William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne

Last updated


The Viscount Melbourne

William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer.jpg
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
18 April 1835 30 August 1841
Monarch William IV
Victoria
Preceded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Succeeded bySir Robert Peel, Bt
In office
16 July 1834 14 November 1834
MonarchWilliam IV
Preceded by The Earl Grey
Succeeded by The Duke of Wellington
Leader of the Opposition
In office
30 August 1841 October 1842
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded bySir Robert Peel, Bt
Succeeded by Lord John Russell
In office
14 November 1834 18 April 1835
MonarchWilliam IV
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded by The Duke of Wellington
Succeeded bySir Robert Peel, Bt
Home Secretary
In office
22 November 1830 16 July 1834
Prime MinisterThe Earl Grey
Preceded bySir Robert Peel, Bt
Succeeded by The Viscount Duncannon
Chief Secretary for Ireland
In office
29 April 1827 21 June 1828
Prime Minister George Canning
The Viscount Goderich
The Duke of Wellington
Preceded by Henry Goulburn
Succeeded by Lord Francis Leveson-Gower
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
16 July 1834 14 November 1834
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byThe Earl Grey
Succeeded byThe Duke of Wellington
In office
18 April 1835 30 August 1841
Preceded byThe Duke of Wellington
Succeeded byThe Duke of Wellington
Member of the British Parliament
for Leominster
In office
1806–1806
Preceded by John Lubbock
Charles Kinnaird
Succeeded by John Lubbock
Henry Bonham
Member of the British Parliament
for Portarlington
In office
1807–1812
Preceded by Sir Oswald Mosley, Bt
Succeeded by Arthur Shakespeare
Member of the British Parliament
for Peterborough
In office
1816–1819
Preceded by William Elliot
George Ponsonby
Succeeded by The Lord Abinger
Sir Robert Heron, Bt
Personal details
Born(1779-03-15)15 March 1779
London, England
Died24 November 1848(1848-11-24) (aged 69)
Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, England
Resting place St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield
Political party Whig
Spouse(s)
Lady Caroline Ponsonby
(m. 1805;died 1828)
Children2
Parents
Alma mater
Signature William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne Signature.svg

William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC , PC (Ire) , FRS (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, [1] [2] was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime minister in Queen Victoria's early years and coaching her in the ways of politics, acting almost as her private secretary. Historians have concluded that Melbourne does not rank highly as a Prime Minister, for there were no great foreign wars or domestic issues to handle, he lacked major achievements, he enunciated no grand principles, and he was involved in several political scandals in the early years of Victoria's reign.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, commonly known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or simply the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

The Privy Council of Ireland was an institution of the Kingdom of Ireland until 31 December 1800 and of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. It performed a similar role in the Dublin Castle administration in Ireland to that of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in the government of the United Kingdom.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science'.

Contents

Melbourne was Prime Minister on two occasions. The first occasion ended when he was dismissed by King William IV in 1834, the last British prime minister to be dismissed by a monarch. Six months later he was re-appointed and served for six years.

William IV of the United Kingdom King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover 1830-1837

William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover.

Early life

Born in London in 1779 to an aristocratic Whig family, William Lamb was the son of the 1st Viscount Melbourne and Elizabeth, Viscountess Melbourne (1751–1818). However, his paternity was questioned, being attributed to George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, to whom it was considered he bore a considerable resemblance, and at whose residence, Petworth, Lamb was a visitor until the Earl's death; Lamb was called to Egremont's bedside when Egremont was dying. [3] [4] [5] Lamb nevertheless stated that Egremont being his father was 'all a lie'. [6]

Peniston Lamb, 1st Viscount Melbourne British politician

Peniston Lamb, 1st Viscount Melbourne, known as Sir Peniston Lamb, 2nd Baronet, from 1768 to 1770, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1793. He was the father of Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne.

Elizabeth Lamb, Viscountess Melbourne Viscountess Melbourne

Elizabeth Lamb, Viscountess Melbourne was one of the most influential of the political hostesses of the extended Regency period, and the wife of Whig politician Peniston Lamb, 1st Viscount Melbourne. She was the mother of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and several other influential children. Lady Melbourne was known for her political influence and her friendships and romantic relationships with other members of the English aristocracy, including Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford, and George, Prince of Wales. Because of her numerous love affairs, the paternity of several of her children is a matter of dispute.

