William Makepeace Thackeray

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William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray by Jesse Harrison Whitehurst-crop.jpg
1855 daguerreotype of William Makepeace Thackeray by Jesse Harrison Whitehurst (1819–1875)
Born(1811-07-18)18 July 1811
Calcutta, British India
Died24 December 1863(1863-12-24) (aged 52)
London, UK
OccupationNovelist, poet
NationalityEnglish
Period1829–1863 (published posthumously)
GenreHistorical fiction
Notable works Vanity Fair , The Luck of Barry Lyndon
SpouseIsabella Gethin Shawe
Children3, including Anne Isabella (1837–1919)

Signature William Makepeace Thackeray's signature.jpg

William Makepeace Thackeray ( /ˈθækəri/ ; 18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist, author and illustrator born in India. He is known for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair , a panoramic portrait of British society, and The Luck of Barry Lyndon , which was adapted for film by Stanley Kubrick.

Contents

Biography

Thackeray, an only child, was born in Calcutta, [1] British India, where his father, Richmond Thackeray (1 September 1781 – 13 September 1815), was secretary to the Board of Revenue in the British East India Company. His mother, Anne Becher (1792–1864), was the second daughter of Harriet Becher and John Harman Becher, who was also a secretary (writer) for the East India Company. [2] His father was a grandson of Thomas Thackeray (1693–1760), headmaster of Harrow School. [3]

Richmond died in 1816, which caused Anne to send her son to England that same year, while she remained in British India. The ship on which he travelled made a short stopover at Saint Helena, where the imprisoned Napoleon was pointed out to him. Once in England he was educated at schools in Southampton and Chiswick, and then at Charterhouse School, where he became a close friend of John Leech. Thackeray disliked Charterhouse, [4] and parodied it in his fiction as "Slaughterhouse". Nevertheless, Thackeray was honoured in the Charterhouse Chapel with a monument after his death. Illness in his last year there, during which he reportedly grew to his full height of six foot three, postponed his matriculation at Trinity College, Cambridge, until February 1829. [ citation needed ] Never too keen on academic studies, Thackeray left Cambridge in 1830, but some of his earliest published writing appeared in two university periodicals, The Snob and The Gownsman. [5]

Caricature of Thackeray by Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray - self caricature - Project Gutenberg eText 19222.jpg
Caricature of Thackeray by Thackeray

Thackeray then travelled for some time on the continent, visiting Paris and Weimar, where he met Goethe. He returned to England and began to study law at the Middle Temple, but soon gave that up. On reaching the age of 21 he came into his inheritance from his father, but he squandered much of it on gambling and on funding two unsuccessful newspapers, The National Standard and The Constitutional, for which he had hoped to write. He also lost a good part of his fortune in the collapse of two Indian banks. Forced to consider a profession to support himself, he turned first to art, which he studied in Paris, but did not pursue it, except in later years as the illustrator of some of his own novels and other writings.[ citation needed ]

Thackeray's years of semi-idleness ended after he married, on 20 August 1836, Isabella Gethin Shawe (1816–1894), second daughter of Isabella Creagh Shawe and Matthew Shawe, a colonel who had died after distinguished service, primarily in India. The Thackerays had three children, all girls: Anne Isabella (1837–1919), Jane (who died at eight months old) and Harriet Marian (1840–1875), who married Sir Leslie Stephen, editor, biographer and philosopher.

