William A. Wellman

Last updated

William A. Wellman
William Wellman.jpg
Wellman filming The High and the Mighty (1954)
William Augustus Wellman

(1896-02-29)February 29, 1896
DiedDecember 9, 1975(1975-12-09) (aged 79)
Years active19191958
(m. 1921;div. 1923)
Margery Chapin
(m. 1925;div. 1926)
Marjorie Crawford
(m. 1931;div. 1933)
(m. 1934)
Military career
AllegianceFlag of France.svg  France
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Years of service1917–1918 (FR)
1918–1919 (U.S.)
Rank Army-FRA-OR-05.svg Maréchal des logis
Unit Escadrille Spa.87

William Augustus Wellman (February 29, 1896 December 9, 1975) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter, actor and military pilot. He was known for his work in crime, adventure, and action genre films, often focusing on aviation themes, a particular passion. He also directed several well-regarded satirical comedies. His 1927 film, Wings , was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Picture at the 1st Academy Awards ceremony. [1]


Beginning his film career as an actor, he went on to direct over 80 films, at times co-credited as producer and consultant, from the silent era through the Golden Age of Hollywood. He was nominated for four Academy Awards: three Best Director Oscars for the original A Star Is Born (1937), Battleground (1949), and The High and the Mighty (1954) and one in Best Original Story for A Star is Born, which he won. In 1973, he received the Directors Guild of America's Lifetime Achievement Award. He was previously a decorated combat pilot during World War I, serving in the Lafayette Flying Corps of the French Air Force, and earning a Croix de Guerre with two palms for valorous action. [2]

Early life

Wellman was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Arthur Gouverneur Wellman, was a Boston Brahmin. William was a great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Puritan Thomas Wellman, who emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony circa 1640. [3] He was also a great-great-great-grandson of Welsh-born Francis Lewis of New York, one of the signatories to the Declaration of Independence. Wellman's mother, Cecilia McCarthy, was an Irish immigrant.

During his teenage years, Wellman often found himself in trouble with authorities. He was expelled from Newton High School in Newtonville, Massachusetts for dropping a stink bomb on the principal's head. [4] [5] He was also arrested and placed on probation for car theft. [6] His mother, who actually worked as a probation officer, was asked to address Congress on the subject of juvenile delinquency. [7] Later, young William worked as a salesman, as a general laborer in a lumber yard, and as a player on a minor-league hockey team. [6]

World War I

Wellman and Celia, his Nieuport 24 fighter, c. 1917 (one of several aircraft named for his mother) Wellman and Nieuport.jpg
Wellman and Celia, his Nieuport 24 fighter, c. 1917 (one of several aircraft named for his mother)
Wellman in a captured German Rumpler (image from his 1918 account Go Get Em!...) William Wellman in a German Rumpler.jpg
Wellman in a captured German Rumpler (image from his 1918 account Go Get Em!...)

In World War I, Wellman enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps to serve as a driver in Europe. [8] While in Paris, Wellman joined the French Foreign Legion and was assigned on December 3, 1917, as a fighter pilot, becoming the first American to join Escadrille N.87 in the Lafayette Flying Corps (not the sub-unit Lafayette Escadrille as usually stated), [9] [10] where he earned himself the nickname "Wild Bill", and was awarded the Croix de Guerre with two palms. [2] N.87, les Chats Noir (Black Cat Group) was stationed at Lunéville in the Alsace-Lorraine sector and was equipped with Nieuport 17 and later Nieuport 24 "pursuit" aircraft. Wellman's combat experience culminated in three recorded "kills", along with five probables, although he was ultimately shot down by German anti-aircraft fire on March 21, 1918. [11] Wellman survived the crash but he walked with a pronounced limp for the rest of his life. [8]

Wellman's air-combat credits include the following in 1918: [12] [13]

Maréchal des logis (Sergeant) Wellman received a medical discharge from the Foreign Legion and returned to the United States a few weeks later. He spoke at War Savings Stamp rallies in his French uniform. In September 1918 his book about French flight school and his eventful four months at the front, Go Get 'Em! (written by Wellman with the help of Eliot Harlow Robinson), was published. He joined the United States Army Air Service, but was too late to fly for America in the war. Stationed at Rockwell Field in San Diego, he taught combat tactics to new pilots.

