Wilhelm Xylander

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Wilhelm Xylander
Guilehelmus Xylander 1669.jpg
Engraving from Bibliotheca chalcographica
Born 26 December 1532
Died 10 February 1576(1576-02-10) (aged 43)
Nationality German
Other names Guilielmus Xylander, Wilhelm Holtzmann
Occupation Arts Professor
Known for First translation of Meditations by Marcus Aurelius into Latin

Wilhelm Xylander (born Wilhelm Holtzman, graecized to Xylander; 26 December 1532 10 February 1576) was a German classical scholar and humanist. He served as rector of Heidelberg University in 1564. [1]

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it. The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. It views humans as solely responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world.

Heidelberg University public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities. It was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire.



Born at Augsburg, he studied at Tübingen, and in 1558, when very short of money (caused, according to some, by his intemperate habits), he was appointed to succeed Jakob Micyllus in the professorship of Greek at the University of Heidelberg; he exchanged it for a chair of logic (publicus organi Aristotelici interpres) in 1562. [2]

Augsburg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area.

University of Tübingen public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Jacob Micyllus German humanist

Jacob Micyllus, was a German Renaissance humanist and teacher, who conducted the city's Latin school in Frankfurt and held a chair at the University of Heidelberg, during times of great cultural stress in Germany.

In Heidelberg church and university politics, Xylander was a close partisan of Thomas Erastus. [3]

Thomas Erastus was a Swiss physician and theologian. He wrote 100 theses in which he argued that the sins committed by Christians should be punished by the State, and that the Church should not withhold Sacraments as a form of punishment. They were published in 1589, after his death, with the title Explicatio gravissimae quaestionis. His name was later applied to Erastianism.

Xylander was the author of a number of important works, including Latin translations of Dio Cassius (1558), Plutarch (1560–1570) and Strabo (1571). He also edited (1568) the geographical lexicon of Stephanus of Byzantium; the travels of Pausanias (completed after his death by Friedrich Sylburg, 1583); the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius (1558), the editio princeps based on a Heidelberg manuscript now lost; a second edition in 1568 with the addition of Antoninus Liberalis, Phlegon of Tralles, an unknown Apollonius, and Antigonus of Carystus—all paradoxographers); and the chronicle of George Cedrenus (1566). He translated the first six books of Euclid into German with notes, the Arithmetica of Diophantus, [4] and the De quattuor mathematicis scientiis of Michael Psellus into Latin. [2]

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Plutarch Ancient Greek historian and philosopher

Plutarch, later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.

Strabo Greek geographer, philosopher and historian

Strabo was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.


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Marcus Aurelius Roman Emperor and philosopher

Marcus Aurelius, called the Philosopher, was a Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher. He had Lucius Verus (161–169) and Commodus (177–180) as junior emperors. Marcus was the last of the rulers traditionally known as the Five Good Emperors. He is also seen as the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Empire. His personal philosophical writings, now commonly known as Meditations, are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, and monarchs – as well as by poets and politicians – centuries after his death.

Classical Latin High-prestige style, register and form of the Latin Language of the Roman Republic and Empire

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  1. Drüll, Dagmar (2002). Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon 1386-1651. Berlin: Springer. pp. 562–3. ISBN   3540435301.
  2. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Xylander, Guilielmus". Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 889.
  3. Gunnoe, Charles (2011). Thomas Erastus and the Palatinate: A Renaissance Physician in the Second Reformation. Leiden: Brill. p. 201. ISBN   9789004187924.
  4. Weil, André (2006). Number Theory: An approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 31.
Fritz Schöll German classical philologist

Friedrich (Fritz) Schöll was a German classical philologist, known for his editions of Plautus, Varro and Cicero. He was the son of archaeologist Gustav Adolf Schöll (1805–1882) and the brother of philologist Rudolf Schöll (1844–1893).

<i>Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie</i> biographical reference work

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.