Thackeray now began "writing for his life", as he put it, turning to journalism in an effort to support his young family. He primarily worked for Fraser's Magazine , a sharp-witted and sharp-tongued conservative publication for which he produced art criticism, short fictional sketches, and two longer fictional works, Catherine and The Luck of Barry Lyndon . Between 1837 and 1840 he also reviewed books for The Times . [6] He was also a regular contributor to The Morning Chronicle and The Foreign Quarterly Review. Later, through his connection to the illustrator John Leech, he began writing for the newly created magazine Punch , in which he published The Snob Papers, later collected as The Book of Snobs . This work popularised the modern meaning of the word "snob". [7] Thackeray was a regular contributor to Punch between 1843 and 1854. [8]

Thackeray portrayed by Eyre Crowe, 1845 Crowe-Thackeray 1845.jpg
Thackeray portrayed by Eyre Crowe, 1845

Tragedy struck in Thackeray's personal life as his wife, Isabella, succumbed to depression after the birth of their third child, in 1840. Finding that he could get no work done at home, he spent more and more time away until September 1840, when he realised how grave his wife's condition was. Struck by guilt, he set out with his wife to Ireland. During the crossing she threw herself from a water-closet into the sea, but she was pulled from the waters. They fled back home after a four-week battle with her mother. From November 1840 to February 1842 Isabella was in and out of professional care, as her condition waxed and waned. [3]

She eventually deteriorated into a permanent state of detachment from reality. Thackeray desperately sought cures for her, but nothing worked, and she ended up in two different asylums in or near Paris until 1845, after which Thackeray took her back to England, where he installed her with a Mrs Bakewell at Camberwell. Isabella outlived her husband by 30 years, in the end being cared for by a family named Thompson in Leigh-on-Sea at Southend until her death in 1894. [9] After his wife's illness Thackeray became a de facto widower, never establishing another permanent relationship. He did pursue other women, however, in particular Mrs Jane Brookfield and Sally Baxter. In 1851 Mr Brookfield barred Thackeray from further visits to or correspondence with Jane. Baxter, an American twenty years Thackeray's junior whom he met during a lecture tour in New York City in 1852, married another man in 1855.[ citation needed ]

In the early 1840s Thackeray had some success with two travel books, The Paris Sketch Book and The Irish Sketch Book, the latter marked by hostility to Irish Catholics. However, as the book appealed to British prejudices, Thackeray was given the job of being Punch's Irish expert, often under the pseudonym Hibernis Hibernior. [8] It was Thackeray, in other words, who was chiefly responsible for Punch's notoriously hostile and condescending depictions of the Irish during the Irish Famine (1845–51). [8]

Thackeray achieved more recognition with his Snob Papers (serialised 1846/7, published in book form in 1848), but the work that really established his fame was the novel Vanity Fair, which first appeared in serialised instalments beginning in January 1847. Even before Vanity Fair completed its serial run Thackeray had become a celebrity, sought after by the very lords and ladies whom he satirised. They hailed him as the equal of Charles Dickens [10] .

Portrait of Thackeray in his study, c.1860 Portrait of W. M. Thackeray (4672053).jpg
Portrait of Thackeray in his study, c.1860

He remained "at the top of the tree", as he put it, for the rest of his life, during which he produced several large novels, notably Pendennis , The Newcomes and The History of Henry Esmond , despite various illnesses, including a near-fatal one that struck him in 1849 in the middle of writing Pendennis. He twice visited the United States on lecture tours during this period. Thackeray also gave lectures in London on the English humorists of the eighteenth century, and on the first four Hanoverian monarchs. The latter series was published in book form as The Four Georges. [3]

In July 1857 Thackeray stood unsuccessfully as a Liberal for the city of Oxford in Parliament. [3] Although not the most fiery agitator, Thackeray was always a decided liberal in his politics, and he promised to vote for the ballot in extension of the suffrage, and was ready to accept triennial parliaments. [3] He was narrowly beaten by Cardwell, who received 1,070 votes, as against 1,005 for Thackeray. [3]

In 1860 Thackeray became editor of the newly established Cornhill Magazine , [11] but he was never comfortable in the role, preferring to contribute to the magazine as the writer of a column called "Roundabout Papers".[ citation needed ]

Thackeray's health worsened during the 1850s and he was plagued by a recurring stricture of the urethra that laid him up for days at a time. He also felt that he had lost much of his creative impetus. He worsened matters by excessive eating and drinking, and avoiding exercise, though he enjoyed riding (he kept a horse). He has been described as "the greatest literary glutton who ever lived". His main activity apart from writing was "gutting and gorging". [12] He could not break his addiction to spicy peppers, further ruining his digestion.