Film career

While in San Diego, Wellman flew to Hollywood for the weekends in his Spad fighter, using Douglas Fairbanks' polo field in Bel Air as a landing strip. [8] Fairbanks was fascinated with the true-life adventures of "Wild Bill" [8] and promised to recommend him for a job in the movie business; he was responsible for Wellman being cast in the juvenile lead of The Knickerbocker Buckaroo (1919). [5] Wellman was hired for the role of a young officer in Evangeline (1919), but he was fired for slapping Miriam Cooper, the film's star and also the wife of the production's director, Raoul Walsh. [7]

Wellman as a flight instructor at Rockwell Field, 1919 William Wellman flight instructor.jpg
Wellman as a flight instructor at Rockwell Field, 1919

Wellman hated being an actor, thinking it an "unmanly" profession, [14] and was miserable watching himself on screen while learning the craft. [15] He soon switched to working behind the camera, aiming to be a director, and progressed up the line as "a messenger boy, as an assistant cutter, an assistant property man, a property man, an assistant director, second unit director and eventually... director." [5] His first assignment as an assistant director for Bernie Durning provided him with a work ethic that he adopted for future film work. One strict rule that Durning enforced was no fraternization with screen femme fatales, which almost immediately Wellman broke, leading to a confrontation and a thrashing from the director. Despite his transgression, both men became lifelong friends, and Wellman steadily progressed to more difficult first unit assignments. [8]

Wellman made his uncredited directorial debut in 1920 at Fox with Twins of Suffering Creek. The first films he was credited with directing were The Man Who Won and Second Hand Love , released on the same day in 1923. After directing a dozen low-budget 'horse opera' films, [5] Wellman was hired by Paramount in 1927 to direct Wings , a major war drama dealing with fighter pilots during World War I that was highlighted by air combat and flight sequences. The film culminates with the epic Battle of Saint-Mihiel. In the 1st Academy Awards it was one of two films to win Best Picture (the other was Sunrise), although, due to tensions within the studio regarding time and budget overages, Wellman wasn't invited to the event. [15]

Wellman's other films include The Public Enemy (1931), the first version of A Star Is Born (1937), Nothing Sacred (1937), Beau Geste (1939) starring Gary Cooper, Thunder Birds (1942), The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), Lady of Burlesque (1943), The Story of G.I. Joe (1945), The Iron Curtain (1948), Battleground (1949) and three films starring and produced by John Wayne; Island in the Sky (1953), The High and the Mighty (1954), and Blood Alley (1955). [16]

While he was primarily a director, Wellman also produced 10 films, one of them uncredited, all of which he also directed. His last film was Lafayette Escadrille (1958), which he produced, directed, wrote the story for and narrated. He wrote the screenplay for two other films that he directed, and one film that he did not direct: 1936's The Last Gangster . Wellman wrote the story for A Star Is Born and (with Robert Carson) received the Academy Award for Best Story. Wellman is credited for the story in the remakes released in 1954, 1976, and 2018. Wellman's work was influenced by his good friend and fellow film director Howard Hawks, with whom he rode motorcycles together in a group called the Moraga Spit and Polish Club. [17]

Wellman reportedly worked fast, usually satisfied with a shot after one or two takes. [15] Despite his reputation for not coddling his leading men and women, he coaxed Oscar-nominated performances from seven actors: Fredric March and Janet Gaynor (A Star Is Born), Brian Donlevy (Beau Geste), Robert Mitchum (The Story of G.I. Joe), James Whitmore (Battleground), and Jan Sterling and Claire Trevor (The High and Mighty). Regarding actors, Wellman in a 1952 interview stated, "Movie stardom isn't about acting ability, it's personality and temperament". He then added, "I once directed Clara Bow. She was mad and crazy but what a personality!" [18]