George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont British earl

George O'Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of EgremontFRS of Petworth House in Sussex and Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, was a British peer, a major landowner and a great art collector. He was interested in the latest scientific advances. He was an agriculturist and a friend of the agricultural writer Arthur Young, and was an enthusiastic canal builder who invested in many commercial ventures for the improvement of his estates. He played a limited role in politics.

He was educated at Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge (admitted 1796, graduated M.A. 1799 [1] ) and the University of Glasgow (1799–1801), as a resident pupil of Professor John Millar [7] alongside his younger brother Frederick. [8] Admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1797, he was called to the bar in 1804. [1] Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Lamb served at home as captain (1803) and major (1804) in the Hertfordshire Volunteer Infantry. [9]

Eton College school in Windsor and Maidenhead, UK

Eton College is a public school for boys aged 13-18 in Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore, as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton's history and influence have made it one of the most prestigious schools in the world.

Trinity College, Cambridge constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, and over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Homerton College, Cambridge.

In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university. As such, it is an academic rank, and not a postgraduate qualification. No further examination or study is required for this promotion.

He succeeded his elder brother as heir to his father's title in 1805, and married Lady Caroline Ponsonby, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat. The following year, he was elected to the British House of Commons as the Whig MP for Leominster. For the election in 1806 he moved to the seat of Haddington Burghs, and for the 1807 election he successfully stood for Portarlington (a seat he held until 1812). [10]

Lady Caroline Lamb English writer

Lady Caroline Lamb, known as the Honourable Caroline Ponsonby until her father succeeded to the earldom in 1793, was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat and novelist, best known for her work Glenarvon, a Gothic novel. She is also known for her affair with Lord Byron in 1812. Her husband was The Hon. William Lamb, who later became Viscount Melbourne and Prime Minister. However, she was never the Viscountess Melbourne because she died before Melbourne succeeded to the peerage.

Anglo-Irish people ethnic group in Ireland

Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy. They mostly belong to the Anglican Church of Ireland, which was the established church of Ireland until 1871, or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church, though some were Roman Catholics. Its members tended to follow English practices in matters of culture, science, law, agriculture and politics, but often defined themselves as simply "British", and less frequently "Anglo-Irish", "Irish" or "English". Many became eminent as administrators in the British Empire and as senior army and naval officers.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom Lower house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons, officially the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House.

Lamb first came to general notice for reasons he would rather have avoided: his wife had a public affair with Lord Byron—she coined the famous characterisation of Byron as "mad, bad and dangerous to know". [11] The resulting scandal was the talk of Britain in 1812. Lady Caroline published a Gothic novel, Glenarvon , in 1816; this portrayed both the marriage and her affair with Byron in a lurid fashion, which caused William even greater embarrassment, while the spiteful caricatures of leading society figures made them several influential enemies. Eventually the two were reconciled, and, though they separated in 1825, her death in 1828 affected him considerably.

Glenarvon is Lady Caroline Lamb's first novel. It created a sensation when published in 1816. Set in the Irish rebellion of 1798, the book challenged establishment thinking while casting a skeptical eye on left-wing politicking. Its rakish title character, Lord Ruthven, is an unflattering depiction of her ex-lover, Lord Byron.

Member of Parliament

In 1816, Lamb was returned for Peterborough by Whig grandee Lord Fitzwilliam. He told Lord Holland that he was committed to the Whig principles of the Glorious Revolution but not to "a heap of modern additions, interpolations, facts and fictions". [10] He therefore spoke against parliamentary reform, and voted for the suspension of habeas corpus in 1817 when sedition was rife. [10]

Lamb's hallmark was finding the middle ground. Though a Whig, he accepted (29 April 1827) the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland in the moderate Tory governments of George Canning and Lord Goderich. Upon the death of his father in 1828 and his becoming the 2nd Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, he moved to the House of Lords. He had spent 25 years in the Commons, largely as a backbencher, and was not politically well known. [12]

