The Duke of Portland
Portrait by Matthew Pratt
|Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|
31 March 1807 –4 October 1809
|Preceded by||The Lord Grenville|
|Succeeded by||Spencer Perceval|
2 April 1783 –18 December 1783
|Preceded by||The Earl of Shelburne|
|Succeeded by||William Pitt the Younger|
|Lord President of the Council|
30 July 1801 –14 January 1805
|Prime Minister|| Henry Addington |
William Pitt the Younger
|Preceded by||The Earl of Chatham|
|Succeeded by||Viscount Sidmouth|
11 July 1794 –30 July 1801
|Prime Minister||William Pitt the Younger|
|Preceded by||Henry Dundas|
|Succeeded by||Lord Pelham|
|Born||14 April 1738|
|Died||30 October 1809 71) (aged|
Burlington House, Westminster, England
|Resting place||St Marylebone Parish Church|
Lady Dorothy Cavendish
(m. 1766;died 1794)
|Children||6, including William, 4th Duke; Lord William and Lord Charles|
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland,(14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809) was a British Whig and Tory politician during the late Georgian era. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1792–1809) and twice as the Prime Minister, of Great Britain (1783) and then of the United Kingdom (1807–09). The twenty-four years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any British Prime Minister.
Portland was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. He is also a great-great-great-grandfather of Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother.
Lord Titchfield was the eldest son of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and Margaret Cavendish-Harley and inherited many lands from his mother and his maternal grandmother.He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford.
On 8 November 1766, Portland married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, a daughter of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire and Charlotte Boyle. They were parents of six children:
Through his son Charles, Portland is a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II (see ancestry of Elizabeth II).
Portland was elected to sit in the Parliament for Weobley in 1761 before entering the Lords when he succeeded his father as Duke of Portland the next year. He was associated with the aristocratic Whig party of Lord Rockingham and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household in Rockingham's first Government (1765–1766)
Portland served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in Rockingham's second ministry (April–August 1782). He faced strong demands for conciliatory measures following years of coercion and taxation brought about by the British government's engagement in the American War of Independence.Portland resolved to make concessions and, overcoming the resistance of Lord Shelburne, the Home Secretary to whom he reported, convinced Parliament to repeal the Declaratory Act and modify Poynings' Law. Following Rockingham's death, Portland resigned from Lord Shelburne's ministry along with other supporters of Charles James Fox.
In April 1783, Portland was brought forward as titular head of a coalition government as Prime Minister, whose real leaders were Charles James Fox and Lord North. He served as First Lord of the Treasury in this ministry until its fall in December of the same year. During his tenure the Treaty of Paris was signed formally ending the American Revolutionary War. The government was brought down after losing a vote in the House of Lords on its proposed reform of the East India Company after George III had let it be known that any peer voting for this measure would be considered his personal enemy.
In 1789, Portland became one of several vice presidents of London's Foundling Hospital. This charity had become one of the most fashionable of the time, with several notables serving on its board. At its creation, fifty years earlier, Portland's father, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, had been one of the founding governors, listed on the charity's royal charter granted by George II. The hospital's mission was to care for the abandoned children in London; and it achieved rapid fame through its poignant mission, its art collection donated from supporting artists, and popular benefit concerts put on by George Frideric Handel. In 1793, Portland took over the presidency of the charity from Lord North.
Along with many conservative Whigs such as Edmund Burke, Portland was deeply uncomfortable with the French Revolution and broke with Fox over this issue, joining Pitt's government as Home Secretary in 1794. In this role he oversaw the administration of patronage and financial inducements, often secret, to secure the passage of the 1800 Act of Union.He continued to serve in the cabinet until Pitt's death in 1806—from 1801 to 1805 as Lord President of the Council and then as a Minister without Portfolio.
In March 1807, after the collapse of the Ministry of all the Talents, Pitt's supporters returned to power; and Portland was, once again, an acceptable figurehead for a fractious group of ministers that included George Canning, Lord Castlereagh, Lord Hawkesbury, and Spencer Perceval.
Portland's second government saw the United Kingdom's complete isolation on the continent but also the beginning of recovery, with the start of the Peninsular War. In late 1809, with Portland's health poor and the ministry rocked by the scandalous duel between Canning and Castlereagh, Portland resigned, dying shortly thereafter.
He was Recorder of Nottingham until his death in 1809.
The 3rd Duke of Portland died on 30 October 1809 at Burlington House, Piccadilly, after an operation for the stone and was buried at St Marylebone Parish Church, London.
He had lived expensively: with an income of £17,000 a year (worth £577,000 in 2005),he had debts at his death computed at £52,000 (£1.76 million in 2005), which were paid off by his succeeding son selling off some property including Bulstrode.
Along with Sir Robert Peel, Lord Aberdeen, Benjamin Disraeli, William Ewart Gladstone, Marquess of Salisbury, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Bonar Law, and Neville Chamberlain, he is one of nine British prime ministers to die while his direct successor was in office, and the first to do so.
The Portland Vase of Roman glass was given its name due to its having been owned by Portland at his family residence at Bulstrode Park.
Portland parish in Jamaica was named after the 3rd Duke of Portland. The Titchfield School, founded in 1786, also in the parish is also named in his honour. The school's crest is derived from the Earl of Portland's personal crest.
Two major streets in Marylebone are named after the 3rd Duke of Portland: Portland Place and Great Portland Street. Both were built on land he once owned.