Wings led to several firsts in filmmaking including newly invented camera mounts that could be secured to plane fuselages and motor-driven cameras to shoot actors while flying as the cameramen ducked out of frame in their cockpits. Star Richard Arlen had some flying experience but co-star Buddy Rogers had to learn to fly for the film, as stunt pilots could not be used during close-up shots. Towers up to 100 feet (30 m) were used to shoot low-flying planes and battle action on the ground. [15]

During the filming of Beggars of Life (1928), a silent film starring Wallace Beery, Richard Arlen and Louise Brooks, sound was added to Beery's introductory scene at the behest of Paramount Studio. Wellman reportedly hung a microphone from a broom so Beery could walk and talk within the scene, avoiding the static shot required for early sound shoots. [15] During the filming of Chinatown Nights (1929), he sat under the camera on a dolly with the mic between his legs, essentially inventing a shotgun mic. [19]


Wellman won a single Academy Award, for the story of A Star Is Born. He was nominated as best director three times: for A Star Is Born, Battleground and The High and Mighty, for which he was also nominated by the Directors Guild of America as best director. In 1973, the DGA honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award. Copies of both Wings and The Story of G.I. Joe are preserved in the Academy Film Archive. [20] Wellman also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. [21]

Personal life and death

Wellman revealed near the end of his life that he had married a French woman named Renee during his time in The Lafayette Flying Corps. She was killed in a bombing raid during the war. [15] Later, between 1918 and 1934, he married four additional times in the United States:

Dorothy starred in Wellman's 1933 film Wild Boys of The Road and had seven children with him, including actors Michael Wellman, William Wellman Jr., Maggie Wellman, and Cissy Wellman. [1] His daughter Kathleen "Kitty" Wellman married actor James Franciscus, although they later divorced. His first daughter is Patty Wellman, and he had a third son, Tim Wellman.

William Wellman died of leukemia in 1975 at his Brentwood home in Los Angeles. [6] He was cremated, and his ashes were scattered at sea. His widow Dorothy, at age 95, died on September 16, 2009, in Brentwood, California. [1]

Career assessments

Decades after Wellman's death, William Jr. wrote two biographies about his father, The Man and His Wings: William A. Wellman and the Making of the First Best Picture (2006) and Wild Bill Wellman—Hollywood Rebel (2015). Fellow filmmakers have also examined Wellman's career. Richard Schickel in 1973 devoted an episode of his PBS series The Men Who Made the Movies to Wellman, [27] and in 1996, Todd Robinson made the feature-length documentary Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick. [28]