Thackeray's grave at Kensal Green Cemetery, London, photographed in 2014 William Thackeray grave Kensal Green 2014.jpg
Thackeray's grave at Kensal Green Cemetery, London, photographed in 2014

On 23 December 1863, after returning from dining out and before dressing for bed, he suffered a stroke. He was found dead in his bed the following morning. His death at the age of fifty-two was entirely unexpected, and shocked his family, his friends and the reading public. An estimated 7,000 people attended his funeral at Kensington Gardens. He was buried on 29 December at Kensal Green Cemetery, and a memorial bust sculpted by Marochetti can be found in Westminster Abbey. [3]

Works


Thackeray began as a satirist and parodist, writing works that displayed a sneaking fondness for roguish upstarts such as Becky Sharp in Vanity Fair , and the title characters of The Luck of Barry Lyndon and Catherine . In his earliest works, written under such pseudonyms as Charles James Yellowplush, Michael Angelo Titmarsh and George Savage Fitz-Boodle, he tended towards savagery in his attacks on high society, military prowess, the institution of marriage and hypocrisy.

One of his earliest works, "Timbuctoo" (1829), contains a burlesque upon the subject set for the Cambridge Chancellor's Medal for English Verse (the contest was won by Tennyson with "Timbuctoo"). Thackeray's writing career really began with a series of satirical sketches now usually known as The Yellowplush Papers, which appeared in Fraser's Magazine beginning in 1837. These were adapted for BBC Radio 4 in 2009, with Adam Buxton playing Charles Yellowplush. [13]

Between May 1839 and February 1840 Fraser's published the work sometimes considered Thackeray's first novel, Catherine . Originally intended as a satire of the Newgate school of crime fiction, it ended up being more of a picaresque tale. He also began work, never finished, on the novel later published as A Shabby Genteel Story .

Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his own books Houghton EC85 T3255 848vb - Vanity Fair, title.jpg
Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his own books

Thackeray is probably best known now for Vanity Fair. Literary theorist Kornelije Kvas wrote that "the meteoric rise of the heroine of Vanity Fair Rebecca Sharp is a satirical presentation of the striving for profit, power and social recognition of the new middle class. Old and new members of the middle class strive to emulate the lifestyle of the higher class (noblemen and landowners), and thereby to increase their material possessions and to own luxury objects. In Vanity Fair, one can observe a greater degree of violation of moral values among members of the new middle class, for the decline of morality is proportionate to the degree of closeness of the individual to the market and its laws." [14] In contrast, his large novels from the period after Vanity Fair, which were once described by Henry James as examples of "loose baggy monsters", have largely faded from view, perhaps because they reflect a mellowing in Thackeray, who had become so successful with his satires on society that he seemed to lose his zest for attacking it. These later works include Pendennis , a Bildungsroman depicting the coming of age of Arthur Pendennis, an alter ego of Thackeray, who also features as the narrator of two later novels, The Newcomes and The Adventures of Philip . The Newcomes is noteworthy for its critical portrayal of the "marriage market," while Philip is known for its semi-autobiographical depiction of Thackeray's early life, in which he partially regains some of his early satirical power.

Also notable among the later novels is The History of Henry Esmond , in which Thackeray tried to write a novel in the style of the eighteenth century, a period that held great appeal for him. About this novel, there have been found evident analogies—in the fundamental structure of the plot; in the psychological outlines of the main characters; in frequent episodes; and in the use of metaphors—to Ippolito Nievo's "Confessions of an Italian". Nievo wrote his novel during his stay in Milan where, in the “Ambrosiana” library, “The History of Henry Esmond” was available, just published. [15]

Not only Esmond but also Barry Lyndon and Catherine are set in that period, as is the sequel to Esmond, The Virginians , which takes place in North America and includes George Washington as a character who nearly kills one of the protagonists in a duel.