North Bentinck Arm and South Bentinck Arm were named for the Bentinck family by George Vancouver in 1793, along with other names on the British Columbia Coast such as Portland Canal and Portland Channel.
The department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham holds a number of papers relating to the 3rd Duke: the 3rd Duke's personal and political papers (Pw F) are part of the Portland (Welbeck) Collection; and the Portland (London) Collection (Pl) contains correspondence and official papers of the 3rd Duke, especially in series Pl C.
The Portland Estate Papers held at Nottinghamshire Archives also contain items relating to the 3rd Duke's properties.
The Portland Collection of fine and decorative art includes pieces owned and commissioned by the 3rd Duke, including paintings by George Stubbs.
|Ancestors of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland|
Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family. This branch of the Cavendish family has been one of the wealthiest British aristocratic families since the 16th century and has been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby.
William John Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 5th Duke of Portland, styled Lord John Bentinck before 1824 and Marquess of Titchfield between 1824 and 1854, was a British Army officer and peer, most remembered for his eccentric behaviour. A recluse who preferred to live in seclusion, he had an elaborate underground maze excavated under his estate at Welbeck Abbey near Clumber Park in North Nottinghamshire.
Earl of Portland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England, first in 1633 and again in 1689. What proved to be a long co-held title, Duke of Portland, was created in 1716 and ceased in 1990 on the death of the ninth Duke, when the Earldom passed to the seniormost agnatic cousin, namely one of the 6th degree.
William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland,, styled Marquess of Titchfield until 1809, was a British politician who served in various positions in the governments of George Canning and Lord Goderich.
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck may refer to:
William Arthur Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland, styled Marquess of Titchfield until 1943, was a British peer and Conservative Party politician.
William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, styled Viscount Woodstock from 1709 to 1716 and Marquess of Titchfield from 1716 to 1726, was a British peer and politician.
The Bentinck family is a prominent family belonging to both Dutch and British nobility. Its members have served in the armed forces and as ambassadors and politicians, including Governor General of India and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The family is related to the British Royal Family via Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's maternal Cavendish-Bentinck line.
William Cavendish-Bentinck may refer to:
Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, better known as Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative politician and racehorse owner, noted for his role in unseating Sir Robert Peel over the Corn Laws.
William John Arthur Charles James Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland,, known as William Cavendish-Bentinck until 1879, was a British landowner, courtier, and Conservative politician. He notably served as Master of the Horse between 1886 and 1892 and again between 1895 and 1905.
Welbeck Abbey in the Dukeries in North Nottinghamshire was the site of a monastery belonging to the Premonstratensian order in England and after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, a country house residence of the Dukes of Portland. It is one of four contiguous ducal estates in North Nottinghamshire and the house is a grade I listed building.
Charles William Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck was a clergyman of the Church of England, holding livings in Bedfordshire, and a great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.
Henry Bentinck, 1st Duke of Portland, of Titchfield, Hampshire, styled Viscount Woodstock from 1689 until 1709, was a British Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons from 1705 until 1709 when he succeeded to the perage as Earl of Portland. He was Governor of Jamaica from 1721 to 1726.
Cavendish-Bentinck is a surname associated with the Dukes of Portland and their descendants. Bentinck is a Dutch surname brought to England by William Bentinck, an advisor to William III of England. Cavendish was added to the family name by Bentinck's great-grandson the 3rd Duke of Portland, who married in 1766 Lady Dorothy Cavendish, daughter of the 4th Duke of Devonshire. By a family arrangement, she was the heiress to estates which had previously belonged to the defunct Newcastle branch of the Cavendish family, including Welbeck Abbey, which became the principal seat of the Dukes of Portland. Following the death of the 9th Duke in 1990, the family name became extinct.
William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, Marquess of Titchfield —styled Viscount Woodstock until 1809—was a British Member of Parliament (MP) and peer. Born into the noble Bentinck family, his grandfather William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, served as both Prime Minister of Great Britain and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Expected to succeed his father as the fifth Duke of Portland, Titchfield died at only 27 years old.
The Cavendish family is a British noble family.
Algernon Frederick Greville was an English soldier, cricketer, and officer of arms who served as private secretary to the Duke of Wellington.
Dorothy Bentinck, Duchess of Portland was Duchess of Portland as wife of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, the Prime Minister of Great Britain. She is also a great-great-great-grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II through the queen's maternal grandmother.
Henrietta Bentinck, Duchess of Portland, formerly Henrietta Scott, was the wife of William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland .|
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Weobley |
With: Hon. Henry Thynne
Hon. Henry Thynne
The Earl Gower
| Lord Chamberlain |
The Earl of Hertford
The Earl of Carlisle
| Lord Lieutenant of Ireland |
The Earl Temple
The Earl of Shelburne
| Prime Minister of Great Britain |
2 April 1783 – 18 December 1783
William Pitt the Younger
The Earl of Shelburne
| Leader of the House of Lords |
The Earl Temple
| Home Secretary |
The Earl of Chatham
| Lord President of the Council |
The Viscount Sidmouth
|New office|| Minister without Portfolio |
The Earl FitzWilliam
The Lord Grenville
| Prime Minister of the United Kingdom |
31 March 1807 – 4 October 1809
The Earl of Guilford
| Chancellor of the University of Oxford |
The Lord Grenville
| President of the Foundling Hospital |
The Prince of Wales
later became King George IV
The 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
| Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire |
The 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
|Peerage of Great Britain|
| Duke of Portland |