William Hogarth

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William Hogarth
The Painter and His Pug by William Hogarth.jpg
William Hogarth, Painter and his Pug , 1745
Born(1697-11-10)10 November 1697
London, England
Died26 October 1764(1764-10-26) (aged 66)
London, England
Resting place St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, London
Known for Painter, engraver, satirist
Spouse(s)Jane Thornhill, daughter of Sir James Thornhill
Patron(s)Mary Edwards (1705–1743) [1]

William Hogarth FRSA ( /ˈhɡɑːrθ/ ; 10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects", [2] perhaps best known being his moral series A Harlot's Progress , A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode . Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as "Hogarthian". [3]

Printmaking process through which an artistic print is created

Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because typically each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, and also because the imagery of a print is typically not simply a reproduction of another work but rather is often a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple impressions, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to.

Satire Genre of arts and literature in the form of humor or ridicule

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.

Social criticism is a form of academic or journalistic criticism focusing on cultural or sociological issues relating to matters of concern within contemporary society in particular with respect to perceived injustices. It often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for such conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure. It may also refer to people adhering to a social critic's aims at practical solutions by way of specific measures either for consensual reform or powerful revolution.

Contents

Hogarth was born in London to a lower middle-class family. In his youth he took up an apprenticeship where he specialised in engraving. His father underwent periods of mixed fortune, and was at one time imprisoned in lieu of outstanding debts; an event that is thought to have informed William's paintings and prints with a hard edge. [4]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Influenced by French and Italian painting and engraving, [5] Hogarth's works are mostly satirical caricatures, sometimes bawdily sexual, [6] mostly of the first rank of realistic portraiture. They became widely popular and mass-produced via prints in his lifetime, and he was by far the most significant English artist of his generation.

Early life

William Hogarth by Roubiliac, 1741, National Portrait Gallery, London William Hogarth by Roubiliac, 1741, National Portrait Gallery, London.JPG
William Hogarth by Roubiliac, 1741, National Portrait Gallery, London

William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, and Anne Gibbons. In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. [7] [8]

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Trade card card distributed by a business to clients and potential customers

A trade card is a square or rectangular card that is small, but bigger than the modern visiting card, and is exchanged in social circles, that a business distributes to clients and potential customers. Trade cards first became popular at the end of the 17th century in Paris, Lyon and London. They functioned as advertising and also as maps, directing the public to the merchants' stores.

Young Hogarth also took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, and amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father's imprisonment. [9]

Fleet Prison 12th-century prison in London

Fleet Prison was a notorious London prison by the side of the River Fleet. The prison was built in 1197, was rebuilt several times, and was in use until 1844. It was demolished in 1846.

Hogarth became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, and other artists and connoisseurs. [10]

Rose and Crown Club

The Rose and Crown Club was a club for artists, collectors and connoisseurs of art in early 18th-century London, England.

Peter Tillemans Flemish painter

Peter Tillemans was a Flemish painter, best known for his works on sporting and topographical subjects. Alongside John Wootton and James Seymour, he was one of the founders of the English school of sporting painting.

George Vertue British engraver

George Vertue was an English engraver and antiquary, whose notebooks on British art of the first half of the 18th century are a valuable source for the period.

Career

By April 1720, Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, and designing plates for booksellers.

In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was "an engraver, and no painter", and consequently declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728. In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King. [11]

Early works

The Assembly at Wanstead House . Earl Tylney and family in foreground HogarthWanstead.jpg
The Assembly at Wanstead House . Earl Tylney and family in foreground

Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme (c.1721, published 1724), about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below which is "Who'l Ride". The people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else. [12]

Other early works include The Lottery (1724); The Mystery of Masonry brought to Light by the Gormagons (1724); A Just View of the British Stage (1724); some book illustrations; and the small print Masquerades and Operas (1724). The latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich's pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect and painter William Kent. He continued that theme in 1727, with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler's Hudibras .

Self-Portrait by Hogarth, ca. 1735, Yale Center for British Art. William Hogarth - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg
Self-Portrait by Hogarth, ca. 1735, Yale Center for British Art.

