William Clark

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William Clark
William Clark-Charles Willson Peale.jpg
4th Governor of Missouri Territory
In office
July 1, 1813 September 18, 1820
Appointed by James Madison
Preceded by Benjamin Howard
Succeeded by Alexander McNair
Personal details
Born(1770-08-01)August 1, 1770
Ladysmith, Colony of Virginia
DiedSeptember 1, 1838(1838-09-01) (aged 68)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Spouse(s)Julia Hancock (1808–1820; her death)
Harriet Kennerly Radford (1820–1831; her death)
RelationsGeneral Jonathan Clark (brother)
General George Rogers Clark (brother)
Ann Clark Gwatmey (sister)
Captain John Clark (brother)
Lieutenant Richard Clark (brother)
Captain Edmund Clark (brother)
Lucy Clark Croghan (sister)
Elizabeth Clark Anderson (sister)
Frances "Fanny" Clark O'Fallon Minn Fitzhugh (sister)
ParentsJohn Clark III,
Ann Rogers Clark
Occupationsoldier, explorer, politician
Signature William Clark Signature.svg
Military service
Branch/service Infantry
Artillery
Years of service1792-1796
1804-1807
RankLieutenant
Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant
Unit Legion of the United States
Regiment of Artillerists
Commands Corps of Discovery
Battles/wars Battle of Fallen Timbers

William Clark (August 1, 1770 – September 1, 1838) was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. [1] A native of Virginia, he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state of Missouri. Clark was a planter and slaveholder. [2]

In United States and Canadian history, an Indian agent was an individual authorized to interact with Native American tribes on behalf of the U.S. government.

Virginia State of the United States of America

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million.

Kentucky State of the United States of America

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, (because in Kentucky's first constitution, the name state was used) Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth. Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky split from it and became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States.

Contents

Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United States. [3] Before the expedition, he served in a militia and the United States Army. Afterward, he served in a militia and as governor of the Missouri Territory. From 1822 until his death in 1838, he served as Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

Meriwether Lewis American explorer

Meriwether Lewis was an American explorer, soldier, politician, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark.

Lewis and Clark Expedition American overland expedition to the Pacific coast

The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pa, made its way westward, and passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast. The Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark.

Louisiana Purchase Acquisition by the United States of America of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana

The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, the U.S. acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi. The treaty was negotiated by French Treasury Minister François Barbé-Marbois and American delegates James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston.

Early life

William Clark was born in Caroline County, Virginia, on August 1, 1770, the ninth of ten children of John and Ann Rogers Clark. [4] [5] His parents were natives of King and Queen County, and were of English and possibly Scots ancestry. [6] The Clarks were planters in Virginia and owned several modest estates and a few slaves. They were members of the Anglican Church. [7]

Caroline County, Virginia County in the United States

Caroline County is a United States county located on the eastern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The northern boundary of the county borders on the Rappahannock River, notably at the historic town of Port Royal. The Caroline county seat is Bowling Green.

King and Queen County, Virginia County in the United States

King and Queen County is a county in the U.S. state of Virginia, located in that state's Middle Peninsula on the eastern edge of the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,945. Its county seat is King and Queen Court House.

Clark did not have any formal education; like many of his contemporaries, he was tutored at home. In later years, he was self-conscious about his convoluted grammar and inconsistent spelling—he spelled "Sioux" 27 different ways in his journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition—and sought to have his journals corrected before publication. The spelling of American English was not standardized in Clark's youth, but his vocabulary suggests he was well read. [8]

Clark's five older brothers fought in Virginia units during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), but William was too young. [6] His oldest brother, Jonathan Clark, served as a colonel during the war, rising to the rank of brigadier general in the Virginia militia years afterward. His second-oldest brother, George Rogers Clark, rose to the rank of general, spending most of the war in Kentucky fighting against British-allied American Indians. After the war, the two oldest Clark brothers made arrangements for their parents and family to relocate to Kentucky.[ citation needed ]

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Jonathan Clark was an American soldier. After saving his captain, major and colonel in the American Revolutionary War, he rose to the rank of major-general of the war survived. His death. He was the older brother of fellow soldiers General George Rogers Clark and Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Navy to army for ten to nine years. Clark was the oldest brother of the children of John Clark and Ann Rogers, was born in Albemarle County, Virginia on August 1, 1750. He received a fair English education, and, in time, became a lawyer, and a successful man of business. He was the prudent, practical business man of the elder portion of the numerous children of John Clark, as his brother William was of the younger. When quite young he spent some time in the office of the clerk of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, as deputy clerk.

