William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne

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The Marquess of Lansdowne

KG PC
William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne by Jean Laurent Mosnier.jpg
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
4 July 1782 26 March 1783
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Marquess of Rockingham
Succeeded by The Duke of Portland
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
4 July 1782 2 April 1783
MonarchGeorge III
Preceded by The Marquess of Rockingham
Succeeded by The Duke of Portland
Home Secretary
In office
27 March 1782 10 July 1782
MonarchGeorge III
Prime Minister The Marquess of Rockingham
Himself
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Thomas Townshend
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
In office
30 July 1766 20 October 1768
MonarchGeorge III
Prime Minister The Earl of Chatham
The Duke of Grafton
Preceded by The Duke of Richmond
Succeeded by The Viscount Weymouth
Personal details
Born(1737-05-02)2 May 1737
Dublin, County Dublin,
Kingdom of Ireland
Died7 May 1805(1805-05-07) (aged 68)
Berkeley Square,
Westminster, Middlesex
United Kingdom
Resting placeAll Saints Churchyard, High Wycombe
Political party Whig
Spouse(s)
Children3
Parents John Petty, 1st Earl of Shelburne
Mary Fitzmaurice
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Coat of arms of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, PC Coat of arms of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, PC.png
Coat of arms of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, PC

William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, KG , PC (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805), known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy. [1] He was also well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art. [2]

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Kingdom of Ireland Historical kingdom on the island of Ireland between 1542 and 1801

The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and then of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and then of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms. The kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, peerage, legal system, and state church.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Contents

Lord Shelburne was born in Dublin in 1737 and spent his formative years in Ireland. After attending Oxford University he served in the British army during the Seven Years' War. He took part in the Raid on Rochefort and the Battle of Minden. As a reward for his conduct at the Battle of Kloster Kampen, Shelburne was appointed an aide-de-camp to George III. He became involved in politics, becoming a member of parliament in 1760. After his father's death in 1761 he inherited his title and was elevated to the House of Lords. He took an active role in politics. He served as President of the Board of Trade in the Grenville Ministry but resigned this position after only a few months and began to associate with the opposition leader William Pitt.

Dublin capital and largest city in Ireland

Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains. It has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, and the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Raid on Rochefort

The Raid on Rochefort was a British amphibious attempt to capture the French Atlantic port of Rochefort in September 1757 during the Seven Years' War. The raid pioneered a new tactic of "descents" on the French coast, championed by William Pitt who had taken office a few months earlier.

When Pitt was made Prime Minister in 1766, Shelburne was appointed as Southern Secretary, a position which he held for two years. He departed office during the Corsican Crisis and joined the Opposition. Along with Pitt he was an advocate of a conciliatory policy towards Britain's American Colonies and a long-term critic of the North Government's measures in America. Following the fall of the North government, Shelburne joined its replacement under Lord Rockingham. Shelburne was made Prime Minister in 1782 following Rockingham's death, with the American War still being fought. Shelburne's government was brought down largely due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end. Its terms were considered excessively generous, because they gave the new nation control of vast trans-Appalachian lands. Shelburne, however, had a vision of long-term benefit to Britain through trade with a large and increasingly prosperous United States, without the risk of warfare over the western territories.

The Corsican Crisis was an event in British politics during 1768–69. It was precipitated by the invasion of the island of Corsica by France. The British government under the Duke of Grafton failed to intervene, for which it was widely criticised and was one of many factors that contributed to its downfall in early 1770.

British America English territories in North America

British America included the British Empire's colonial territories in North America, Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783. The American colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before the Thirteen Colonies declared their independence in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and formed the United States of America. After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental American possessions. That term was used informally in 1783 by the end of the American Revolution, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report.

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham British Prime Minister

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham,, styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750 was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime, but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service.

After he was forced from office in 1783 at age 45, he permanently lost his power and influence. Shelburne lamented that his career had been a failure, despite the many high offices he held over 17 years, and his undoubted abilities as a debater. He blamed his poor education—although it was as good as that of most peers—and said the real problem was that "it has been my fate through life to fall in with clever but unpopular connections." Historians, however, point to a nasty personality that alienated friend and enemy alike. His contemporaries distrusted him as too prone to trickery and duplicity. Biographer John Cannon says "His uneasiness prompted him to alternate flattery and hectoring, which most of his colleagues found unpleasant, and to suspiciousness... In debate he was frequently vituperative and sarcastic." Success came too early, and produced jealousy, especially when he was tagged as an upstart Irishman. He never understood the power of the House of Commons, or how to deal with its leaders. He advocated numerous reforms, especially free trade, religious toleration, and parliamentary reform. He was ahead of his time, but was unable to build an adequate network of support from his colleagues who distrusted his motives. In turn he distrusted others, and tried to do all the work himself so that it would be done right. [3]

