Willem Drees

Last updated

Willem Drees
Willem Drees 1958.jpg
Willem Drees in 1958
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
In office
7 August 1948 22 December 1958
Monarch Wilhelmina (1948)
Juliana (1948–1958)
Deputy
Preceded by Louis Beel
Succeeded by Louis Beel
Minister of Finance
In office
1 July 1952 2 September 1952
Ad interim
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded by Piet Lieftinck
Succeeded by Jo van de Kieft
Minister of Colonial Affairs
In office
15 March 1951 30 March 1951
Ad interim
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded by Johan van Maarseveen
Succeeded by Leonard Peters
Leader of the Labour Party
In office
9 February 1946 22 December 1958
Deputy
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Jaap Burger
Deputy Prime Minister
In office
25 June 1945 7 August 1948
Prime Minister Willem Schermerhorn
(1945–1946)
Louis Beel (1948)
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Josef van Schaik
Minister of Social Affairs
In office
25 June 1945 7 August 1948
Prime Minister Willem Schermerhorn
(1945–1946)
Louis Beel (1948)
Preceded by Dolf Joekes
Succeeded by Frans Wijffels
Leader of the Social
Democratic Workers' Party
In office
14 May 1940 9 February 1946
Preceded by Willem Albarda
Succeeded byOffice discontinued
Parliamentary leader in the
House of Representatives
In office
5 September 1939 25 September 1945
Preceded by Willem Albarda
Succeeded by Marinus van der
Goes van Naters
Parliamentary group Social Democratic
Workers' Party
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
3 July 1956 3 October 1956
In office
15 July 1952 2 September 1952
In office
27 July 1948 10 August 1948
In office
4 June 1946 4 July 1946
In office
9 May 1933 25 June 1945
Parliamentary group Labour Party (1946–1956)
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
(1933–1945)
Personal details
Born
Willem Drees

(1886-07-05)5 July 1886
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Died14 May 1988(1988-05-14) (aged 101)
The Hague, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Political party Labour Party (1946–1971)
Other political
affiliations
Independent Social
Democrat
(from 1971)
Social Democratic
Workers' Party
(1904–1946)
Spouse(s)
Catharina Hent
(m. 1910;her death 1974)
ChildrenAdriana Drees (1914–1920)
Annie Drees (1911–2002)
Jan Drees (1919–2002)
Willem Drees Jr. (1922–1998)
Relatives Willem B. Drees (grand-son)
Jacques Wallage (grand son-in-law)
Alma mater Amsterdam University
of Applied Sciences

(Bachelor of Accountancy)
Occupation Politician · Civil servant · Accountant · Stenographer · Historian · Author
Signature Signature Willem Drees.png

Willem Drees Sr. ( Loudspeaker.svg Dutch pronunciation  ; 5 July 1886 – 14 May 1988) was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA) and historian who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 7 August 1948 to 22 December 1958. [1]

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands, also commonly known as Holland, is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

Contents

Drees worked as an accountant and bank teller for the Twentsche Bank from 1904 until 1906 and as a stenographer for the States General of the Netherlands from 1907 until 1919. Drees became a member of the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) in 1904 and was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1933, he served in the House of Representatives from 9 May 1933 until 25 June 1945. Drees was selected as Parliamentary leader of the Social Democratic Workers' Party in the House of Representatives on 5 September 1939 following the appointed of Willem Albarda as Minister of Water Management in the Cabinet De Geer II. After Willem Albarda and the rest of the cabinet fled to London following the German invasion, Drees succeeded him as Leader of the Social Democratic Workers' Party on 14 May 1940. In October 1940 Drees was taken hostage in Buchenwald concentration camp for resisting orders given by German occupiers but was freed one year later.

Shorthand abbreviated symbolic writing method

Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein. It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys, depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal.

States General of the Netherlands Legislature of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Both chambers meet at the Binnenhof in The Hague.

Social Democratic Workers Party (Netherlands) former political party in the Netherlands

The Social Democratic Workers' Party was a Dutch socialist political party and a predecessor of the social democratic Labour Party.