Family

Parents

Thackeray's father, Richmond Thackeray, was born at South Mimms and went to India in 1798 at age sixteen as a writer (civil servant) with the East India Company. Richmond's father's name was also William Makepeace Thackeray. [16] Richmond fathered a daughter, Sarah Redfield, in 1804 with Charlotte Sophia Rudd, his possibly Eurasian mistress, and both mother and daughter were named in his will. Such liaisons were common among gentlemen of the East India Company, and it formed no bar to his later courting and marrying William's mother. [17]

Anne Becher and William Makepeace Thackeray by George Chinnery, c. 1813 Ann & Wm M'peace Thackeray,Madras age 2 by Chinnery.jpg
Anne Becher and William Makepeace Thackeray by George Chinnery, c. 1813

Thackeray's mother, Anne Becher (born 1792), was "one of the reigning beauties of the day" and a daughter of John Harmon Becher, Collector of the South 24 Parganas district (d. Calcutta, 1800), of an old Bengal civilian family "noted for the tenderness of its women". Anne Becher, her sister Harriet and their widowed mother, also Harriet, had been sent back to India by her authoritarian guardian grandmother, Ann Becher, in 1809 on the Earl Howe. Anne's grandmother had told her that the man she loved, Henry Carmichael-Smyth, an ensign in the Bengal Engineers whom she met at an Assembly Ball in 1807 in Bath, had died, while he was told that Anne was no longer interested in him. Neither of these assertions was true. Though Carmichael-Smyth was from a distinguished Scottish military family, Anne's grandmother went to extreme lengths to prevent their marriage. Surviving family letters state that she wanted a better match for her granddaughter. [18]

Anne Becher and Richmond Thackeray were married in Calcutta on 13 October 1810. Their only child, William, was born on 18 July 1811. [19] There is a fine miniature portrait of Anne Becher Thackeray and William Makepeace Thackeray, aged about two, done in Madras by George Chinnery c. 1813. [20]

Anne's family's deception was unexpectedly revealed in 1812, when Richmond Thackeray unwittingly invited the supposedly dead Carmichael-Smyth to dinner. Five years later, after Richmond had died of a fever on 13 September 1815, Anne married Henry Carmichael-Smyth, on 13 March 1817. The couple moved to England in 1820, after having sent William off to school there more than three years earlier. The separation from his mother had a traumatic effect on the young Thackeray, which he discussed in his essay "On Letts's Diary" in The Roundabout Papers.

Descendants

Thackeray is an ancestor of the British financier Ryan Williams, and is the great-great-great-grandfather of the British comedian Al Murray [21] and author Joanna Nadin.

Reputation and legacy

Etching of Thackeray, ca. 1867 Etching of William Makepeace Thackeray by George Barnett Smith.jpg
Etching of Thackeray, ca. 1867

During the Victorian era Thackeray was ranked second only to Charles Dickens, but he is now much less widely read and is known almost exclusively for Vanity Fair, which has become a fixture in university courses, and has been repeatedly adapted for the cinema and television.

In Thackeray's own day some commentators, such as Anthony Trollope, ranked his History of Henry Esmond as his greatest work, perhaps because it expressed Victorian values of duty and earnestness, as did some of his other later novels. It is perhaps for this reason that they have not survived as well as Vanity Fair, which satirises those values.

Thackeray saw himself as writing in the realistic tradition, and distinguished his work from the exaggerations and sentimentality of Dickens. Some later commentators have accepted this self-evaluation and seen him as a realist, but others note his inclination to use eighteenth-century narrative techniques, such as digressions and direct addresses to the reader, and argue that through them he frequently disrupts the illusion of reality. The school of Henry James, with its emphasis on maintaining that illusion, marked a break with Thackeray's techniques.

Charlotte Brontë dedicated the second edition of Jane Eyre to Thackeray.