Home Secretary: 1830–1834

In November 1830, the Whigs came to power under Lord Grey. Melbourne was Home Secretary. During the disturbances of 1830–32 he "acted both vigorously and sensitively, and it was for this function that his reforming brethren thanked him heartily". [10] In the aftermath of the Swing Riots of 1830–31, he countered the Tory magistrates' alarmism by refusing to resort to military force; instead, he advocated magistrates' usual powers be fully enforced, along with special constables and financial rewards for the arrest of rioters and rabble-rousers. He appointed a special commission to try approximately 1,000 of those arrested, and ensured that justice was strictly adhered to: one-third were acquitted and most of the one-fifth sentenced to death were instead transported. [10] There remains controversy regarding the hanging of Dic Penderyn, a protester in the Merthyr Rising who was then, and is now, widely judged to have been innocent. He appears to have been executed solely on the word of Melbourne, who sought a victim in order to 'set an example'. [13] The disturbances over reform in 1831–32 were countered with the enforcement of the usual laws; again, Melbourne refused to pass emergency legislation against sedition. [10]

Prime Minister: 1834, 1835–1841

After Lord Grey resigned as Prime Minister in July 1834, the King was forced to appoint another Whig to replace him, as the Tories were not strong enough to support a government. Melbourne was the man most likely to be both acceptable to the King and hold the Whig party together. Melbourne hesitated after receiving from Grey the letter from the King requesting him to visit him to discuss the formation of a government. Melbourne thought he would not enjoy the extra work that accompanied the office of Premier, but he did not want to let his friends and party down. According to Charles Greville, Melbourne said to his secretary, Tom Young: "I think it's a damned bore. I am in many minds as to what to do". Young replied: "Why, damn it all, such a position was never held by any Greek or Roman: and if it only lasts three months, it will be worth while to have been Prime Minister of England[ sic ]." "By God, that's true," Melbourne said, "I'll go!" [14]

Compromise was the key to many of Melbourne's actions. As an aristocrat, he had a vested interest in the status quo. He was opposed to the Reform Act 1832 proposed by the Whigs, arguing that Catholic emancipation had not ended in the tranquility expected of it, [15] but reluctantly agreed that it was necessary to forestall the threat of revolution. Later he opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws, arguing not only that Catholic emancipation had failed, but also that the Reform Act had not improved the condition of the people. [15] Melbourne was also a strong supporter of slavery, calling Britain's abolishment of slavery a "great folly" and if he had had his own way (as opposed to what many Whigs wanted), he would "have done nothing at all!" [16]

King William IV's opposition to the Whigs' reforming ways led him to dismiss Melbourne in November. He then gave the Tories under Sir Robert Peel an opportunity to form a government. Peel's failure to win a House of Commons majority in the resulting general election (January 1835) made it impossible for him to govern, and the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne that April. This was the last time a British monarch attempted to appoint a government to suit his own preferences. [17]

Blackmailed

The next year, Melbourne was once again involved in a sex scandal. This time he was the victim of attempted blackmail from the husband of a close friend, society beauty and author Caroline Norton. The husband demanded £1,400, and when he was turned down he accused Melbourne of having an affair with his wife. [18] At that time such a scandal would have been enough to derail a major politician, so it is a measure of the respect contemporaries had for his integrity that Melbourne's government did not fall. The king and the Duke of Wellington urged him to stay on as prime minister. After Norton failed in court, Melbourne was vindicated, but he did stop seeing Norton. [19]

Nonetheless, as historian Boyd Hilton concludes, "it is irrefutable that Melbourne's personal life was problematic. Spanking sessions with aristocratic ladies were harmless, not so the whippings administered to orphan girls taken into his household as objects of charity." [20]

Queen Victoria

Melbourne was Prime Minister when Queen Victoria came to the throne (June 1837). Barely eighteen, she was only just breaking free from the domineering influence of her mother, the Duchess of Kent, and her mother's adviser, Sir John Conroy. Over the next four years Melbourne trained her in the art of politics, and the two became friends: Victoria was quoted as saying she considered him like a father (her own had died when she was only eight months old), and Melbourne's son had died at a young age. [21] Melbourne was given a private apartment at Windsor Castle, and unfounded rumours circulated for a time that Victoria would marry Melbourne, 40 years her senior. Tutoring Victoria was the climax of Melbourne's career: the prime minister spent four to five hours a day visiting and writing to her, and she responded with enthusiasm. [22]