These he himself valued highly, and they are among his best book illustrations.

In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces" (i.e., groups in oil of full-length portraits from 12 to 15 inches (300 to 380 mm) high). Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family (c.1730), The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, and several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera . [13] One of his real low-life and real-life subjects was Sarah Malcolm whom he sketched two days before her execution. [14]

One of Hogarth's masterpieces of this period is the depiction of an amateur performance by children of John Dryden's The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico (1732–1735) at the home of John Conduitt, master of the mint, in St George's Street, Hanover Square. [15]

Hogarth's other works in the 1730s include A Midnight Modern Conversation (1733), Southwark Fair (1733), The Sleeping Congregation (1736), Before and After (1736), Scholars at a Lecture (1736), The Company of Undertakers (Consultation of Quacks) (1736), The Distrest Poet (1736), The Four Times of the Day (1738), and Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn (1738). He might also have printed Burlington Gate (1731), evoked by Alexander Pope's Epistle to Lord Burlington, and defending Lord Chandos, who is therein satirized. This print gave great offence, and was suppressed. However, modern authorities such as Ronald Paulson no longer attribute it to Hogarth. [16]

Moralizing art

Harlot's and Rake's Progresses

A Rake's Progress , Plate 8, 1735, and retouched by Hogarth in 1763 by adding the Britannia emblem The Rake's Progress 8.jpg
A Rake's Progress , Plate 8, 1735, and retouched by Hogarth in 1763 by adding the Britannia emblem

In 1731 Hogarth completed the earliest of his series of moral works, a body of work that led to significant recognition. The collection of six scenes was entitled A Harlot's Progress and appeared first as paintings (now lost) [19] before being published as engravings. [20] A Harlot's Progress depicts the fate of a country girl who begins prostituting – the six scenes are chronological, starting with a meeting with a bawd and ending with a funeral ceremony that follows the character's death from venereal disease. [21]

The inaugural series was an immediate success and was followed in 1733–1735 by the sequel A Rake's Progress . [22] The second instalment consisted of eight pictures that depicted the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who spends all of his money on luxurious living, services from prostitutes, and gambling – the character's life ultimately ends in Bethlem Royal Hospital. The original paintings of A Harlot's Progress were destroyed in the fire at Fonthill House in 1755; the oil paintings of A Rake's Progress (1733–34) are displayed in the gallery room at Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK. [23]

When the success of A Harlot's Progress and A Rake's Progress resulted in numerous pirated reproductions by unscrupulous printsellers, Hogarth lobbied in parliament for greater legal control over the reproduction of his and other artists' work. The result was the Engravers’ Copyright Act (known as ‘Hogarth's Act’), which became law on 25 June 1735 and was the first copyright law to deal with visual works as well as the first to recognize the authorial rights of an individual artist. [24]

Marriage à-la-mode

Marriage a-la-mode , Shortly After the Marriage (scene two of six). Marriage A-la-Mode 2, The Tete a Tete - William Hogarth.jpg
Marriage à-la-mode , Shortly After the Marriage (scene two of six).
Marriage a-la-mode, After the old Earl's funeral (scene four of six) Marriage A-la-Mode 4, The Toilette - William Hogarth.jpg
Marriage à-la-mode, After the old Earl's funeral (scene four of six)

In 1743–1745, Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode (National Gallery, London), [25] a pointed skewering of upper-class 18th-century society. This moralistic warning shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money. This is regarded by many as his finest project and may be among his best-planned story serials.

Marital ethics were the topic of much debate in 18th-century Britain. The many marriages of convenience and their attendant unhappiness came in for particular criticism, with a variety of authors taking the view that love was a much sounder basis for marriage. Hogarth here painted a satire – a genre that by definition has a moral point to convey – of a conventional marriage within the English upper class. All the paintings were engraved and the series achieved wide circulation in print form. The series, which is set in a Classical interior, shows the story of the fashionable marriage of Viscount Squanderfield, the son of bankrupt Earl Squander, to the daughter of a wealthy but miserly city merchant, starting with the signing of a marriage contract at the Earl's mansion and ending with the murder of the son by his wife's lover and the suicide of the daughter after her lover is hanged at Tyburn for murdering her husband.

