|Chair of the Homeland Security Advisory Council|
August 18, 2020
|President|| Donald Trump |
|Preceded by||William H. Webster|
|Vice Chair of the Homeland Security Advisory Council|
February 8,2011 –August 18,2020
|President|| Barack Obama |
|Preceded by||Gary Hart|
|Succeeded by||Karen Tandy|
|38th and 42nd Police Commissioner of New York City|
January 1,2014 –September 16,2016
|Mayor||Bill de Blasio|
|Preceded by||Ray Kelly|
|Succeeded by||James P. O'Neill|
January 1,1994 –April 15,1996
|Preceded by||Ray Kelly|
|Succeeded by||Howard Safir|
|Chief of Police of Los Angeles|
October 27,2002 –October 31,2009
|Appointed by||Jim Hahn|
|Preceded by||Martin Pomeroy (Interim)|
|Succeeded by||Michael Downing (Interim)|
|Commissioner of the Boston Police Department|
June 30,1993 –January 1,1994
|Appointed by||Ray Flynn|
|Preceded by||Mickey Roache|
|Succeeded by||Paul Evans|
William Joseph Bratton
|Spouse(s)||Mary Bratton (divorced) |
Linda Bratton (divorced)
Cheryl Fiandaca (1988–1998,divorced)
Rikki Klieman (1999–present)
|Education||University of Massachusetts,Boston (BS)|
|Awards||Commander of the Order of the British Empire|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1965–1970|
|Unit||Military Police Corps|
|Service years|| Boston PD (1970–1983,1992–1994)|
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police (1983–1986)
Boston Metropolitan District Commission Police (1986–1990)
NYC Transit PD (1990–1992)
|Rank|| Commissioner of the NYPD |
January 1,2014 –September 2016
Chief of the Los Angeles P.D.
October 27,2002 –October 31,2009
Commissioner of the NYPD
January 1,1994 –April 15,1996
Commissioner of the Boston Police Department
June 30,1993 –January 1,1994
Superintendent-in-Chief,Boston Police Department
Chief of the New York City Transit Police
Superintendent of the Metropolitan District Commission Police
Chief of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police
Superintendent,Inspector of Bureaus
Patrol officer,Boston Police Department
William Joseph Bratton CBE (born October 6,1947) is an American law enforcement officer and businessman who served two terms as the New York City Police Commissioner (1994–1996 and 2014–2016). He previously served as the Commissioner of the Boston Police Department (BPD) (1993–1994) and Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) (2002–2009). He is the only person to have led the police departments of the United States' two largest cities –New York and Los Angeles.
Bratton began his police career at the Boston Police Department before becoming Police Commissioner in New York City,where his quality-of-life policy has been credited with reducing petty and violent crime. He was recruited to lead the Los Angeles Police Department in 2002. It was a period when the LAPD was struggling to rebuild trust after the 1991 videotaped beating of Rodney King,the 1992 Los Angeles riots,the pervasive Division corruption involved in the late 1990's Rampart scandal,and the individual perjury by former LAPD detective Mark Fuhrman in 1995 that helped produce an acquittal in the O. J. Simpson murder case. He presided over an era of reform and crime reduction.In January 2014,Bratton returned to the post of Police Commissioner in New York City, and served until September 2016.
Bratton has served as an advisor on policing in several roles,including advising the British governmentand is currently the chairman of the Homeland Security Advisory Council for the U.S. government.
Bratton's policing style is influenced by the broken windows theory,a criminological theory of the norm-setting and signalling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on additional crime and anti-social behavior.[ citation needed ] He advocates having an ethnically diverse police force representative of the population, being tough on gangs and having a strict no-tolerance of anti-social behavior.
Bratton is from the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston,Massachusetts. He attended Boston Technical High School,graduating in 1965. From there,he served in the Military Police Corps of the United States Army during the Vietnam War.
Bratton returned to Boston in 1970 to start a police career in the Boston Police Department,and was sworn in as an officer in October 1970. He was promoted to sergeant in July 1975 and to lieutenant in March 1978. While serving as a Boston Police Officer,Bratton earned a Bachelor of Science in Public Service/Public Administration in 1975 from Boston State College (later absorbed by the University of Massachusetts-Boston).
In October 1980,at the age of 32 and ten years after his appointment to the BPD,Bratton was named as the youngest-ever Executive Superintendent of the Boston Police,the department's second highest post. He was dismissed as executive superintendent after he told a journalist that his goal was to be the Police Commissioner. He was reassigned to the position of Inspector of Bureaus,a sinecure which was responsible for liaison with minority and LGBTQ communities. He was later brought back into police headquarters to handle labor relations and 9-1-1 related issues.