George Rogers Clark American general

George Rogers Clark was an American surveyor, soldier, and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest-ranking American patriot military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky throughout much of the war. He is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes (1779) during the Illinois Campaign, which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. The British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, and Clark has often been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest".

William, his parents, his three sisters, and the Clark family's slaves arrived in Kentucky in March 1785, having first traveled overland to Redstone Landing in present-day Brownsville, Pennsylvania. They completed the journey down the Ohio River by flatboat. The Clark family settled at "Mulberry Hill", a plantation along Beargrass Creek near Louisville. This was William Clark's primary home until 1803. In Kentucky, his older brother George Rogers Clark taught William wilderness survival skills. [9]

Brownsville, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Brownsville is a borough in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, first settled in 1785 as the site of a trading post a few years after the pacification of the Iroquois enabled a post-Revolutionary war resumption of westward migration. The Trading Post soon became a tavern and Inn, and was soon receiving emigrants heading west as it was located above the cut bank overlooking first ford that could be reached to those descending from the Mountains Brownsville is located 40 miles (64 km) south of Pittsburgh along the east bank of the Monongahela River.

Ohio River river in the midwestern United States

The Ohio River is a 981-mile (1,579 km) long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States. The river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U.S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people.

Flatboat rectangular flat-bottomed boat with square ends

A flatboat was a rectangular flat-bottomed boat with square ends used to transport freight and passengers on inland waterways in the United States. The flatboat could be any size, but essentially it was a large, sturdy tub with a hull.

Military career begins

Kentuckians fought the Northwest Indian War against American Indians, who were trying to preserve their territory north of the Ohio River. In 1789, 19-year-old William Clark joined a volunteer militia force under Major John Hardin. [10] Clark kept a detailed journal of the expedition, beginning a lifelong practice. Hardin was advancing against the Wea Indians, who had been raiding settlements in Kentucky, on the Wabash River. In error, the undisciplined Kentucky militia attacked a peaceful Shawnee hunting camp, where they killed a total of eight men, women, and children. [11]

In 1790, Clark was commissioned by General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, as a captain in the Clarksville, Indiana militia. One older source says he was sent on a mission to the Creek and Cherokee, whom the US hoped to keep out of the war, in the Southeast. His responsibilities are unclear. [12] He may have visited New Orleans at that time. His travels prevented him from participating in General Josiah Harmar's disastrous campaign into the Northwest Territory that year. [13]

In 1791, Clark served as an ensign and acting lieutenant with expeditions under generals Charles Scott and James Wilkinson. [14] He enlisted in the Legion of the United States and was commissioned as a lieutenant on March 6, 1792 under Anthony Wayne. On September 4, 1792 he was assigned to the 4th Sub-Legion. He was involved in several skirmishes with Indians during the continuing Northwest Indian War. [12] At the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, Clark commanded a company of riflemen who drove back the enemy on the left flank, killing a number of Native Americans and Canadians. This decisive US victory brought the Northwest Indian War to an end. In 1795, Clark was dispatched on a mission to New Madrid, Missouri. Clark also served as an adjutant and quartermaster while in the militia. [14]

Lewis and Clark Expedition

William Clark resigned his commission on July 4, 1796 and retired due to poor health, although he was only 26 years old. He returned to Mulberry Hill, his family's plantation near Louisville. [14]

In 1803, Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark, then age 33, to share command of the newly formed Corps of Discovery, whose mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade with Native Americans and the sovereignty of the US. They were to find a waterway from the US to the Pacific Ocean and claim the Oregon territory for the United States before European nations did. [3] Clark spent three years on the expedition to the Pacific Coast. A slave owner known to deal harshly with his slaves, he brought York, one of his slaves, with him. The indigenous nations treated York with respect, and many of the Native Americans were interested in his appearance, which "played a key role in diplomatic relations". [15] [16]

Although Clark was refused a promotion to the rank of captain when Jefferson asked the Senate to appoint him, at Lewis' insistence, he exercised equal authority, and continued the mission. Clark concentrated chiefly on the drawing of maps, the management of the expedition's supplies, and leading hunting expeditions for game. [17]

Indigenous nations and war

In 1807, President Jefferson appointed Clark as the brigadier general of the militia in the Louisiana Territory, and the US agent for Indian affairs. At the time, trade was a major goal and the US established the factory system. The government and its appointees licensed traders to set up trading posts in Native American territory. Native American relations were handled in what became the War Department. [14] Clark set up his headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri, where he would live for most of the rest of his life.