Following the end of World War II, Queen Wilhelmina ordered the formation of a Cabinet of National unity to serve as a caretaker government to reorganize the state and make preparations for the election of 1946, Drees was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Social Affairs, the Cabinet Schermerhorn–Drees took office on 25 June 1945. On 9 February 1946 the Labour Party was formed with Drees selected as the first Leader of the Labour Party. For the election of 1946 Drees served as one of the Lijsttrekkers (top candidates). The Labour Party made small win, gaining 6 seats and became the second largest party and now had 29 seats in the House of Representatives. Following a formation period a coalition agreement with the Catholic People's Party (KVP) was made which resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Beel I with Drees continuing as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Social Affairs, taking office on 3 July 1946. For the election of 1948 Drees served again as one of the Lijsttrekkers. The Labour Party sufferd a small lose, losing 2 seats but retained its place as the second largest party and now had 27 seats in the House of Representatives. The following cabinet formation resulted in a continuing coalition agreement with the Catholic People's Party which formed the Cabinet Drees–Van Schaik, with Drees becoming Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs on 7 August 1948.

Netherlands in World War II involvement of the Netherlands in World War II

Despite being neutral, the Netherlands in World War II was invaded by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940, under orders of Adolf Hitler. On 15 May 1940, one day after the bombing of Rotterdam, the Dutch forces surrendered. The Dutch government and the royal family saved themselves by going to London. Princess Juliana and her children moved on to Canada for additional safety.

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Queen of the Netherlands 1898 - 1948

Wilhelmina was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.

A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.

For the elections of 1952 Drees served as the only Lijsttrekker. The Labour Party made small win, gaining 3 seats and became for the first time largest party and now had 30 seats in the House of Representatives. Following a formation period a coalition agreement with the Catholic People's Party (KVP), Christian Historical Union (CHU) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) was made which resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Drees I, with Drees continuing as Prime Minister and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 15 March 1951. The Cabinet Drees I fell one year into its term on 25 June 1952 and a new coalition agreement was made with the Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) replacing the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Cabinet Drees II took office on 2 September 1952. For the elections of 1956 Drees served for a fourth and final time as Lijsttrekker. The Labour Party won the election, gaining 20 seats and remained the largest party and now had 50 seats in the House of Representatives. The following cabinet formation resulted in a continuing coalition agreement with the Catholic People's Party, Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union to form a Cabinet Drees III with Drees continuing as Prime Minister and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 13 October 1956. The Cabinet Drees III fell on 11 December 1958 and shortly after that Drees announced his retirement from national politics and that he would not stand for the election of 1959. He remained as Prime Minister until the Cabinet Beel II was installed on 22 December 1958 with Drees granted the honorary title of Minister of State on his last day in office.

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 25 June 1952. The Catholic People's Party and the Labour Party both won 30 of the 100 seats in the House of Representatives. It was the first time since 1913 that the Catholic People's Party and its predecessors had not received a plurality of the vote.

Christian Historical Union political party

The Christian Historical Union was a Protestant Christian democratic political party in the Netherlands. The CHU is one of the predecessors of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), into which it merged in September 1980.

Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy Dutch political party

The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.

Drees most notably led the country through the North Sea flood of 1953 and was the second oldest person who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands after Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, who died in office at the age of seventy-four. He remained a very active observer of Dutch politics, publishing a substantial number of books and articles until the age of ninety-seven. [2] Willem Drees was the longest-lived Dutch Prime Minister, dying at the age of 101 years, 314 days, [3] on 14 May 1988 in The Hague. He is praised by many as the most important Dutch politician after World War II for his important contributions and social reforms laws and seen as the father of the modern welfare state in the Netherlands. [4] [5] Drees was chosen as the best Prime Minister of the Netherlands after World War II after an opinion polling conducted by the VPRO in 2006. [6]

North Sea flood of 1953 Late January-early February 1953 North sea flood storm

The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland.

Prime Minister of the Netherlands chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands

The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his capacity as chair of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is de facto the head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates its policy with his cabinet. The current Dutch Prime Minister is Mark Rutte, in office since 2010.

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke Dutch politician

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch statesman of a liberal bent, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century. In 1848, he virtually single-handedly drafted the revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands, giving less power to the king and more to the States General, and guaranteeing more religious, personal and political freedom to the people.