In 1887 the Royal Society of Arts unveiled a blue plaque to commemorate Thackeray at the house at 2 Palace Green, London, that had been built for him in the 1860s. [22] It is now the location of the Israeli Embassy. [23]

Thackeray's former home in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, is now a restaurant named after the author. [24]

Thackeray was also a member of the Albion Lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids at Oxford [25] .

List of works

Series

Henry Esmond

  1. The History of Henry Esmond (1852) – ISBN   0-14-143916-5
  2. The Virginians (1857–1859) – ISBN   1-4142-3952-1

Arthur Pendennis

  1. Pendennis (1848–1850) – ISBN   1-4043-8659-9
  2. The Newcomes (1855) – ISBN   0-460-87495-0
  1. The Adventures of Philip (1862) – ISBN   1-4101-0510-5

The Christmas Books of Mr M. A. Titmarsh
Thackeray wrote and illustrated five Christmas books as "by Mr M. A. Titmarsh". They were collected under the pseudonymous title and his real name no later than 1868 by Smith, Elder & Co. [26]

The Rose and the Ring was dated 1855 in its first edition, published for Christmas 1854.

  1. Mrs. Perkins's Ball (1846), as by M. A. Titmarsh
  2. Our Street
  3. Doctor Birch and His Young Friends
  4. The Kickleburys on the Rhine (Christmas 1850) – "a new picture book, drawn and written by Mr M. A. Titmarsh" [27]
  5. The Rose and the Ring (Christmas 1854) – ISBN   1-4043-2741-X

Novels

Novellas

Sketches and satires

Play

Travel writing

Other non-fiction

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Vanity Fair</i> (novel) 1848 novel by William Makepeace Thackeray

Vanity Fair is an English novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, which follows the lives of Becky Sharp and Amelia Sedley amid their friends and families during and after the Napoleonic Wars. It was first published as a 19-volume monthly serial from 1847 to 1848, carrying the subtitle Pen and Pencil Sketches of English Society, reflecting both its satirisation of early 19th-century British society and the many illustrations drawn by Thackeray to accompany the text. It was published as a single volume in 1848 with the subtitle A Novel without a Hero, reflecting Thackeray's interest in deconstructing his era's conventions regarding literary heroism. It is sometimes considered the "principal founder" of the Victorian domestic novel.

<i>The Newcomes</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The Newcomes: Memoirs of a Most Respectable Family is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in 1854 and 1855.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1863.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1848.

This article presents lists of literary events and publications in 1847.

<i>Pendennis</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The History of Pendennis: His Fortunes and Misfortunes, His Friends and His Greatest Enemy (1848–50) is a novel by the English author William Makepeace Thackeray. It is set in 19th-century England, particularly in London. The main hero is a young English gentleman Arthur Pendennis, who is born in the country and sets out for London to seek his place in life and society. The novel took two years for Thackeray to write and, in line with other Thackeray's works, most notably Vanity Fair, it offers an insightful and satiric picture of human character and aristocratic society. The characters include the snobbish social hanger-on Major Pendennis and the tipsy Captain Costigan. Miss Amory and Sir Francis Clavering are somewhat reminiscent of Becky Sharp and Sir Pitt from Vanity Fair.

<i>The History of Henry Esmond</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The History of Henry Esmond is a historical novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, originally published in 1852. The book tells the story of the early life of Henry Esmond, a colonel in the service of Queen Anne of England. A typical example of Victorian historical novels, Thackeray's work of historical fiction tells its tale against the backdrop of late 17th- and early 18th-century England – specifically, major events surrounding the English Restoration — and utilises characters both real and imagined. It weaves its central character into a number of events such as the Glorious Revolution, the War of the Spanish Succession, the Hamilton–Mohun Duel and the Hanoverian Succession.

<i>Vanity Fair</i> (magazines) Wikimedia list article

Vanity Fair has been the title of at least five magazines, including an 1859–1863 American publication, an 1868–1914 British publication, an unrelated 1902–1904 New York magazine, and a 1913–1936 American publication edited by Condé Nast, which was revived in 1983.