There he became a member of the Freemasons, a secret fraternal group. The records of his initiation do not exist, but on September 18, 1809, Saint Louis Lodge No. 111 issued a traveling certificate for Clark. [18]

As a reward for their contributions during their expedition to the Pacific Lewis and Clark were given government positions. Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis territorial governor of Upper Louisiana, commander-in-chief of the militia, and superintendent of Indian Affairs. [19] Although he was in charge of Indian affairs, Clark was under the supervision of the Governor of the Louisiana Territory. The governor had final say of all decisions made in the territory. Although Clark had primary duties in dealing with the Native Americans, "the territorial governor held the title of ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs. [20]

Clark's experiences during his cross-continent expedition gave him the tools to be the ideal candidate for a diplomat to the Native Americans. That was Jefferson's motives behind giving Clark these duties, although it would not be until Madison's presidency that Clark's title became official. President James Madison appointed Clark as Missouri territorial governor and thus ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs in that region, during the summers of 1808 and 1813. In the earlier period, Clark performed the same duties that he would have if he held the title. [21] During the years while Clark held position under Governor Lewis, he was continuously involved in decision making with him. Clark was consulted on affairs on a regular basis. In Louisiana and Missouri, Clark served the United States government for the longest term in history as diplomat to the Native American peoples.[ citation needed ]

Indian diplomacy occupied much of Clark's time; the dutiful soldier and bureaucrat never wavered in his commitment to an expansionist national agenda that expected Indians to surrender their lands, abandon their traditional ways, and acquiesce to the dictates of the U.S. government. But he was aware of the consequences and he demonstrated genuine concern for the plight of destitute native people increasingly threatened with extinction. [22] Clark's expeditions and frontier settlement gave him unique views and feelings toward Native Americans. He felt as though he held a firm hand when he had to, but at the same time he had passion towards them as people still deserving of rights. At times he was said to be too compassionate. Clark took his position as one of extreme importance to not only the government of the United States, but to the Native American people as well.[ citation needed ]

Clark recognized Indians' nationalism, their history, language, culture and territory and negotiated treaties between the various nations and his. He tried to protect Indians and preserve their culture by removing them from the evil influences of white society, providing life-saving inoculations, having their portraits painted, and assembling a museum of Indian artifacts. At the same time, he removed Indians from their ancestral lands; encouraged federal "civilization" and "education" programs to change native lifestyles, religious beliefs, and cultural practices; and usually promoted the interests of American citizens over Indian needs and desires. [23]

During the War of 1812, Clark led several campaigns, among them in 1814, one along the Mississippi River, up to the Prairie du Chien-area. He established the short-lived Fort Shelby, the first post in what is now Wisconsin. Soon, the post was captured by the British. When the Missouri Territory was formed in 1813, Clark was appointed as the governor by President Madison. [14] He was reappointed to the position by Madison in 1816, and in 1820 by President Monroe. [14]

William Clark appeared before Supreme Court Judge John B.C. Lucas in St. Louis on July 6, 1813, to take the oath of office as governor of the Missouri Territory. [24] Clark's road to a gubernatorial appointment was long and complex. Upon Lewis' appointment by Jefferson, Clark backed him and at times filled the role of governor without holding official position, due to Lewis' complications in life, whether it was debt, loneliness, or drinking. Upon the death of Lewis in 1809, Clark declined to take office for varying reasons.

By the time he was appointed governor, Clark appreciated his own capabilities and embraced them rather than turning them away. when he took office, America was involved in the War of 1812 with the British. Clark feared the influence the British would have on the Native Americans. British tactics would include the use of Indians as allies in the fighting against the United States. In return for British victory, Indians would either be able to continue to occupy their current land or receive lands back that were taken from them previously by the United States Government. Clark held office for the next seven years until he was voted out of office in 1820, in the first election after Missouri became a state. He was defeated by Alexander McNair.[ citation needed ]

In 1822, Clark was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs by President James Monroe, a new position created by Congress after the factory system was abolished. [14] Clark served in that position until his death; his title changed with the creation of the Office of Indian Affairs in 1824 and finally the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1829, both within the War Department. From 1824 to 1825, he was additionally appointed surveyor general of Illinois, Missouri and the Territory of Arkansaw. It was around this time that Clark received a rare smoking pipe or calumet as a gift from a Potowatomi chief in Missouri. The pipe is held in the British Museum's collection. [25]