Education and private career

Willem Drees was born in Amsterdam on 5 July 1886. After completing his secondary education in 1903 at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, he worked until 1906 for the Twentsche Bank in Amsterdam. This was followed by a period as a stenographer with the Municipal Council of Amsterdam and then between 1907 and 1919 with the States General of the Netherlands.

Amsterdam Capital city of the Netherlands and municipality

Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of approximately 8.1 million.

Hogeschool van Amsterdam higher education institution

The Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences (HvA), or Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, is a large institute for higher professional education in the Netherlands. The HvA mainly offers bachelor's degree programmes, but also has a number of (professional) master's degree programmes. For students from the HvA's international partner institutes it is possible to study at the HvA as an exchange student.

Court reporter profession

A court reporter or court stenographer, also called stenotype operator, shorthand reporter, or law reporter, is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, using shorthand, machine shorthand or voice writing equipment to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings. Court reporting companies primarily serve private law firms, local, state and federal government agencies, courts, trade associations, meeting planners and nonprofits.

Political involvement

Early career

Prime Minister of Belgium Paul-Henri Spaak and Prime Minister Willem Drees at a Benelux conference in The Hague on 10 March 1949. Benelux-conferentie in Den Haag van 10 tm 12 maart 1949. De Belgische minister-, Bestanddeelnr 121-0392.jpg
Prime Minister of Belgium Paul-Henri Spaak and Prime Minister Willem Drees at a Benelux conference in The Hague on 10 March 1949.
Newly appointed Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Willem Drees at the Ministry of Defence on 11 January 1951. Generaal Eisenhower bij Dr. Drees en Minister s Jacob, Bestanddeelnr 904-3916.jpg
Newly appointed Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Willem Drees at the Ministry of Defence on 11 January 1951.
Prime Minister of Greece Alexandros Papagos, Prime Minister Willem Drees and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece Stefanos Stefanopoulos at the Ministry of General Affairs on 2 February 1954. Maarschalk Alexandros Papagos (links), premier van Griekenland, ontvangen door m, Bestanddeelnr 091-0891.jpg
Prime Minister of Greece Alexandros Papagos, Prime Minister Willem Drees and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece Stefanos Stefanopoulos at the Ministry of General Affairs on 2 February 1954.
Willem Drees in his house in The Hague on 2 July 1981. Willem Drees sr (1981).jpg
Willem Drees in his house in The Hague on 2 July 1981.

In 1904 he joined the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which later was absorbed into the Labour Party in 1946. From 1910 to 1931 he was chairman of The Hague branch of the Social Democratic Workers' Party and between 1913 and 1941 a member of the municipal council of The Hague. During that period he was alderman for social affairs from 1919 to 1931 and for finance and public works through to 1933. [2]

For 22 years between 1919 and 1941 Drees also held a seat on the Provincial Council of South Holland and for 19 years between 1927 and 1946 one on the Social Democratic Workers' Party executive. Between 1933 and 1940 he represented the Social Democratic Workers' Party in the House of Representatives and from 1939 as leader in the House of Representatives

During the German occupation he was taken hostage in Buchenwald concentration camp in October 1940. Freed one year later, he played a prominent role, as vice chairman and acting chairman of the illegal Executive Committee of the SDAP, and as a prominent participant in secret interparty consultations. In 1944 he became chairman of the Contact Commissie van de Illegaliteit and a member of the College van Vertrouwensmannen which the government in exile charged with the preparation of steps to be taken at the time of liberation.

Thereafter, from 24 June 1945 to 7 August 1948 Drees was Minister of Social Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister in the Cabinet Schermerhorn/Drees.

Prime Minister of the Netherlands

From 7 August 1948 to 22 December 1958 he was Prime Minister of the Netherlands in four successive cabinets: First Drees cabinet, Second Drees cabinet, Third Drees cabinet and Fourth Drees cabinet.

Drees's period in office saw at least four major political developments: the traumas of decolonisation, economic reconstruction, the establishment of the Dutch welfare state, [7] [8] and international integration and co-operation, including the formation of Benelux, the OEEC, NATO, the ECSC, and the EEC. When his Cabinet broke up in December 1958, he was appointed to the honorary position of Minister of State, the Labour Party appointed him a member of its Executive Council for life in 1959. Due to impaired hearing he stopped attending its meetings in 1966. He strongly disagreed with New Left tendencies in the membership and strategies of the Labour Party. He eventually gave up membership of a party he had served for close to 67 years.