Between 1983 and 1986 Bratton was Chief of Police for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,following which he became Superintendent of the Massachusetts Metropolitan District Commission Police. Bratton was Superintendent in Chief of the Boston Police Department from 1992 until 1993,then he became that city's 34th Police Commissioner. He holds the Department's highest award for valor.
Bratton became the chief of the New York City Transit Police in 1990.In 1994,Bratton was appointed the 38th Commissioner of the New York City Police Department (NYPD) by Mayor Rudy Giuliani. He cooperated with Giuliani in putting the controversial broken windows theory into practice. He introduced the CompStat system of tracking crimes in New York City. Critics have argued that CompStat has created perverse incentives for officers to allow crimes to go unreported, and has encouraged police brutality,citing that complaints by citizens that involved incidents where no arrest was made or summons was issued more than doubled during the Giuliani administration.
Bratton resigned in 1996,while under investigation by the Corporation Counsel for the propriety of a book deal that he signed while in office as well as accepting multiple unauthorized trips from corporations and individuals. These offenses were generally considered minor.Front and center were alleged personal conflicts with Giuliani,partly due to Giuliani's opposition to some of Bratton's reforms and partly due to Giuliani's belief that Bratton was getting more credit for the reduction in crime than Giuliani.
The experiences of Bratton and New York Deputy Police Commissioner Jack Maple were used as the inspiration of the television series The District .[ citation needed ]
Bratton worked as a private consultant with Kroll Associates,also known as LAPD's Independent Monitor,until his appointment by the Mayor of Los Angeles James Hahn as the LAPD's 54th Chief of Police in October 2002. Bratton was one of three candidates recommended to Hahn by the Los Angeles Police Commission under Commission President Rick J. Caruso.
On June 19,2007,the Los Angeles Police Commission reappointed Bratton to a second five-year term,the first reappointment of an LAPD chief in almost twenty years.
Bratton has been criticized for his extensive travel;in 2005,he was out of town for a full third of the year on both official and personal business.
In March 2009,Councilman Herb Wesson proposed an amendmentto the City Charter,allowing Bratton to serve a third consecutive term as Police Chief.
On September 11,2009,he was awarded with the honorary title of Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II "in recognition of his work to promote cooperation between US and UK police throughout his distinguished career".
On August 12,2011,Bratton said he was in talks with the British government to become an adviser on controlling the violence that had affected London the prior week. He said he received a phone call from U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron,and that he would continue speaking with British officials to formalize an agreement.Bratton was approached by British Prime Minister David Cameron to become the new Metropolitan Police Commissioner in July 2011,but Theresa May and the Home Office said that the commissioner was required to be a British citizen. Bratton instead was offered an advisor role to the British government,which he accepted in August 2011.
On December 27,2012,he was hired as a consultant for the city of Oakland,California.
On December 5,2013,New York City mayor-elect Bill de Blasio named Bratton as New York City's new Police Commissioner to replace Raymond Kelly. The New York Times reported that at Bratton's swearing in on January 2,2014,the new Police Commissioner praised his predecessor Raymond Kelly,but also signaled his intention to strike a more conciliatory tone with ordinary New Yorkers who had become disillusioned with policing in the city:"We will all work hard to identify why is it that so many in this city do not feel good about this department that has done so much to make them safe –what has it been about our activities that have made so many alienated?"He stepped down in 2016.
Bratton co-founded and served as CEO of Bratton Technologies,[ when? ] which operates BlueLine,a law enforcement communications network modeled after LinkedIn.
In 2009,after stepping down from his post in Los Angeles,Bratton moved back to New York City to take a position with private security firm Altegrity Risk International.
On September 16,2010,Bratton became the chairman of Altegrity,a corporate risk consulting firm that declared bankruptcy after defrauding the US Government of millions of dollars. On November 9,2012,he stepped down as chairman and was retained as a Senior Adviser.[ citation needed ]
In 2010,Bratton was sworn in as a new member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council.
On November 5,2012,Bratton joined Crest Advisory,a UK-based law enforcement consulting firm.
In May 2018,Bratton was appointed to the Board of Directorsof Mission Ready Solutions Inc.,a company specialized in providing comprehensive government contracting solutions.
Bratton is a key proponent of "broken windows" policing. Some media sources have described his policy as "zero tolerance" policing,but Bratton denies this.Bratton has called "zero tolerance" a "troublesome" term. Bratton and George L. Kelling wrote a joint essay in which they outlined a difference between the two:
Critics use the term "zero tolerance" in a pejorative sense to suggest that Broken Windows policing is a form of zealotry—the imposition of rigid, moralistic standards of behavior on diverse populations. It is not. Broken Windows is a highly discretionary police activity that requires careful training, guidelines, and supervision, as well as an ongoing dialogue with neighborhoods and communities to ensure that it is properly conducted.