As the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Clark was the most important man on Native American matters west of the Mississippi. As superintendent at St. Louis, Clark took on some additional duties: he issued licenses and granted passports to traders and travelers; provided payments for injuries and injustices to both whites and Indians; invoked military force to arrest lawbreakers; prevented or terminated hostilities between tribes; removed unauthorized persons from Indian country or confiscated their property; established, marked, and surveyed boundaries; distributed annuities and made sure that treaty provisions were delivered; and conducted treaty councils. [26] Of the four superintendents of Indian affairs, the others were the governors of Michigan, Florida and Arkansas territories; Clark had by far the largest superintendency. [26]

Though Clark tried to maintain peaceful relations with indigenous nations and negotiated peace treaties, he was involved in President Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy. This included "his duty to oversee removal". He managed retaliation against Black Hawk and those allied with him in the Black Hawk War, when hostilities arose between them and the Americans. Clark issued "an extermination order", which he gave to Lewis Cass, a man who played a central role in Jackson's removal policy. [27]

Clark believed in the Jeffersonian ideology in which assimilation would be the best course of action for Native Americans. However, in the end, relocation of the Indians from their native lands became the government's primary goal. Clark's government position on Native American affairs kept him at the forefront of countless relocations. He expressed sympathy for those uprooted tribes and promoted their interests as he understood them, nevertheless, he agreed with and implemented the policy of Indian removal, negotiating 37, or one-tenth, of all ratified treaties between American Indians and the United States. Over the course of his career, millions of acres passed from Indian to U.S. ownership through Clark's hand. [28]

Marriage and family

After returning from his cross-country expedition, Clark married Julia Hancock on January 5, 1808, at Fincastle, Virginia. They had five children: Meriwether Lewis Clark, Sr. (1809–1881), named after his friend and expedition partner; William Preston Clark (1811–1840); Mary Margaret Clark (1814–1821); George Rogers Hancock Clark (1816–1858), named after Clark's older brother; and John Julius Clark (1818–1831), named after his oldest brother Jonathan and Clark's wife. [14]

After Julia's death in 1820, William Clark married Julia's first cousin, Harriet Kennerly Radford. [29] They had three children together: Jefferson Kearny Clark (1824–1900), named after the president; Edmund Clark (1826–1827), named after another of his older brothers; and Harriet Clark, named after her mother (dates unknown; died as child). His second wife Harriet died in 1831.[ citation needed ]

His son by a sister of Chief Red Grizzly Bear, Tzi-Kal-Tza/Halahtookit Clark, was alive in 1866; his image was recorded in a photo taken that year. "Oral history says that this man called himself 'Clark', that he was captured at the end of the Nez Perce Indian war of 1877, and that he died of malaria fifteen hundred miles away from home. There are many gaps in the story of Clark's Nez Perce son, many questions for which historians will never find answers." [30] Clark also served as a guardian to Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, the son of Sacagawea and Toussaint Charbonneau.[ citation needed ]

Later life and death

William Clark died in St. Louis on September 1, 1838 at age 68. He was buried in the Bellefontaine Cemetery, where a 35-foot (11 m) gray granite obelisk was erected to mark his grave. Clark was originally buried at his nephew John O'Fallon's property, in 1838. That area is now known as O'Fallon Park. The funeral procession stretched for more than a mile and cannons fired a military salute. The entire city of St. Louis mourned his passing. [31]

Clark and six of his family members were later buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery on October 23, 1860. The monument that marks their graves was dedicated in 1904 on the centennial anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. Clark's son, Jefferson Kearney Clark, designed the monument and paid $25,000 for it ($425,000 in 2005 figures). Jefferson Clark's wife had to complete the building of the monument after Jefferson died in 1900. Many years later, the monument was restored and rededicated on May 21, 2004, to mark the bicentennial of the Corps of Discovery's departure from St. Charles, Missouri. Members of the Shoshone, Osage, and Mandan tribes spoke at the ceremony, marking Clark's service to these Indian nations during the final years of his life. [32]

Legacy and honors

Lewis and Clark, 1954 issue Lewis and Clark 1954 Issue-3c.jpg
Lewis and Clark, 1954 issue
Clark depicted on the 1904-05 commemorative Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar 1904 Lewis and Clark dollar reverse.jpg
Clark depicted on the 1904-05 commemorative Lewis and Clark Exposition dollar

Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark commanded the Corps of Discovery to map the Pacific Northwest. They were honored with a 3-cent stamp July 24, 1954 on the 150th anniversary. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States. Lewis and Clark described and sketched flora and fauna and described the native inhabitants they encountered before returning to St. Louis in 1806. [35]

Both Lewis and Clark appear on the gold Lewis and Clark Exposition dollars minted for the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. Among the Early United States commemorative coins, they were produced in both 1904 and 1905 and survive in relatively small numbers.