William Makepeace Thackeray wrote:

This famous set of pictures contains the most important and highly wrought of the Hogarth comedies. The care and method with which the moral grounds of these pictures are laid is as remarkable as the wit and skill of the observing and dexterous artist. He has to describe the negotiations for a marriage pending between the daughter of a rich citizen Alderman and young Lord Viscount Squanderfield, the dissipated son of a gouty old Earl ... The dismal end is known. My lord draws upon the counselor, who kills him, and is apprehended while endeavouring to escape. My lady goes back perforce to the Alderman of the City, and faints upon reading Counsellor Silvertongue's dying speech at Tyburn (place of execution in old London), where the counselor has been 'executed for sending his lordship out of the world. Moral: don’t listen to evil silver-tongued counselors; don't marry a man for his rank, or a woman for her money; don't frequent foolish auctions and masquerade balls unknown to your husband; don't have wicked companions abroad and neglect your wife, otherwise you will be run through the body, and ruin will ensue, and disgrace, and Tyburn. [26]

Industry and Idleness

Industry and Idleness Plate 1, The Fellow 'Prentices at their Looms William Hogarth - Industry and Idleness, Plate 1; The Fellow 'Prentices at their Looms.png
Industry and Idleness Plate 1, The Fellow 'Prentices at their Looms

In the twelve prints of Industry and Idleness (1747) [27] Hogarth shows the progression in the lives of two apprentices, one of whom is dedicated and hard working, while the other, who is idle, commits crime and is eventually executed. This shows the work ethic of Protestant England, where those who worked hard were rewarded, such as the industrious apprentice who becomes Sheriff (plate 8), Alderman (plate 10), and finally the Lord Mayor of London in the last plate in the series. The idle apprentice, who begins "at play in the church yard" (plate 3), holes up "in a Garrett with a Common Prostitute" after turning highwayman (plate 7) and "executed at Tyburn" (plate 11). The idle apprentice is sent to the gallows by the industrious apprentice himself. For each plate, there is at least one passage from the Bible at the bottom, most from the Book of Proverbs, such as for the first plate of "Industry and Idleness, shown here, "Proverbs Ch:10 Ver:4 The hand of the diligent maketh rich."

Beer Street and Gin Lane

Gin Lane GinLane.jpg
Gin Lane

Later prints of significance include his pictorial warning of the consequences of alcoholism in Beer Street and Gin Lane (1751). [28] Hogarth engraved Beer Street to show a happy city drinking the 'good' beverage, English beer, in contrast to Gin Lane, in which the effects of drinking gin are shown – as a more potent liquor, gin caused more problems for society. [29] People are shown as healthy, happy and prosperous in Beer Street, while in Gin Lane they are scrawny, lazy and careless. The woman at the front of Gin Lane, who lets her baby fall to its death, echoes the tale of Judith Dufour, who strangled her baby so she could sell its clothes for gin money. [30] The prints were published in support of the Gin Act 1751.

Hogarth's friend, the magistrate Henry Fielding, may have enlisted Hogarth to help with propaganda for the Gin Act: Beer Street and Gin Lane were issued shortly after his work An Enquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers, and Related Writings, and addressed the same issues. [31]

The Four Stages of Cruelty

Other prints were his outcry against inhumanity in The Four Stages of Cruelty (published 21 February 1751), [32] in which Hogarth depicts the cruel treatment of animals which he saw around him and suggests what will happen to people who carry on in this manner. In the first picture there are scenes of torture of dogs, cats and other animals. The second shows one of the characters from the first painting, Tom Nero, has now become a coach driver, and his cruelty to his horse has caused it to break its leg. In the third painting Tom is shown as a murderer, with the woman he killed lying on the ground, while in the fourth, titled Reward of Cruelty, the murderer is shown being dissected by scientists after his execution. The method of execution, and the dissection, reflect the 1752 Act of Parliament allowing for the dissection of executed criminals who had been convicted for murder.