Drees was an Esperantist and addressed the 1954 World Congress of Esperanto, which was held in Haarlem. [9]

A wide range of social reforms were carried out during's Drees's tenure as Prime Minister. The Occupational Pensions Funds Act of March 1949 made membership of industry-wide pension funds compulsory, while the General Old Age Pensions Act of May 1956 introduced universal flat-rate old age pensions for all residents as a right and with no retirement condition at the age of 65. The Retired Persons' Family Allowances Act of November 1950 established a special allowance for pensioned public servants with children, a law of November 1950 extended compulsory health insurance to cover other groups, such as old-age and invalidity pensioners, and a law of December 1956 introduced health insurance with special low contributions for old-aged pensioners below a certain income ceiling. A law of August 1950 established equal rights for illegitimate children, and introduced an allowance for disabled children between the ages of 16 and 20. The Temporary Family Allowances Act for the Self-employed of June 1951 entitled self-employed persons with low incomes to family allowance for the first and second child, and a law of February 1952 introduced an allowance for studying and for disabled children until the age of 27. [10] In 1950, works councils were established, [11] and in 1957 the dismissal of female civil servants upon marriage was abolished. [12]

In the field of housing, the Implementation for Rent Act (1950) fixed rents and rent increases, while the Regional and Town Planning Act (1950) regulated the planning of house building. In addition, the Reconstruction Act of 1950 established housebuilding programmes, [13] and legislation was passed on house building standards (1951), the uniformity of buildings (1954), and uniform building standards (1956). [14] In education, measures were carried out such as increased expenditure on the system, a reduction in registration fees at State universities and at the institute of technology, [13] and the granting (in January 1956) of a special benefit to primary school teachers and to certain categories of vocational teachers, "particularly those who risk being unemployed and who cannot lay claim to a retaining fee." [15] Other initiatives included secondary schools for girls and special primary education in 1949, teacher training colleges in 1952, [16] the extension of compulsory education to 8 years in 1950, [17] and the Nursery Education Act of 1955, which introduced the option of kindergarten for children from the age of four upwards, while also establishing regulations for nursery-school teachers. [10] A department of social welfare was also established (1952), while laws were passed on unemployment benefits (1952) and a widows' and orphans' pension (1956). [14]

Personal life

On 28 July 1910, Drees married Catharina Hent (6 May 1888 – 30 January 1974) [18] [19] and had two sons and two daughters, Both his sons Jan Drees and Willem Drees Jr. were active members of the Labour Party, but left the party around 1970 to join the Democratic Socialists '70. The cause was a row with younger party members who wanted to plot a more radical left-wing course for the party. Drees himself left the Labour Party in 1971 leaving them without their icon, but he never joined the Democratic Socialists '70.

Drees was a Teetotaler. Willem Drees died on 14 May 1988 in The Hague, two months before his 102nd birthday. [20] From 22 August 1986, when former Turkish President Celâl Bayar died until his own death, Drees was the world's oldest living former head of state.

In 2004 he ended in third place in the election of The Greatest Dutchman. [21] [22]

Further reading

Four Volume Biography Willem Drees 1886-1988, in Dutch:

Decorations

Honours
Ribbon barHonourCountryDateComment
Medal of Freedom stripe gullpalme.svg Medal of Freedom with Gold Palm United States 7 April 1953
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George United Kingdom
Order of the Holy Trinity (Ethiopia) - ribbon bar.gif Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Trinity Ethiopia 1954
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands22 December 1958
Honorific Titles
Ribbon barHonourCountryDateComment
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Minister of State Netherlands22 December 1958 Style of Excellency

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The First Drees cabinet, also called the Second Drees cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 15 March 1951 until 2 September 1952. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Catholic People's Party (KVP), Labour Party (PvdA), Christian Historical Union (CHU) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) after the after the resignation of the Drees–Van Schaik cabinet on 24 January 1951. The grand coalition (Roman/Red) cabinet was a majority cabinet in the House of Representatives.

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The Third Drees cabinet, also called the Fourth Drees cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 13 October 1956 until 22 December 1958. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Labour Party (PvdA), Catholic People's Party (KVP), Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) after the election of 1956. The grand coalition (Roman/Red) cabinet was a majority cabinet in the House of Representatives.

