisoned at Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, were repeatedly bombed. Bombing operations such as Operation Pointblank left only 18 of 4,000 buildings undamaged.
The average monthly temperatures are generally cool (see table below), with summer months reaching 21–26 °C (70–79 °F) and winter months reaching a few degrees above freezing in the daytime.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Wiener Neustadt (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−24.9|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.5|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||15.0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5.6||5.4||7.2||7.7||9.4||10.5||8.8||8.6||7.4||5.7||6.9||6.7||89.9|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00)||70.8||63.9||55.7||50.4||52.3||53.0||49.6||50.3||55.1||60.1||69.8||72.9||58.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||64.0||92.8||133.7||170.8||218.9||214.6||240.8||225.8||166.4||125.1||68.9||51.9||1,773.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||26.1||35.8||40.0||45.7||51.5||50.8||56.5||56.2||49.2||41.7||27.8||22.3||42.0|
|Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics|
Wiener Neustadt Hauptbahnhof (German : main station) connects Wiener Neustadt with other major population centers. It is owned and operated by the Austrian Federal Railway. Wiener Neustadt is also served by Autobahn.[ citation needed ]
The city has two airfields (the military Wiener Neustadt West Airport, the first airfield in Austria, and the civilian Wiener Neustadt East Airport) and is the starting point of Austria's only shipping canal, the Wiener Neustadt Canal, which was meant to reach out to Trieste but was never finished.[ citation needed ]
Elections in January 2020:
Total: 40 seats
Austria's first and largest Fachhochschule for business and engineering, the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, is located here.
The most recent extension of the city is the Civitas Nova, Latin for new city, an ambitious project for an industrial, research and commercial center. In 2015, on the area of the Civitas Nova, a cancer treatment center for ion therapy was opened under the name of MedAustron.
In 1996 Wiener Neustadt received international attention as the so-called "sidewalk" designed by Japanese artist Tadashi Kawamata was built around the main square.Wiener Neustadt is the setting for the book Reluctant Return: A Survivor's Journey to an Austrian town.
SC Wiener Neustadt played in the Austrian Football First League.
In 1995 Wiener Neustadt was the host of 1995 Speedway Grand Prix of Austria. It was the first, and so far, only Austrian SGP.
The European horseback jumping championships of 2015 for children, juniors and young riders was set up at Lake Arena, outside of Wiener Neustadt.
Wiener Neustadt played host to the sixth round of the 2018 Red Bull Air Race World Championship.
The city is home to a baseball and softball team called the "Diving Ducks", which have had success both within the country and internationally. They provide teams for various age groups, starting from the youngest team to the softball team "Crazy Chicklets", the adult team "Rubber Ducks" as well as their professional team the "Diving Ducks".
Frederick III was Holy Roman emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the fourth king and first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the pope, and the last to be crowned in Rome.
The House of Habsburg or Hapsburg, also known as the House of Austria, was one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium.
Maximilian I was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. He was instead proclaimed emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a Papal coronation for the adoption of the Imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 until his father's death in 1493.
Frederick II, known as Frederick the Quarrelsome, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 until his death. He was the fifth and last Austrian duke from the House of Babenberg, since the former margraviate was elevated to a duchy by the 1156 Privilegium Minus. He was killed in the Battle of the Leitha River, leaving no male heirs.
"A.E.I.O.U." was a symbolic device coined by Frederick III (1415–1493) and historically used as a motto by the Habsburgs. One note in his notebook, though not in the same hand, explains it in German and Latin as "All the world is subject to Austria". Frederick habitually signed buildings such as Burg Wiener Neustadt or Graz Cathedral as well as his tableware and other objects with the vowel graphemes. As of 2017, A.E.I.O.U. is the motto of the Theresian Military Academy, established in 1751. It can also be found on the wall of the Chancellor's office in the Federal Chancellery.
Melchior Klesl was an Austrian statesman and cardinal of the Roman Catholic church during the time of the Counter-Reformation. Klesl was appointed Bishop of Vienna in 1598 and elevated to cardinal in 1616.
Kunigunde of Austria, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duchess of Bavaria from 1487 to 1508, by her marriage to the Wittelsbach duke Albert IV.
The Theresian Military Academy is a military academy in Austria, where the Austrian Armed Forces train their officers. Founded in 1751, the academy is located in the castle of Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria.
Perchtoldsdorf is a market town in the Mödling District, in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. It is known chiefly for its winemaking.
Austria and Prussia were the most powerful principalities in the Holy Roman Empire by the 18th and 19th centuries and had engaged in a struggle for supremacy in Central Europe. Known in German as Deutscher Dualismus, the rivalry was characterized by major territorial conflicts, economic, cultural and political contention for sovereign leadership among the German-speaking peoples, an issue known as the German question in the 19th century.
Wiener Neustadt, a city in Austria, was the target of bombing raids during World War II by the Allies.
Burg Wiener Neustadt is a castle in Wiener Neustadt, Lower Austria, Austria. Burg Wiener Neustadt is 268 metres (879 ft) above sea level.
The Military Ordinariate of Austria is a military ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Stubenberg is a noble family from Austria documented since about 1160, with its ancestral seat at Stubenberg, Styria. The dynasty held important posts in the Habsburg Monarchy and had hereditary membership in the Hungarian House of Magnates. They are in the line of succession to the British throne.
The Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt was a treaty between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire. It was preceded by the Truce of Radkersburg and followed by the Peace of Pressburg. It deals with succession issues and ascertains the territory mortgages in Moson, Sopron and Vas counties.
The siege of Wiener Neustad, part of the Austrian-Hungarian War, was an assault from January 1486 to August 1487 on the Austrian town of Wiener Neustadt. Launched by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, the 18-month siege ended with the town's surrender and allowed Hungary to take control the of the surrounding Styria and the Lower Austria regions. It was the last of a series of sieges, and followed Hungary's victory in the 1485 Siege of Vienna. The broader war ended less than a year later with an armistice in 1488.
St. George's Cathedral in Wiener Neustadt is the cathedral of the Military Ordinariate of Austria and a minor basilica. It is located inside the castle, Burg Wiener Neustadt.
The Order of Saint George is an Austrian chivalric order founded by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III and Pope Paul II in 1469. Established as a military order to advocate the Christian faith, its original implicite goal was to combat the Ottoman incursions into the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola. The order resided at Millstatt Abbey and in Wiener Neustadt, until in 1598 its properties were handed over to the Jesuit college in Graz.
Udo Landbauer is an Austrian politician from the FPÖ. From 2011 to 2018 he was head of the FPÖ Youth Ring, from 2010 to 2018 Landbauer was a municipal politician in Wiener Neustadt and from 2013 to 2018 he was a member of the Landtag of Lower Austria. He was the leading candidate of the FPÖ in the 2018 Lower Austrian state election. As a result of the affair surrounding the Germania zu Wiener Neustadt fraternity, he resigned from all political functions on 1 February 2018 and suspended his FPÖ party membership. On the 20. September he officially returned as member of the Freedom Party of Austria into the Landtag of Lower Austria. On the same day he was elected as the head of the FPÖ of Lower Austria.
The Imperial and Royal Technical Military Academy was a military training facility founded in 1717 for certain officer groups of the Habsburg Monarchy. The location of the academy changed several times in the course of its existence: originally located in Vienna, it was located in Klosterbruck near Znaim from 1851 to 1869, in the Stiftskaserne in Vienna from 1869 to 1904 and finally in Mödling from 1904 to 1918. The Higher Technical Education Institute Mödling emerged from the academy in 1919.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wiener Neustadt .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Wiener Neustadt .|