The Lewis and Clark expedition was celebrated on May 14, 2004, the 200th anniversary of its outset depicting the two on a hilltop outlook. Two companion 37-cent stamps showed portraits of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. A special 32-page booklet accompanied the issue in eleven cities along the route taken by the Corps of Discovery. An image of the stamp can be found on Arago online at the link in the footnote. [36]

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References

  1. Jones, Landon Y. (2004). William Clark and the Shaping of the West. Macmillan. ISBN   9780809030415.
  2. Buckley, Jay H. (2008). William Clark: Indian Diplomat. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 20. ISBN   9780806139111.
  3. 1 2 Miller, Robert J. (2006). Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 108. ISBN   9780275990114.
  4. Foley, Wilderness Journey, 2–3
  5. Jones, "William Clark and the Shaping of the West," 13–23
  6. 1 2 Foley, William E. (May 21, 2004). Wilderness Journey: The Life of William Clark. University of Missouri Press. p. 2. ISBN   9780826262639.
  7. Foley, William E. (May 21, 2004). Wilderness Journey: The Life of William Clark. University of Missouri Press. pp. 1 and 72. ISBN   9780826262639.
  8. Foley, William E. (May 21, 2004). Wilderness Journey: The Life of William Clark. University of Missouri Press. pp. 18–20. ISBN   9780826262639.
  9. Foley, Wilderness Journey, 13–17.
  10. Foley, Wilderness Journey, 23.
  11. Paul David Nelson. "Hardin, John"; American National Biography Online February 2000; Wiley Sword, President Washington's Indian War (University of Oklahoma Press, 1985), 77. Foley, Wilderness Journey, 24–25, mentions the attack on the camp and the casualties, but does not identify the Indians as peaceful or as Shawnee.
  12. 1 2 "IHB: George Rogers Clark - Siblings". www.in.gov. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  13. Foley, Wilderness Journey, 25–26.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Corning, Howard M. (1989) Dictionary of Oregon History. Binfords & Mort Publishing. p. 55
  15. "TIME Magazine: Lewis & Clark, The Slave York". November 28, 2008. Archived from the original on November 28, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  16. Buckley, Jay H. (2008). William Clark: Indian Diplomat. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 59, 241. ISBN   9780806139111.
  17. Fritz, Harry W. (2004). The Lewis and Clark Expedition. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN   9780313316616.
  18. Libert, Laura. "Brothers Lewis and Clark". Treasures of the Temple. Archived from the original on June 27, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  19. Buckley, Jay William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg 66.
  20. Buckley, Jay William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg 69.
  21. Buckley, Jay William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg 70.
  22. Foley, Wilderness Journey, pg xi.
  23. Buckley, Jay. William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg xvi.
  24. Foley, Wilderness Journey, pg 195
  25. "Collection search: You searched for". British Museum. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  26. 1 2 Buckley, Jay William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg 147.
  27. Buckley, Jay William Clark: Indian Diplomat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008, pg 196-7, 209.
  28. Buckley, Jay. "William Clark | American explorer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  29. "Julia "Judith" Hancock Clark". Find A Grave. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
  30. Westron, Loree. "The Paradox of Historical Fiction: Finding Truth in the Absence of Fact".
  31. Shepley, Carol Ferring (2008). Movers and Shakers, Scalawags and Suffragettes: Tales from Bellefontaine Cemetery. St. Louis, MO: Missouri History Museum.
  32. Shepley, Carol Ferring (2008). Movers and Shakers, Scalawags and Suffragettes: Tales from Bellefontaine Cemetery. Missouri History Museum. p. 55. ISBN   9781883982652.
  33. "MemberListC". American Antiquarian Society. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  34. "President Clinton: Celebrating the Legacy of Lewis and Clark and Preserving America's Natural Treasures". FirstGov. January 17, 2001. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
  35. Piazza, Daniel,"Lewis & Clark Expedition Issue", Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum. Viewed March 22, 2014.
  36. "Bicentennial Lewis & Clark Expedition Issue", Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed April 28, 2014. An image of the stamps can be seen at Arago online, 37c Lewis and Clark on Hill stamp.
  37. St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved April 25, 2013.

General references

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Benjamin Howard
Governor of Missouri Territory
1813–1820
Succeeded by
Alexander McNair (statehood)