Portraits

David Garrick as Richard III, 1745 William Hogarth - David Garrick as Richard III - Google Art Project.jpg
David Garrick as Richard III, 1745
Portrait of a Man, 1741 Hogarth, William - Portrait of a Man - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait of a Man, 1741

Hogarth was also a popular portrait painter. In 1745 he painted actor David Garrick as Richard III, [33] for which he was paid £200, "which was more", he wrote, "than any English artist ever received for a single portrait." In 1746 a sketch of Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, afterwards beheaded on Tower Hill, had an exceptional success. [34] In 1740 [35] he created a truthful, vivid full-length portrait of his friend, the philanthropic Captain Coram for the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, now in the Foundling Museum, [36] and his unfinished oil sketch of a young fishwoman, entitled The Shrimp Girl (National Gallery, London), [37] may be called masterpieces of British painting. There are also portraits of his wife and his two sisters, and of many other people, among them Bishop Hoadly and Bishop Herring.

Historical subjects

For a long period of his life, Hogarth tried to achieve the status of history painter, but had no great success in this field.

Biblical scenes

Examples of his history pictures are The Pool of Bethesda and The Good Samaritan, executed in 1736–1737 for St Bartholomew's Hospital; [38] Moses brought before Pharaoh's Daughter, painted for the Foundling Hospital (1747, formerly at the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, now in the Foundling Museum); [39] Paul before Felix (1748) at Lincoln's Inn; [40] and his altarpiece for St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol (1755–56). [41]

The Gate of Calais

The Gate of Calais (1748; now in Tate Britain) was produced soon after his return from a visit to France. [42] Horace Walpole wrote that Hogarth had run a great risk to go there since the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle:

he went to France, and was so imprudent as to be taking a sketch of the drawbridge at Calais. He was seized and carried to the governor, where he was forced to prove his vocation by producing several caricatures of the French; particularly a scene of the shore, with an immense piece of beef landing for the Lion d'argent, the English inn at Calais, and several hungry friars following it. They were much diverted with his drawings, and dismissed him.

Back home, he immediately executed a painting of the subject in which he unkindly represented his enemies, the Frenchmen, as cringing, emaciated and superstitious people, while an enormous sirloin of beef arrives, destined for the English inn as a symbol of British prosperity and superiority. He claimed to have painted himself into the picture in the left corner sketching the gate, with a "soldier's hand upon my shoulder", running him in. [43]

Other later works

Eva Marie Veigel and husband David Garrick, c. 1757-1764, Royal Collection at Windsor Castle William Hogarth - David Garrick (1717-79) with his wife Eva-Maria Veigel, "La Violette" or "Violetti" (1725 - 1822) - Google Art Project.jpg
Eva Marie Veigel and husband David Garrick, c. 1757–1764, Royal Collection at Windsor Castle

Notable Hogarth engravings in the 1740s include The Enraged Musician (1741), the six prints of Marriage à-la-mode (1745; executed by French artists under Hogarth's inspection), and The Stage Coach or The Country Inn Yard (1747). [44]

In 1745 Hogarth painted a self-portrait with his pug dog Trump (now also in Tate Britain), which shows him as a learned artist supported by volumes of Shakespeare, Milton and Swift. [45] In 1749, he represented the somewhat disorderly English troops on their March of the Guards to Finchley (formerly located in Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, now Foundling Museum). [46]

Others works included his ingenious Satire on False Perspective (1754); [47] his satire on canvassing in his Election series (1755–1758; now in Sir John Soane's Museum); [48] his ridicule of the English passion for cockfighting in The Cockpit (1759); his attack on Methodism in Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism (1762); his political anti-war satire in The Times, plate I (1762); and his pessimistic view of all things in Tailpiece, or The Bathos (1764). [49]

Writing

The Analysis of Beauty plate 1 (1753) Analysis of Beauty Plate 1 by William Hogarth.jpg
The Analysis of Beauty plate 1 (1753)