The central theory behind broken windows policing is that low-level crime and disorder creates an environment that encourages more serious crimes. Bratton and Kelling also argue that low-level disorder is often a greater worry to residents than major crimes, and that different ethnic groups have similar ideas as to what "disorder" is.He and Kelling advocate both effective enforcement and lenient punishment for minor crimes. Citing fare evasion as an example, they argue that the police should attempt to catch fare evaders, and that the vast majority should be summoned to court rather than arrested and given a punishment other than jail. The goal is to deter minor offenders from committing more serious crimes in the future and reduce the prison population in the long run.
Bratton also supports community policing, describing it as being related to broken windows policing. He and Kelling stress the need for the police to collaborate with other government agencies and a variety of community groups, writing that "many of the challenges to public order confronting cities and communities cannot be solved by simple police action."
Bratton has stated that racial tensions and distrust of the police are hindrances to reducing crime. Bratton's solution in Los Angeles and New York City was to make police forces more ethnically diverse and "reflective of the ethnic make-up of their cities".Bratton argues that stop-and-frisk is a useful tool that should be used in moderation. Use of stop-and-frisk was increased during his first term as NYPD Commissioner and dramatically reduced during his second term. Bratton supported reducing it on the grounds that it was causing tension between the police and minority groups and that it was less needed in an era of lower crime.
In 1998, Random House published his memoir Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic,written with co-author Peter Knobler. It was named a New York Times Notable Book of the Year. His most recent book, The Profession: A Memoir of Community, Race, and the Arc of Policing in America, also written with Knobler, was a 2021 New York Times Book Review Editors' Choice.
Bratton holds a Bachelor of Science in Law Enforcement from the University of Massachusetts Boston and was a research fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Bratton has been married four times. He is currently married to attorney and TruTV analyst Rikki Klieman, and has one son, David, from a prior marriage. Bratton was previously married to attorney and Boston Police spokeswoman and newscaster Cheryl Fiandaca.
Bratton addressed the Roger Williams University graduating class at the May 22, 2010 commencement ceremony and also received an honorary degree during the ceremony.He also received an honorary degree from New York Institute of Technology.
After more than 40 years in policing, Bill Bratton retired from law enforcement in 2016. As of 2018, he is currently the Executive Chairman of Teneo Risk Holdings and is on the Board of Directors for Mission Ready Solutions.
Bratton is a Roman Catholic.
In criminology, the broken windows theory states that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes. The theory suggests that policing methods that target minor crimes such as vandalism, loitering, public drinking, jaywalking, and fare evasion help to create an atmosphere of order and lawfulness.
The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially known as the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the municipal police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,974 police officers and 3,000 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the New York City Police Department and the Chicago Police Department.
The New York City Transit Police Department was a law enforcement agency in New York City that existed from 1953 to 1995, and is currently part of the NYPD. The roots of this organization go back to 1936 when Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia authorized the hiring of special patrolmen for the New York City Subway. These patrolmen eventually became officers of the Transit Police. In 1949, the department was officially divorced from the New York City Police Department, but was eventually fully re-integrated in 1995 as the Transit Bureau of the New York City Police Department by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani.
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. A chief of police may also be known as a police chief or sometimes just a chief, while some countries favour other titles such as commissioner or chief constable. A police chief is appointed by and answerable to a national or local government, with the main exception being elected sheriffs in the United States.
Daryl Gates was the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) from 1978 to 1992. His length of tenure in this position was second only to that of William H. Parker. As Chief of the LAPD, he took a hardline, aggressive, paramilitary approach to law enforcement that disproportionately affected black and Latino Angelenos far more often than their white counterparts. Gates is co-credited with the creation of SWAT teams with LAPD's John Nelson, who others claim was the originator of SWAT in 1965. Gates also co-founded D.A.R.E.
Bernard C. Parks is an American politician, who served as a member of the Los Angeles City Council, representing the 8th district in South Los Angeles from 2003 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party, Parks served as Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department from August 1997 to May 2002.
CompStat—or COMPSTAT —is a computerization and quantification program used by police departments. It was originally set up by the New York City Police Department in the 1990s. Variations of the program have since been used in police departments across the world.