Silent films
1923 The Man Who Won YesNoNoFive reels; lost
Second Hand Love YesNoNoFive reels; lost
Big Dan YesNoNoSix reels
Cupid's Fireman YesNoNoSix reels; lost
1924 Not a Drum Was Heard YesNoNoFive reels; lost
The Vagabond Trail YesNoNoFive reels; lost
The Circus Cowboy YesNoNoFive reels; lost
1925 When Husbands Flirt YesNoNoSix reels
1926 The Boob YesNoNoSix reels
You Never Know Women YesNoNoSix reels
The Cat's Pajamas YesNoNoSix reels; lost
1927 Wings YesNoNo
1928 The Legion of the Condemned YesNoNo Lost
Ladies of the Mob YesNoYes Lost
Sound films
1928 Beggars of Life YesNoNo
1929 Chinatown Nights YesNoNo
The Man I Love YesNoNo
Woman Trap YesNoNo
1930 Dangerous Paradise YesNoNo
Young Eagles YesNoNo
Maybe It's Love YesNoNo
1931 Other Men's Women YesNoNo
The Public Enemy YesNoNo
Night Nurse YesNoNo
The Star Witness YesNoNo
Safe in Hell YesNoNo
1932 The Hatchet Man YesNoNo
So Big! YesNoNo
Love Is a Racket YesNoNo
The Purchase Price YesNoNo
The Conquerors YesNoNo
Frisco Jenny YesNoNo
1933 Central Airport YesNoNo
Lilly Turner YesNoNo
Heroes for Sale YesNoNo
Midnight Mary YesNoNo
Wild Boys of the Road YesNoNo
College Coach YesNoNo
Female UncreditedNoNoDirected some scenes
1934 Looking for Trouble YesNoNo
Viva Villa! UncreditedNoNoDirected some scenes
Stingaree YesNoNo
The President Vanishes YesNoNo
1935 Call of the Wild YesNoNo
1936 Robin Hood of El Dorado YesYesNo
Small Town Girl YesNoNo
Tarzan Escapes UncreditedNoNoDirected some scenes
1937 A Star Is Born YesStoryNo
The Last Gangster NoStoryNo
Nothing Sacred YesUncreditedNoScript revisions
1938 Men with Wings YesNoYes
1939 Beau Geste YesNoYes
The Light That Failed YesNoYes
1941 Reaching for the Sun YesNoYes
1942 The Great Man's Lady YesNoYes
Roxie Hart YesNoNo
Thunder Birds YesNoNo
1943 Lady of Burlesque YesNoNo
The Ox-Bow Incident YesNoNo
1944 Buffalo Bill YesNoNo
1945 This Man's Navy YesNoNo
The Story of G.I. Joe YesNoNo
1946 Gallant Journey YesYesYes
1947 Magic Town YesNoYes
1948 The Iron Curtain YesNoNo
Yellow Sky YesNoNo
1949 Battleground YesNoNo
1950 The Next Voice You Hear... YesNoNo
The Happy Years YesNoNo
1951 Three Guys Named Mike NoUncreditedNoScript revisions
Across the Wide Missouri YesNoNo
It's a Big Country PartialNoNoSegment: "Minister in Washington"
Westward the Women YesNoNo
1952 My Man and I YesNoNo
1953 Island in the Sky YesNoNoAlso narrator (uncredited)
1954 The High and the Mighty YesNoNo
Ring of Fear UncreditedNoNoDirected some scenes
Track of the Cat YesNoNo
1955 Blood Alley YesNoNo
1956 Good-bye, My Lady YesNoNo
1958 Darby's Rangers YesNoNo
Lafayette Escadrille YesStoryYes

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ray Milland</span> Welsh-American actor and film director (1907–1986)

Ray Milland was a Welsh-American actor and film director. He is often remembered for his portrayal of an alcoholic writer in Billy Wilder's The Lost Weekend (1945), which won him Best Actor at Cannes, a Golden Globe Award, and ultimately an Academy Award—the first such accolades for any Welsh actor.

<i>Wings</i> (1927 film) 1927 film

Wings is a 1927 American silent and synchronized sound film known for winning the first Academy Award for Best Picture. Due to the general public's apathy towards silent films, the film was quickly re-released in 1928 with synchronized sound. While the sound version of the film has no audible dialogue, it was released with a synchronized musical score with sound effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Holden</span> American actor (1918–1981)

William Franklin Holden was an American actor and one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s. Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film Stalag 17 (1953) and the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited or Anthology Series or Movie for the television miniseries The Blue Knight (1973).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lafayette Escadrille</span> U.S. volunteer unit constituted in 1916 under French command

The La Fayette Escadrille was the name of the French Air Force unit escadrille N 124 during the First World War (1914–1918). This escadrille of the Aéronautique Militaire was composed largely of American volunteer pilots flying fighters. It was named in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolutionary War. In September 1917, the escadrille was transferred to the US Army under the designation 103rd Aero Squadron. In 1921, The French Air Force recreated a N124 unit who claimed lineage from the war-time La Fayette escadrille and is now part of the escadron 2/4 La Fayette.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boom operator (media)</span> Profession for microphone pole placement

A boom operator is a core role in the sound department of a film production, who works with the production sound mixer and utility sound technician. The principal responsibility of the boom operator is microphone placement, usually using a boom pole with a microphone attached to the end, their aim being to hold the microphone as close to the actors or action as possible without allowing the microphone or boom pole to enter the camera's frame.

<i>The High and the Mighty</i> (film) 1954 film

The High and the Mighty is a 1954 American aviation disaster film, directed by William A. Wellman, and written by Ernest K. Gann, who also wrote the 1953 novel on which his screenplay was based. Filmed in WarnerColor and CinemaScope, the film's cast was headlined by John Wayne, who was also the project's co-producer.