Hogarth wrote and published his ideas of artistic design in his book The Analysis of Beauty (1753). [50] In it, he professes to define the principles of beauty and grace which he, a real child of Rococo, saw realized in serpentine lines (the Line of Beauty). [51] By some of Hogarth's adherents, the book was praised as a fine deliverance upon aesthetics; by his enemies and rivals, its obscurities and minor errors were made the subject of endless ridicule and caricature. [52]

Painter and engraver of modern moral subjects

Hogarth lived in an age when artwork became increasingly commercialized, being viewed in shop windows, taverns, and public buildings, and sold in printshops. Old hierarchies broke down, and new forms began to flourish: the ballad opera, the bourgeois tragedy, and especially, a new form of fiction called the novel with which authors such as Henry Fielding had great success. Therefore, by that time, Hogarth hit on a new idea: "painting and engraving modern moral subjects ... to treat my subjects as a dramatic writer; my picture was my stage", as he himself remarked in his manuscript notes.

He drew from the highly moralizing Protestant tradition of Dutch genre painting, and the very vigorous satirical traditions of the English broadsheet and other types of popular print. In England the fine arts had little comedy in them before Hogarth. His prints were expensive, and remained so until early 19th-century reprints brought them to a wider audience.

Parodic borrowings from Old Masters

When analysing the work of the artist as a whole, Ronald Paulson says, "In A Harlot's Progress , every single plate but one is based on Dürer's images of the story of the Virgin and the story of the Passion." In other works, he parodies Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper. According to Paulson, Hogarth is subverting the religious establishment and the orthodox belief in an immanent God who intervenes in the lives of people and produces miracles. Indeed, Hogarth was a Deist, a believer in a God who created the universe but takes no direct hand in the lives of his creations. Thus, as a "comic history painter", he often poked fun at the old-fashioned, "beaten" subjects of religious art in his paintings and prints. Hogarth also rejected Lord Shaftesbury's then-current ideal of the classical Greek male in favour of the living, breathing female. He said, "Who but a bigot, even to the antiques, will say that he has not seen faces and necks, hands and arms in living women, that even the Grecian Venus doth but coarsely imitate."

Personal life

On 23 March 1729 Hogarth married Jane Thornhill, daughter of artist Sir James Thornhill.

Hogarth was initiated as a Freemason before 1728 in the Lodge at the Hand and Apple Tree Tavern, Little Queen Street, and later belonged to the Carrier Stone Lodge and the Grand Stewards' Lodge; the latter still possesses the 'Hogarth Jewel' which Hogarth designed for the Lodge's Master to wear. [53] Today the original is in storage and a replica is worn by the Master of the Lodge. Freemasonry was a theme in some of Hogarth's work, most notably 'Night', the fourth in the quartet of paintings (later released as engravings) collectively entitled the Four Times of the Day .

His main home was in Leicester Square (then known as Leicester Fields), but he bought a country retreat in Chiswick in 1749, the house now known as Hogarth's House and preserved as a museum, and spent time there for the rest of his life. [54] [55] The Hogarths had no children, although they fostered foundling children. He was a founding Governor of the Foundling Hospital.

Among his friends and acquaintances were many English artists and satirists of the period, such as Francis Hayman, Henry Fielding, and Laurence Sterne.

Death

Tomb of William and Jane Hogarth William Hogarth's tomb.jpg
Tomb of William and Jane Hogarth

Hogarth died in London on 26 October 1764 and was buried at St. Nicholas Church, Chiswick, London. His friend, actor David Garrick, composed the following inscription for his tombstone:

Farewell great Painter of Mankind
Who reach'd the noblest point of Art
Whose pictur'd Morals charm the Mind
And through the Eye correct the Heart.

If Genius fire thee, Reader, stay,
If Nature touch thee, drop a Tear:
If neither move thee, turn away,
For Hogarth's honour'd dust lies here.

Influence and reputation

Hogarth's works were a direct influence on John Collier, who was known as the "Lancashire Hogarth". [56] The spread of Hogarth's prints throughout Europe, together with the depiction of popular scenes from his prints in faked Hogarth prints, influenced Continental book illustration through the 18th and early 19th centuries, especially in Germany and France. He also influenced many caricaturists of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Hogarth's influence lives on today as artists continue to draw inspiration from his work.