Lord Melbourne's tutoring of Victoria reached two points of serious political damage: first, the Lady Flora Hastings affair, followed not long after by the Bedchamber Crisis. Victoria's reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when Hastings, one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy. [23] Victoria believed the rumours, as did Lord Melbourne. [23] When Victoria told Melbourne of her suspicions, he planted in her head that Victoria's mother, the Duchess of Kent, was jealous of Hasting's closeseness to Conroy, which made Victoria excited and more resolute on the matter. [24] Initially, Melbourne "suggested quiet watchfulness" over Hastings's body changes. [24] But after the court physician, Sir James Clarke, had examined Hastings and generally concluded she wasn't pregnant, Melbourne was wholly persuaded Hastings must be pregnant from a throwaway comment that Clarke made about the appearance of virginity in spite of pregnancy. Melbourne immediately informed the queen. When Victoria observed to him that Hastings had not been seen in public for a while because "she was so sick," Melbourne "repeated, 'Sick?' with what the queen described as 'a significant laugh.'" [25]

Chartism

Chartism took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a working-class movement for parliamentary reform. The Chartists also fought against the New Poor Law of 1834. In June 1839, the petition, signed by 1.3 million working people, was presented to the House of Commons, but MPs voted not to hear the petitioners.

Colonial empire

The Rebellions of 1837–1838 led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America and to The British North America Act, 1840 which established a new political entity, the Province of Canada.

The Whig cabinet under Melbourne decided on 1 October 1839 to send an expeditionary force to China to protect British interests. The First Opium War was fought between China and the United Kingdom from 1839 to 1842.

The First Anglo-Afghan War occurred between 1839 and 1842. At the beginning of the conflict, the East India Company troops had defeated the forces of Afghan Emir and in 1839 occupied Kabul.

The Treaty of Waitangi was signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs. In November 1840 a royal charter was signed by Queen Victoria, establishing New Zealand as a Crown colony. [26]

Continued rule

Lord Melbourne (1844, age 65); detail from a painting by John Partridge. William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, painted by John Partridge.jpg
Lord Melbourne (1844, age 65); detail from a painting by John Partridge.

On 7 May 1839, Melbourne announced his intention to resign. This led to the Bedchamber Crisis. Prospective prime minister Robert Peel requested that Victoria dismiss some of the wives and daughters of Whig MPs who made up her personal entourage, arguing that the monarch should avoid any hint of favouritism to a party out of power. The Queen refused to comply—supported by Melbourne, although he was unaware that Peel had not requested the resignation of all the Queen's ladies as she had led him to believe—and hence, Peel refused to form a new government, and Melbourne was persuaded to stay on as Prime Minister.[ citation needed ]

Among his government's acts were a reduction in the number of capital offences, reforms of local government, and the reform of the Poor laws. This restricted the terms on which the poor were allowed relief and established compulsory admission to workhouses for the impoverished.[ citation needed ]

On 25 February 1841, Melbourne was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society. [28]

Final vote of no confidence and resignation

Following a vote of no confidence initiated by Conservative MP John Stuart-Wortley, Melbourne's government fell, and he resigned as Prime Minister on 30 August 1841. [29]

Later life: 1841–1848

A plaque marking the burial of Melbourne at St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, England ViscountMelbournePlaque.jpg
A plaque marking the burial of Melbourne at St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, England

After Melbourne resigned permanently in August 1841, Victoria continued to write to him about political matters, but as it was deemed inappropriate after a time their letters became cordial and non-political without issue. [30] It has been observed that Melbourne's role faded as Victoria increasingly relied on her new husband Prince Albert.[ citation needed ]

Though weakened, Melbourne survived a stroke fourteen months after his departure from politics.[ citation needed ] In retirement, he lived at Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire. He died on 24 November 1848 [31] at Brocket Hall and was buried at nearby St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield, Hertfordshire. [32]

On his death, his titles passed to his brother Frederick, as both of his children—a son, George Augustus Frederick (1807–1836) and a premature daughter (born 1809, died at birth)—had predeceased him.[ citation needed ]