Catherine: A Story was the first full-length work of fiction produced by William Makepeace Thackeray. It first appeared in serialized installments in Fraser's Magazine between May 1839 and February 1840, credited to "Ikey Solomons, Esq. Junior". Thackeray's original intention in writing it was to criticize the Newgate school of crime fiction, exemplified by Bulwer-Lytton and Harrison Ainsworth, whose works Thackeray felt glorified criminals. Thackeray even included Dickens in this criticism for his portrayal of the good-hearted streetwalker Nancy and the charming pickpocket, the Artful Dodger, in Oliver Twist.

Vanity Fair may refer to:

Anne Isabella Thackeray Ritchie novelist

Anne Isabella, Lady Ritchie, née Thackeray, was an English writer and the eldest daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray. Her several novels were highly regarded in their time and made her a central figure in the late Victorian literary scene. She is best remembered today as the custodian of her father's literary legacy, and for short fiction that places traditional fairy tale narratives in a Victorian milieu. Her 1885 novel Mrs. Dymond contains the earliest English-language use of the proverb "Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for life."

Fashionable novels, also called silver-fork novels, were a 19th-century genre of English literature that depicted the lives of the upper class and the aristocracy.

<i>The Virginians</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century (1857–59) is a historical novel by William Makepeace Thackeray which forms a sequel to his Henry Esmond and is also loosely linked to Pendennis.

<i>The Adventures of Philip</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The Adventures of Philip on his Way Through the World: Shewing Who Robbed Him, Who Helped Him, and Who Passed Him By (1861–62) is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray. It was the last novel Thackeray completed, and harks back to several of his previous ones, involving as it does characters from A Shabby Genteel Story and being, like The Newcomes, narrated by the title character of his Pendennis. In recent years it has not found as much favour from either readers or critics as Thackeray's early novels.

Vanity Fair is a 1922 British silent drama film directed by Walter Courtney Rowden and starring Clive Brook, Cosmo Kyrle Bellew and Douglas Munro. An adaptation of the novel 1848 Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray, it was made as part of the "Tense Moments with Great Authors Series" of films.

<i>The Book of Snobs</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

The Book of Snobs is a collection of satirical works by William Makepeace Thackeray published in book form in 1848, the same year as his more famous Vanity Fair. The pieces first appeared in fifty-three weekly pieces from February 28, 1846 to February 27, 1847, as "The Snobs of England, by one of themselves", in the satirical magazine Punch. The pieces, which were immensely popular and thrust Thackeray into widespread public view, were "rigorously revised" before their collection in book form and omitted the numbers which dealt with then current political issues.

Jane Octavia Brookfield British writer

Jane Octavia Brookfield was a literary hostess and writer, best known for her platonic friendship with William Makepeace Thackeray. She also wrote four novels; some critics have drawn parallels between the events in these novels and her relationship with Thackeray.

<i>Mrs. Perkinss Ball</i> book by William Makepeace Thackeray

Mrs. Perkins's Ball is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, published under the pseudonym "M. A. Titmarsh" in 1846.

<i>Vanity Fair</i> (2018 TV series) 2018 British television series

Vanity Fair is a 2018 historical drama miniseries based on the 1848 novel of the same name by William Makepeace Thackeray. It was produced by Mammoth Screen and distributed by ITV and Amazon Studios.

Thomas Thackeray DD was a Church of England clergyman who taught at his old school, Eton College, and ended his career as Head Master of Harrow School.