Hogarth's paintings and prints have provided the subject matter for several other works. For example, Gavin Gordon's 1935 ballet The Rake's Progress , to choreography by Ninette de Valois, was based directly on Hogarth's series of paintings of that title. Igor Stravinsky's 1951 opera The Rake's Progress , with libretto by W. H. Auden, was less literally inspired by the same series. Hogarth's engravings also inspired the BBC radio play The Midnight House by Jonathan Hall, based on the M. R. James ghost story "The Mezzotint" and first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 2006.

Russell Banks' short story "Indisposed" is a fictional account of Hogarth's infidelity as told from the viewpoint of his wife, Jane. Hogarth was the lead character in Nick Dear's play The Art of Success , whilst he is played by Toby Jones in the 2006 television film A Harlot's Progress .

Hogarth's House in Chiswick, west London, is now a museum; it abuts one of London's best known road junctions – the Hogarth Roundabout. In 2014 both Hogarth's House and the Foundling Museum held special exhibitions to mark the 250th anniversary of his death.

Selected works

Paintings
Engravings

See also

Notes

  1. "William Hogarth – Miss Mary Edwards : The Frick Collection". collections.frick.org.
  2. "The Rococo Influence in British Art – dummies". dummies. Retrieved 2017-06-23.
  3. According to Elizabeth Einberg, "by the time he died in October 1764 he had left so indelible a mark on the history of British painting that the term 'Hogarthian' remains instantly comprehensible even today as a valid description of a wry, satirical perception of the human condition." See the exhibition catalog, Hogarth the Painter, London: Tate Gallery, 1997, p. 17.
  4. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, vol. 1: The 'Modern Moral Subject', 1697–1732 (New Brunswick 1991), pp. 26–37.
  5. Frederick Antal, Hogarth and His Place in European Art (London 1962); Robin Simon, Hogarth, France and British Art: The rise of the arts in eighteenth-century Britain (London 2007).
  6. Bernd W. Krysmanski, Hogarth's Hidden Parts: Satiric Allusion, Erotic Wit, Blasphemous Bawdiness and Dark Humour in Eighteenth-Century English Art (Hildesheim, Zurich and New York: Georg Olms 2010).
  7. Ellis Gamble Biographical Details. The British Museum.
  8. W. H. K. Wright. The Journal of the Ex Libris Society, Volume 3 (A & C. Black, Plymouth, 1894)
  9. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, vol. 1 (New Brunswick 1991), pp. 26–37.
  10. Coombs, Katherine, 'Lens [Laus] family (per. c. 1650–1779), artists' in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)
  11. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, vol. 3 (New Brunswick 1993), pp. 213–216.
  12. See Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works (3rd edition, London 1989), no. 43.
  13. Paulson, Hogarth, vol. 1, pp. 172–185, 206–215.
  14. Sarah Malcolm, The Hogarth Room, The Tate, retrieved 7 August 2014
  15. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, vol. 2 (New Brunswick 1992), pp. 1–4.
  16. See Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, p. 35.
  17. J. B. Nichols, 1833 p.192 "PLATE VIII. ... Britannia 1763"
  18. J. B. Nichols, 1833 p.193 "Retouched by the Author, 1763"
  19. Elizabeth Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings (New Haven and London: Yale University Press 2016), nos. 21–26.
  20. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition (London: The Print Room 1989), nos. 121–126.
  21. Cruickshank, Dan (2010). London's Sinful Secret: The Bawdy History and Very Public Passions of London's Georgian Age. Macmillan. pp. 19–20. ISBN   1429919566.
  22. For the paintings, see Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, nos. 74–81. For the engravings, see Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, nos. 132–139.
  23. "A Rake's Progress". Sir John Soane's Museum. Sir John Soane's Museum. 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  24. Verhoogt, Robert (2007). Art in Reproduction: Nineteenth-century Prints After Lawrence Alma-tadema, Jozef Israels and Ary Scheffer. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN   9053569138 . Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  25. Judy Egerton, Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode' , London: The National Gallery 1997.
  26. Thackeray, William Makepeace, The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century.
  27. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, nos. 168–179.
  28. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, nos. 185–186.
  29. See Mark Hallett, The Spectacle of Difference (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), pp.198–222.
  30. See "Hogarth, the father of the modern cartoon", The Telegraph, 13 May 2015.
  31. See "William Hogarth, Beer Street and Gin Lane, two prints", British Museum. Archived 31 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  32. Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition (London: The Print Room 1989), nos. 168–179.
  33. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 185.
  34. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, no. 166.
  35. Waterhouse, Ellis. (1994) Painting in Britain 1530–1790. 5th edn. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p. 175. ISBN   0300058330
  36. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 128.
  37. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 148.
  38. Elizabeth Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings (New Haven and London: Yale University Press 2016), nos. 90–91.
  39. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 198.
  40. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 204.
  41. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 222.
  42. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 201.
  43. J. B. Nichols, 1833 p.63 "in one corner introduced my own portrait"
  44. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, nos. 152, 158–163, 167.
  45. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 194.
  46. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, no. 207.
  47. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, no. 232.
  48. Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, nos. 214–217.
  49. Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, nos. 206, 210a, 211, 216.
  50. William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty (1753), ed. Ronald Paulson, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997 ISBN   978-0-300-07346-1
  51. Tate. "Rococo – Art Term | Tate". Tate. Retrieved 2017-06-23.
  52. Timbs, John (1881). Anecdote Lives of William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Henry Fuseli, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and J.M.W. Turner. R. Bentley. pp. 57–58.
  53. See references in this biography.
  54. "Hogarth's House | Hounslow.info". 2018-01-23. Archived from the original on 2018-01-23. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  55. Joel Taylor (11 March 2005). "Camden New Journal". camdennewjournal.co.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  56. Hignett, Tim (1991). Milnrow & Newhey: A Lancashire Legacy. Littleborough: George Kelsall Publishing. p. 39. ISBN   0-946571-19-8.