<i>Island in the Sky</i> (1953 film) 1953 film by William A. Wellman

Island in the Sky is a 1953 American aviation adventure drama film written by Ernest K. Gann based on his 1944 novel of the same name, directed by William A. Wellman and starring and coproduced by John Wayne. Because of its realistic depiction of an actual aircraft crash, some consider the film as among the classic aviation films. The film also features Andy Devine, Lloyd Nolan, James Arness and Paul Fix.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lafayette Flying Corps</span>

The Lafayette Flying Corps is a name given to the American volunteer pilots who flew in the French Air Force during World War I. It includes the pilots who flew with the bona fide Lafayette Escadrille squadron.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beirne Lay Jr.</span> American novelist

Beirne Lay Jr. was an American writer, aviation writer, Hollywood screenwriter, and combat veteran of World War II with the U.S. Army Air Forces. He is best known for his collaboration with Sy Bartlett in authoring the novel Twelve O'Clock High and adapting it into a major film.

<i>Flyboys</i> (film) 2006 film by Tony Bill

Flyboys is a 2006 war drama film starring James Franco, Martin Henderson, Jean Reno, Jennifer Decker, David Ellison, Abdul Salis, Philip Winchester, and Tyler Labine. It was directed by Tony Bill, a pilot and aviation enthusiast, and written by Phil Sears, Blake T. Evans, and David S. Ward, with the story by Evans. Set during World War I, the film follows the enlistment, training, and combat experiences of a group of young Americans who volunteered to become fighter pilots in the Lafayette Escadrille, the 124th air squadron formed by the French in 1916. The film deals with themes of friendship, racial prejudice, revenge, and love.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Don Taylor (American filmmaker)</span> American actor and director (1920–98)

Donald Ritchie Taylor was an American actor and film director. He co-starred in 1940s and 1950s classics, including the 1948 film noir The Naked City, Battleground, Father of the Bride, Father's Little Dividend and Stalag 17. He later turned to directing films such as Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971), Tom Sawyer (1973), Echoes of a Summer (1976), and Damien: Omen II (1978).

Darby's Rangers is a 1958 American war film starring James Garner as William Orlando Darby, who organizes and leads the first units of United States Army Rangers during World War II. Directed by William Wellman, the picture was shot by Warner Brothers Studios in black and white, to match wartime stock footage included in the production. It was inspired by the 1945 book Darby's Rangers: An Illustrated Portrayal of the Original Rangers, by Major James J. Altieri, himself a veteran of Darby's force.

<i>The Legion of the Condemned</i> 1928 film

The Legion of the Condemned is a 1928 American silent film directed by William A. Wellman and produced by Jesse L. Lasky, Wellman, and Adolph Zukor and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Written by former World War I flight instructor John Monk Saunders and Jean de Limur, with intertitles by George Marion, Jr., the film stars Fay Wray and Gary Cooper.

<i>Lafayette Escadrille</i> (film) 1958 film by William A. Wellman

Lafayette Escadrille, also known as C'est la Guerre, Hell Bent for Glory (UK) and With You in My Arms, is a 1958 American war film produced by Warner Bros. It stars Tab Hunter and Etchika Choureau and features David Janssen and Will Hutchins, as well as Clint Eastwood, in an early supporting role. It was the final film in the career of director William A. Wellman and is based on his original story.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edwin Charles Parsons</span> United States Navy admiral

Edwin Charles Parsons was a Rear Admiral of the United States Navy, and former French Foreign Legionnaire, flying ace, Hollywood aviation technical advisor, FBI Special Agent, and author.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard Durning</span> American silent film actor

Bernard Joseph Durning was an American silent film director and actor who worked primarily with Lon Chaney, Dustin Farnum, and Buck Jones.

<i>Men with Wings</i> 1938 film by William A. Wellman

Men with Wings is a 1938 American Technicolor war film, directed by William A. Wellman and starring Fred MacMurray, Ray Milland, and Louise Campbell. Donald O'Connor also has a small part as the younger version of MacMurray's character. The two would soon star in the film Sing You Sinners together along with Bing Crosby.