References

  1. Calcutta was the capital of the British Indian Empire at the time. Thackeray was born on the grounds of what is now the Armenian College & Philanthropic Academy, on the old Freeschool Street, now called Mirza Ghalib Street.
  2. John., Aplin (2010). The inheritance of genius : a Thackeray family biography, 1798-1875. Cambridge, U.K.: Lutterworth Press. ISBN   978-0718842109. OCLC   855607313.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE (1811–1863)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online, (subscription required), accessed 4 May 2019
  4. Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 25.
  5. "Thackeray, William Makepeace (THKY826WM)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  6. Gary Simons, "Thackeray's Contributions to the Times", Victorian Periodicals Review, 40:4 (2007, pp. 332–354
  7. Dabney, Ross H. (March 1980). "Review: The Book of Snob by William Makepeace Thackeray, John Sutherland". Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 34 (4): 456–462, 455. doi:10.2307/2933542. JSTOR   2933542.
  8. 1 2 3 "Punch and the Great Famine". History Ireland. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  9. Ann Monsarrat, An Uneasy Victorian: Thackeray the Man, 1811–1863, London: Cassell, 1980, pp. 121, 128, 134, 161; John Aplin, Memory and Legacy: A Thackeray Family Biography, 1876–1919, Cambridge: Lutterworth, 2011, pp. 5, 136.
  10. Brander, Laurence. "Thackeray, William Makepeace". Ebscohost. Britannica Biographies. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  11. Pearson, Richard (1 November 2017). W.M.Thackery and the Mediated Text: Writing for Periodicals in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Routledge. ISBN   9781351774093.
  12. Bee Wilson, "Vanity Fare", New Statesman, 27 November 1998. Retrieved 4 January 2014
  13. "The Yellowplush Papers". British Comedy Guide. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  14. Kvas, Kornelije (2019). The Boundaries of Realism in World Literature. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Lexington Books. p. 43. ISBN   978-1-7936-0910-6.
  15. "Lea Slerca". leaslerca.retelinux.com. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  16. "William Makepeace Thackeray Traded Elephants in Sylhet". 28 May 2016.
  17. Menon, Anil (29 March 2006). "William Makepeace Thackeray: The Indian in the Closet". Round Dice. Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  18. Alexander, Eric (2007). "Ancestry of William Thackeray". Henry Cort Father of the Iron Trade. henrycort.net. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  19. Gilder, Jeannette Leonard; Joseph Benson Gilder (15 May 1897). The Critic: An Illustrated Monthly Review of Literature, Art, and Life (Original from Princeton University, Digitized 18 April 2008 ed.). Good Literature Pub. Co. p. 335.
  20. "Rabbiting On: Ooty Well Preserved & Flourishing". 8 February 2009.
  21. Cavendish, Dominic (3 March 2007). "Prime Time, Gentlemen, Please". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  22. "Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811-1863)". English Heritage. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  23. "The Crown estate in Kensington Palace Gardens: Individual buildings | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
  24. Thackeray's, 85 London Rd, Tunbridge Wells, TN1 1EA Bookatable. Downloaded 20 February 2016.
  25. https://apps2.oxfordshire.gov.uk/srvheritage/recordSearch?offset=0
  26. Library records of the 1868 Smith, Elder edition differ in details. Compare WorldCat records OCLC   4413727 and OCLC   559717915 (retrieved 2020-02-13). Much the same is true of WorldCat records with earlier and later dates in the Publisher field. From one record, select "View all editions and formats" for a point of entry.
  27. "Smith, Elder & Co.'s New Publications." (two-line heading), The Examiner #2235, 30 November 1850, p. 778. In that full-column advertisement by the publisher, this book is the first of two listed under the first subheading, "New Christmas Books." The entire listing:
      Mr Thackeray's New Christmas Book.
     The Kicklebury's on the Rhine.
      A new Picture Book, drawn and written by Mr M. A. Titmarsh.
      Price 5s. plain; 7s. 6d. coloured.  [flushright] [On the 16th.
    Thus the book is listed as forthcoming 16 December 1850. This transcript represents all five elements of the listing faithfully except in the use of capital letters.
  28. Harden, Edgar (2003). A William Makepeace Thackeray Chronology. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 45. ISBN   978-0-230-59857-7 . Retrieved 29 June 2016.

Bibliography