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Ronald Howard Paulson, is an American professor of English, a specialist in English 18th-century art and culture, and English artist William Hogarth.

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Sir John Gonson was an English judge for nearly 50 years in the early 18th century, serving as a Justice of the Peace and Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the City of Westminster. Gonson was a supporter of the Society for the Reformation of Manners, and was noted for his enthusiasm for raiding brothels and for passing harsh sentences.

<i>Industry and Idleness</i> series of engravings

Industry and Idleness is the title of a series of 12 plot-linked engravings created by William Hogarth in 1747, intending to illustrate to working children the possible rewards of hard work and diligent application and the sure disasters attending a lack of both. Unlike his earlier works, such as A Harlot's Progress (1731) and Marriage à-la-mode (1743), which were painted first and subsequently converted to engravings, Industry and Idleness was created solely as a set of engravings. Each of the prints was sold for 1 shilling each so 12 for the entire set, which is equivalent in purchasing power to approximately 80 GBP as of 2005. It may be assumed that these prints were aimed for a wider and less wealthy market than his earlier works. The originals currently reside at the British Museum.

<i>The Four Stages of Cruelty</i> A series of printed engravings by William Hogarth

The Four Stages of Cruelty is a series of four printed engravings published by English artist William Hogarth in 1751. Each print depicts a different stage in the life of the fictional Tom Nero.

<i>Four Times of the Day</i> A series of four paintings by English artist William Hogarth

Four Times of the Day is a series of four oil paintings by English artist William Hogarth. Completed in 1736, they were reproduced as a series of four engravings published in 1738. They are humorous depictions of life in the streets of London, the vagaries of fashion, and the interactions between the rich and poor. Unlike many of Hogarth's other series, such as A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress, Industry and Idleness, and The Four Stages of Cruelty, it does not depict the story of an individual, but instead focuses on the society of the city. Hogarth intended the series to be humorous rather than instructional; the pictures do not offer a judgment on whether the rich or poor are more deserving of the viewer's sympathies: while the upper and middle classes tend to provide the focus for each scene, there are fewer of the moral comparisons seen in some of his other works. Their dimensions are about 74 cm (29 in) by 61 cm (24 in) each.