<i>Young Eagles</i> (film) 1930 film

Young Eagles is a 1930 American pre-Code romantic drama film directed by William A. Wellman for Paramount Pictures. It stars Charles "Buddy" Rogers, Jean Arthur, and Paul Lukas. The story is based on the stories "The One Who Was Clever" and "Sky-High", written by American aviator and war hero Elliott White Springs. The film's hero is a "heroic combat aviator of the Lafayette Escadrille".

David Wade Guy (1897-1960) was an American military aviator. Guy flew biplanes for both France's Aeronautique Militaire and the U.S. Army Air Service during World War I. He served in the Lafayette Flying Corps, a group of 180 American pilots who flew for France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Wellman Jr.</span> American actor (born 1937)

William Wellman Jr. is an American former actor. In a career spanning 65 years, he appeared in about 77 films and television series.


  1. 1 2 3 "Dorothy Wellman dies at 95." Variety , September 17, 2009. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  2. 1 2 Curtiss, Thomas Quinn. "The Film Career of William Wellman." International Herald Tribune (iht.com), February 9, 1994. Retrieved: December 5, 2007.
  3. Wellman, Joshua Wyman Descendants of Thomas Wellman (1918) Arthur Holbrook Wellman, Boston pp. 69-72&441-442
  4. FilmReference.com William Wellman
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Wild Bill: William A. Wellman," Archived 2008-06-09 at the Wayback Machine Focus on Film #29. Retrieved: December 5, 2007.
  6. 1 2 3 Krebs, Albion (1975). "William A. Wellman Dies; Directed Movie Classics", The New York Times, December 11, 1975, p. 48. ProQuest Historical Newspapers (Ann Arbor, Michigan); subscription access through The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.
  7. 1 2 Hopwood, Jon C. William A. Wellman. IMDB biography. Retrieved: July 19, 2008.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Silke, James R. "Fists, Dames & Wings." Air Progress Aviation Review, Volume 4, No. 4. October, 1980. pp. 57-58.
  9. "Lafayette Flying Corps." Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine angelfire.com. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  10. "The Foundation." Lafayette Flying Corps Memorial Foundation, 2002. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  11. Color profile of Corporal Wellman's Nieuport 24 "Celia V"
  12. New York Tribune May 3, 1918
  13. Go, Get 'em!: The True Adventures of an American Aviator of the Lafayette Flying Corps 1918
  14. TCM "William A. Wellman Biography." TCM Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wellman, William, Jr. (2015). Wild Bill Wellman - Hollywood Rebel, pp. 71, 191, 230, 357. Pantheon Books, New York. ISBN   978-0307377708.
  16. "William A. Wellman", filmography, American Film Institute (AFI), Los Angeles, California. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  17. "Interview with Maggie Wellman". Vintoz. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  18. Johnson, Erskine. (April 27, 1952) The Lowell Sunday Sun, Lowell, MA.
  19. Eyman, Scott. The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution 1926-1930. Simon and Schuster, New York: 1997.
  20. "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
  21. All Movie Awards, IMDB Awards
  22. "Gloria Wellman". Biographical Summaries of Notable People. MyHeritage Ltd. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  23. File:Marjorie Crawford, aviator in 1929.png
  24. "A LIST OF WOMEN PILOTS" (PDF). Women and Aviation. 44. Curtiss-Wright Corporation. August 3, 1930. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  25. Wilson, Victoria (2013). A life of Barbara Stanwyck (Simon & Schuster ed.). New York. ISBN   978-0-684-83168-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  26. "Dorothy Coonan Wellman: Actress and dancer who became a Sam Goldwyn 'Golden Girl'." The Independent, October 16, 2009. Retrieved: October 16, 2009.
  27. IMDB "The Men Who Made the Movies: William A. Wellman
  28. IMDB "Wild Bill: Hollywood Maverick" imdb.com. Retrieved: September 20, 2009.
  29. Frank T. Thompson, William A. Wellman (Filmmakers series, no. 4). Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1983, p. 272
  30. "John Wayne DVD Menu Gallery".