Second Drees cabinet

The Second Drees cabinet, also called the Third Drees cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 2 September 1952 until 13 October 1956. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Labour Party (PvdA), Catholic People's Party (KVP), Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) after the election of 1952. The grand coalition (Roman/Red) cabinet was a majority cabinet in the House of Representatives.

References

  1. "The Encyclopedia Americana". Grolier. 18 November 1992 via Google Books.
  2. 1 2 (in Dutch) Biography Willem Drees BWSA
  3. Mcwhirter, Norris; McFarlan, Donald (18 November 1989). "the Guinness Book of Records 1990". Guinness Publishing Ltd via Google Books.
  4. (in Dutch) Geschiedenis VPRO Geschiedenis 24.
  5. (in Dutch) Willem Drees beste crisismanager Geencommentaar.nl.
  6. (in Dutch) Willem Drees gekozen tot ‘Dé premier na WO II’ Geschiedenis 24.
  7. Orlow, D. (2000). Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945-1969. Berghahn Books. p. 120. ISBN   9781571812254 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  8. Lentz, H.M. (2014). Heads of States and Governments Since 1945. Taylor & Francis. p. 578. ISBN   9781134264902 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  9. UEA: Reta Muzeo. Materialoj el Biblioteko Hector Hodler. 1947-1974 World Esperanto Association .
  10. 1 2 Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Volume 2 edited by Peter Flora.
  11. Wilkinson, A.; Donaghey, J.; Dundon, T.; Freeman, R.B. (2014). Handbook of Research on Employee Voice: Elgar original reference. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 68. ISBN   9780857939272 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  12. http://nidi.knaw.nl/shared/content/output/2002/ssm-54-05-fokkema.pdf
  13. 1 2 Moore, B.; van Nierop, H. (2006). Twentieth-Century Mass Society in Britain and the Netherlands. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 60. ISBN   9781845205256 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  14. 1 2 van Heffen, O.; Kickert, W.J.M.; Thomassen, J. (2013). Governance in Modern Society: Effects, Change and Formation of Government Institutions. Springer Netherlands. ISBN   9789401594868 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  15. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001329/132929eo.pdf
  16. Wolthuis, J. (1999). Lower Technical Education in the Netherlands 1798-1993: The Rise and Fall of a Subsystem. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 202. ISBN   9789053508619 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  17. Hindman, H.D. (2009). The World of Child Labor: An Historical and Regional Survey. M.E. Sharpe. p. 635. ISBN   9780765626479 . Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  18. "Graftombe.nl - Informatie over Catharina Hent". www.graftombe.nl.
  19. "SeniorPlaza - Willem Drees". seniorplaza.nl.
  20. "Willem Drees Dies at 101; Postwar Dutch Leader". The New York Times. 19 May 1988.
  21. (in Dutch) 'Pim Fortuyn toch niet de Grootste Nederlander' NU.nl
  22. (in Dutch) Zoektocht naar ‘Grootste Nederlander’ begint Geschiedenis24

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Willem Drees at Wikimedia Commons

Official
Party political offices
Preceded by
Willem Albarda
Parliamentary leader of the
Social Democratic Workers' Party
in the House of Representatives

1939–1945
Succeeded by
Marinus van der
Goes van Naters
Leader of the Social
Democratic Workers' Party

1940–1946
Party merged into
the Labour Party
New political party Leader of the Labour Party
1946–1958
Succeeded by
Jaap Burger
Preceded by
Various
Lijsttrekker of the Labour Party
1952, 1956
Succeeded by
Various
Political offices
Preceded by
Dolf Joekes
Minister of Social Affairs
1945–1948
Succeeded by
Frans Wijffels
New office Deputy Prime Minister
1945–1948
Succeeded by
Josef van Schaik
Preceded by
Louis Beel
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
1948–1958
Succeeded by
Louis Beel
Minister of General Affairs
1948–1958
Preceded by
Johan van Maarseveen
Minister of Colonial Affairs
Ad interim

1951
Succeeded by
Leonard Peters
Preceded by
Piet Lieftinck
Minister of Finance
Ad interim

1952
Succeeded by
Jo van de Kieft