<i>Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn</i> painting by William Hogarth

Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn is a painting from 1738 by British artist William Hogarth. It was reproduced as an engraving and issued with Four Times of the Day as a five print set in the same year. The painting depicts a company of actresses preparing for their final performance before the troupe is disbanded as a result of the Licensing Act 1737. Brought in as a result of John Gay's Beggar's Opera of 1728, which had linked Robert Walpole with the notorious criminal Jonathan Wild, the Licensing Act made it compulsory for new plays to be approved by the Lord Chamberlain, and, more importantly for the characters depicted, closed any non-patent theatres. The majority of the painting was completed before the Act was passed in 1737, but its passing into law was no surprise and it was the work of a moment for Hogarth to insert a reference to the Act itself into the picture.

<i>The Gate of Calais</i> 1748 painting by William Hogarth

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<i>The Distrest Poet</i> painting by William Hogarth

The Distrest Poet is an oil painting produced sometime around 1736 by the British artist William Hogarth. Reproduced as an etching and engraving, it was published in 1741 from a third state plate produced in 1740. The scene was probably inspired by Alexander Pope's satirical poem The Dunciad. It depicts a scene in a small, dingy attic room where a poet sits at his desk in the dormer and, scratching his head, stares at the papers on the desk before him, evidently looking for inspiration to complete the poem he is writing. Near him sits his wife darning clothes, surprised by the entrance of a milkmaid, who impatiently demands payment of debts.

<i>Beer Street</i> and <i>Gin Lane</i> two prints by William Hogarth

Beer Street and Gin Lane are two prints issued in 1751 by English artist William Hogarth in support of what would become the Gin Act. Designed to be viewed alongside each other, they depict the evils of the consumption of gin as a contrast to the merits of drinking beer. At almost the same time and on the same subject, Hogarth's friend Henry Fielding published An Inquiry into the Late Increase in Robbers. Issued together with The Four Stages of Cruelty, the prints continued a movement started in Industry and Idleness, away from depicting the laughable foibles of fashionable society and towards a more cutting satire on the problems of poverty and crime.

<i>Columbus Breaking the Egg</i> print by William Hogarth

Columbus Breaking the Egg is a 1752 engraving by English artist William Hogarth. Issued as the subscription ticket for his treatise on art, The Analysis of Beauty, it depicts an apocryphal tale concerning Christopher Columbus's response to detractors of his discovery of the New World. Hogarth uses the story as a parallel to what he considered his own discoveries in art.

<i>The March of the Guards to Finchley</i> painting by William Hogarth

The March of the Guards to Finchley, also known as The March to Finchley or The March of the Guards, is a 1750 oil-on-canvas painting by English artist William Hogarth, owned by and on display at the Foundling Museum. Hogarth was well known for his satirical works, and The March of the Guards to Finchley has been said to have given full scope to this sense of satire; it was described by Hogarth himself as "steeped in humour".

<i>Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme</i> print by William Hogarth

Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme is an early print by William Hogarth, created in 1721 and widely published from 1724. It caricatures the financial speculation, corruption and credulity that caused the South Sea Bubble in England in 1720–1. The print is often considered the first editorial cartoon or as a precursor of the form.

<i>The Bad Taste of the Town</i>

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Trump was a pug owned by English painter William Hogarth. The artist included the dog in several works, including his self-portrait Painter and his Pug, held by the Tate Gallery. In the words of the Tate's display caption, "Hogarth's pug dog, Trump, serves as an emblem of the artist's own pugnacious character."

Before and After (Hogarth) set of 1731 pendant paintings by William Hogarth that he later engraved in 1736, Getty museum version

Before and After is a pair of comic paintings by British painter William Hogarth. He made two painted versions in 1730–31. The first version show an exterior scene in a wooded glade, based on contemporary French pastoral fête galante, while a second version move the scene indoors. Hogarth made an engravings based on the second version in 1736. In each pair, based on the position and appearance of the subjects, the first painting shows the couple before and the second after sexual intercourse.

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