Legacy

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Lamb, the Hon. Henry William (LM796HW)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. Arnold-Baker, Charles (2001). The Companion to British History. Psychology Press. p. 875. ISBN   9780415185837 . Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  3. "LAMB, Hon. William (1779-1848), of Brocket Hall, Herts. | History of Parliament Online".
  4. Petworth- From 1660 to the present day, Peter Jerrome, The Window Press, 2006, pp. 62–63
  5. Nineteenth-Century British Premiers, Dick Leonard, pp. 163–179 URL= https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230227255_12 Date accessed= 14 October 2018
  6. Lord Melbourne, 1779–1848, L. G. Mitchell, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 6–7
  7. Torrens, William McCullach (1878). Memoirs of the Right Honourable William, Second Viscount Melbourne. 1. London: Macmillan. p. 39. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  8. Lehmann, William C. (1960). John Millar of Glasgow 1735–1801. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–38. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  9. History of Parliament article by R.G. Thorne.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Peter Mandler, "Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 27 December 2009.
  11. "Ireland: Poetic justice at home of Byron's exiled lover". The Sunday Times . London. 17 November 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2010. 'Mad, bad and dangerous to know' has become Lord Byron’s lasting epitaph. Lady Caroline Lamb coined the phrase after her first meeting with the poet at a society event in 1812.
  12. Henry Dunckley, Lord Melbourne p 135
  13. Wales Online:Trade unions to mark the legacy of Dic Penderyn and the Merthyr Uprising on 70-mile memorial walk: Robin Turner 2 August 2013: Accessed 12 August 2017
  14. Cecil, David (2001). The Young Melbourne & Lord M. W&N. p. 321. ISBN   9781842124970.
  15. 1 2 Cecil, David, Melbourne, (Indianapolis, 1954), p.422
  16. Lord Melbourne, 1779–1848, L. G. Mitchell, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 198
  17. Newbould, I. D. C. (1976). "William IV and the Dismissal of the Whigs, 1834". Canadian Journal of History. 11 (3): 311–30. doi:10.3138/cjh.11.3.311.
  18. Wroath, John (1998). Until They Are Seven, The Origins of Women's Legal Rights. Waterside Press. ISBN   1-872-870-57-0.
  19. David Cecil, Melbourne (1954) ch 11
  20. Boyd Hilton, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? England 1783–1846 (2006), p. 500.
  21. "History of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  22. Cecil, Melbourne ch 14
  23. 1 2 Hibbert, p. 77-78; Weintraub, 119-121
  24. 1 2 Weintraub, 119
  25. Hibbert, p. 79
  26. "New Zealand officially becomes British colony". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 23 December 2016. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  27. Partridge, John (1844). William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. NPG 941. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw04359/William-Lamb-2nd-Viscount-Melbourne.
  28. "Lists of Royal Society Fellows". Archived from the original on 22 January 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2006.
  29. "Confidence in the Ministry— Adjourned Debate (Fifth Day)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 58. House of Commons. 4 June 1841. col. 1121–1247. Retrieved 20 February 2016.[Narrower col range needed][Narrower col range needed]
  30. Weintraub (1997), pp. 131.
  31. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 18, 11th Edition
  32. Hibbard, Scott David. "William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne". geni.com. geni.com. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  33. Anonymous. "Short history of Melbourne". Only Melbourne. Only Melbourne. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  34. "History of the City of Melbourne" (PDF). City of Melbourne. November 1997. pp. 8–10. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  35. Ross, James Clark (2011) [1847]. A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions, During the Years 1839–43. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN   9781108030854 via Google Books.
  36. "Victoria (TV Series 2016– )". IMDb. Retrieved 27 October 2018.