Raymond Walter Kelly is the longest serving Commissioner in the history of the New York City Police Department (NYPD) and the first man to hold the post for two non-consecutive tenures. According to its website, Kelly — a lifelong New Yorker—had spent 45 years in the NYPD, serving in 25 different commands and as Police Commissioner from 1992 to 1994 and again from 2002 until 2013. Kelly was the first man to rise from Police Cadet to Police Commissioner, holding all of the department's ranks, except for Three-Star Bureau Chief, Chief of Department and Deputy Commissioner, having been promoted directly from Two-Star Chief to First Deputy Commissioner in 1990. After his handling of the World Trade Center bombing in 1993, he was mentioned for the first time as a possible candidate for FBI Director. After Kelly turned down the position, Louis Freeh was appointed.
James Edgar Davis was an American police officer who served as the chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) from 1926 to 1929, and from 1933 to 1939. During his first term as LAPD chief, Davis emphasized firearms training. Under Davis, the LAPD developed its lasting reputation as an organization that relied on brute force to enforce public order. It also became publicly entangled in corruption. Members of the LAPD were revealed to have undertaken a campaign of brutal harassment, including the bombings of political reformers who had incurred the wrath of the department and the civic administration.
John Miller was the Deputy Commissioner of Intelligence & Counterterrorism of the NYPD. He was the former Associate Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analytic Transformation and Technology. Prior to that, he was an Assistant Director of Public Affairs for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), where he was the bureau's national spokesman. Miller is also a former ABC News reporter and anchorman, perhaps best known for conducting a May 1998 interview with Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
Howard Safir is an American law enforcement professional who served as the 39th New York City Police Commissioner from 1996 to 2000 and the 29th New York City Fire Commissioner from 1994 to 1996, under Mayor Rudy Giuliani. Safir currently serves as Chairman of Safir Intelligence and Security.
Crime rates in New York City have been recorded since at least the 1800s. They have spiked ever since the post-war period. The highest crime totals were recorded in the late 1980s and early 1990s as the crack epidemic surged, and then declined continuously through the 2000s.
The Los Angeles Police Department was formed in 1869, and has since become the third-largest law enforcement agency in the United States. They have been involved in various events in history, such as the Black Dahlia murder case, and the Rampart scandal.
The 2007 MacArthur Park rallies were two May Day rallies demanding amnesty for undocumented immigrants which occurred on May 1, 2007, at MacArthur Park, in Los Angeles.
Special Order 40 is a police mandate implemented in 1979 by the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), its Police Chief Daryl Gates and the Los Angeles City Council preventing LAPD officers from questioning people for the sole purpose of determining their immigration status. The mandate was passed in an effort to encourage undocumented aliens to report crimes without intimidation. The first section of the order states:
Officers shall not initiate police action with the objective of discovering the alien status of a person.
Officers shall not arrest nor book persons for violation of title 8, section 1325 of the United States Immigration code.
Throughout the history of the New York City Police Department, numerous instances of corruption and misconduct, and allegations of such, have occurred. Over 12,000 cases have resulted in lawsuit settlements totaling over $400 million during a five-year period ending in 2014. In 2019, taxpayers funded $68,688,423 as the cost of misconduct lawsuits, a 76 percent increase over the previous year, including about $10 million paid out to two exonerated individuals who had been falsely convicted and imprisoned.
Michael P. Downing was the interim Chief of Police of the Los Angeles Police Department. On August 5, 2009, Chief William J. Bratton announced that after seven years as chief he would be stepping down from his position. He continued to serve as LAPD chief until October 30, 2009. After Bratton stepped down, Downing was appointed as Chief of Police by the L.A. Board of Police Commissioners. As of January 2014, Downing is a 29-year veteran of the Department.
The Center for Policing Terrorism (CPT) is a national-security think tank formed after 9/11 in New York City.
The stop-question-and-frisk program, or stop-and-frisk, in New York City, is a New York City Police Department practice of temporarily detaining, questioning, and at times searching civilians and suspects on the street for weapons and other contraband. This is what is known in other places in the United States as the Terry stop. The rules for the policy are contained in the state's criminal procedure law section 140.50 and based on the decision of the US Supreme Court in the case of Terry v. Ohio.
The Museum of Broken Windows is a pop-up exhibition organised by the New York State affiliate of the American Civil Liberties Union. Housed within the Cooper Union's Foundation Building on Cooper Square, the project has been displayed twice, first from September 22 through 30, 2018, and then between September 13 and October 8, 2019.
But in keeping with his desire to nip problems in the bud, he is clear that the repercussions for those who step out of line must be severe, especially among younger offenders. 'Very early on in people's lives you have to have them understand that abhorrent behaviour, anti-social behaviour, will not be tolerated,' he said.