Collected papers

Bibliography

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Goulburn
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1827–1828
Succeeded by
The Lord Francis Leveson-Gower
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Home Secretary
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Viscount Duncannon
Preceded by
The Earl Grey
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
16 July 1834 – 14 November 1834
Succeeded by
The Duke of Wellington
(caretaker, followed by)
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Leader of the House of Lords
1834
Succeeded by
The Duke of Wellington
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
18 April 1835 – 30 August 1841
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Leader of the House of Lords
1835–1841
Succeeded by
The Duke of Wellington
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Lubbock
Charles Kinnaird
Member of Parliament for Leominster
1806
With: John Lubbock
Succeeded by
John Lubbock
Henry Bonham
Preceded by
Sir Oswald Mosley
Member of Parliament for Portarlington
18071812
Succeeded by
Arthur Shakespeare
Preceded by
William Elliot
George Ponsonby
Member of Parliament for Peterborough
1816–1819
With: William Elliot 1816–1819
Sir James Scarlett 1819
Succeeded by
Sir James Scarlett
Sir Robert Heron, Bt
Preceded by
Thomas Brand
Sir John Saunders Sebright
Member of Parliament for Hertfordshire
1819–1826
With: Sir John Saunders Sebright
Succeeded by
Sir John Saunders Sebright
Nicolson Calvert
Preceded by
George Canning
William Henry John Scott
Member of Parliament for Newport (Isle of Wight)
1827
With: William Henry John Scott
Succeeded by
William Henry John Scott
Spencer Perceval
Preceded by
William Russell
Charles Tennyson
Member of Parliament for Bletchingley
1827–1828
With: Charles Tennyson
Succeeded by
Charles Tennyson
William Ewart
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Earl Grey
Leaders of the British Whig Party
1834–1842
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Lord John Russell
Whig Leader in the House of Lords
1834–1842
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Peniston Lamb
Viscount Melbourne
Baron Melbourne

1828–1848
Succeeded by
Frederick Lamb
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Peniston Lamb
Baron Melbourne
1828–1848
Succeeded by
Frederick Lamb

Related Research Articles

Benjamin Disraeli British Conservative Prime Minister

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield,, was a British politician of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister.

Robert Peel British Conservative statesman

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and twice as Home Secretary. He is regarded as the father of modern British policing, owing to his founding of the Metropolitan Police Service. Peel was one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.

Albert, Prince Consort Husband of Queen Victoria

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell Whig and Liberal British politician, Prime Minister on two occasions

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell,, known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1846–1852, and 1865–1866 during the early Victorian era.

Viscount Melbourne

Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland held by the Lamb family.

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey,, known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834.

Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey British politician

Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey,, known as Viscount Howick from 1807 until 1845, was an English statesman.

Second Melbourne ministry Government of the United Kingdom

The second Melbourne ministry was formed in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by the Viscount Melbourne in 1835.

Bedchamber crisis

The Bedchamber crisis occurred on 7 May 1839 after Whig politician Lord Melbourne declared his intention to resign as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after a government bill passed by a very narrow margin of only five votes in the House of Commons. The distraught young Queen Victoria, whose ardent political sympathies were with the Whigs, first asked the Duke of Wellington, a former Tory prime minister, to form a new government, but he politely declined. She then reluctantly invited Conservative leader Robert Peel to form a government. Peel realised that such a government would hold a minority in the House of Commons and would be structurally weak, possibly damaging his future political career.

Frederick Lamb, 3rd Viscount Melbourne British diplomat

Frederick James Lamb, 3rd Viscount Melbourne, GCB PC, known as The Lord Beauvale from 1839 to 1848, was a British diplomat.

Frances Jocelyn, Viscountess Jocelyn British viscountess

Frances Elizabeth Jocelyn, Viscountess Jocelyn, VA was a British courtier and amateur photographer. She was born as the youngest daughter of Peter Cowper, 5th Earl Cowper and his wife Emily Lamb. However, some have speculated that she and her brother William were fathered by Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, whom Lady Cowper married in 1839, after Cowper's death. Before her marriage, Lady Frances served as one of the trainbearers at the coronation of Queen Victoria, and she also served as a bridesmaid at the wedding of the queen to Prince Albert in 1840.

George Augustus Frederick Cowper, 6th Earl Cowper, styled Viscount Fordwich until 1837, was a British Whig politician. He served briefly as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under his uncle Lord Melbourne in 1834.

Emily Temple, Viscountess Palmerston British countess

Emily Temple, Viscountess Palmerston (1787–1869), was a leading figure of the Almack's social set, sister to Prime Minister Lord Melbourne, wife to the 5th Earl Cowper, and subsequently wife to another Prime Minister Lord Palmerston.

Henry Belasyse, 2nd Earl Fauconberg British politician

Henry Belasyse, 2nd Earl Fauconberg was a British politician and peer.