Early life

He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, who was the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry. Lord Kerry had married Anne Petty, the daughter of Sir William Petty, Surveyor General of Ireland, whose elder son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1688 and (on the elder son's death) whose younger son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1699 and Earl of Shelburne in 1719. On the younger son's death the Petty estates passed to the aforementioned John Fitzmaurice, who changed his branch of the family's surname to "Petty" in place of "Fitzmaurice", and was created Viscount Fitzmaurice later in 1751 and Earl of Shelburne in 1753 (after which his elder son John was styled Viscount Fitzmaurice). His grandfather Lord Kerry died when he was four, but Fitzmaurice grew up with other people's grim memories of the old man as a "Tyrant" whose family and servants lived in permanent fear of him.

John Petty, 1st Earl of Shelburne PC (Ire), known as John FitzMaurice until 1751 and as The Viscount FitzMaurice between 1751 and 1753, was an Anglo-Irish peer and politician. He was the father of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Prime Minister of Great Britain.

William Petty English scientist, philosopher, statistician and economist

Sir William Petty FRS was an English economist, physician, scientist and philosopher. He first became prominent serving Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth in Ireland. He developed efficient methods to survey the land that was to be confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers. He also remained a significant figure under King Charles II and King James II, as did many others who had served Cromwell.

The office of Surveyor General of Ireland was an appointed officer under the Dublin Castle administration of Ireland in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Surveyor General was typically responsible for the surveying, design and construction of civic works, and was often involved in overseeing the construction of military barracks and public buildings. Though Surveyors General were officially appointed by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, it was not unknown for the post to be "sold" by one holder to the next. For example, Arthur Jones-Nevill succeeded Arthur Dobbs in 1743, having paid £3,300 to secure the position. And despite being dismissed for maladministration, Nevill was allowed to sell the post on to Thomas Eyre in 1752. Eyre was the last holder of the office, which was abolished in 1763.

Fitzmaurice spent his childhood "in the remotest parts of the south of Ireland," [4] and, according to his own account, when he entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1755, he had "both everything to learn and everything to unlearn". From a tutor whom he describes as "narrow-minded" he received advantageous guidance in his studies, but he attributes his improvement in manners and in knowledge of the world chiefly to the fact that, as was his "fate through life", he fell in "with clever but unpopular connexions".

Christ Church, Oxford constituent college of the University of Oxford in England

Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head.

A tutor, also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills. The tutor spends a few hours on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis to transfer their expertise on the topic or skill to the student. Tutoring can take place in different settings, such as a classroom, a formal tutoring center, or the home of the tutor/learner. As a teaching-learning method, tutoring is characterized by how it differs from formal teaching methods on the basis of the (in)formality of the setting as well as the flexibility in pedagogical methods in terms of duration, pace of teaching, evaluation and tutor-tutee rapport.

Military career and election to Parliament

Shelburne served with distinction during the Seven Years' War participating in engagements such as the Battle of Minden in 1759. Caton-Woodville Battle of Minden 1759.jpeg
Shelburne served with distinction during the Seven Years' War participating in engagements such as the Battle of Minden in 1759.

Shortly after leaving the university he served in 20th Foot regiment commanded by James Wolfe during the Seven Years' War. He became friends with one of his fellow officers Charles Grey whose career he later assisted. [5] In 1757 he took part in the amphibious Raid on Rochefort which withdrew without making any serious attempt on the town. The following year he was sent to serve in Germany and distinguished himself at Minden and Kloster-Kampen. For his services he was appointed aide-de-camp to the new King, George III, with the rank of Colonel. [6] This brought protests from several members of the cabinet as it meant he was promoted ahead of much more senior officers. [7] In response to the appointment the Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household. [8] Though he had no active military career after this, [9] his early promotion as colonel meant that he would be further promoted through seniority to major-general in 1765, [10] lieutenant-general in 1772 [11] and general in 1783. [12]

On 2 June 1760, while still abroad, Fitzmaurice had been returned to the British House of Commons as member for Wycombe. He was re-elected unopposed at the general election of 1761, [13] and was also elected to the Irish House of Commons for County Kerry. [14] However, on 14 May 1761, before either Parliament met, he succeeded on his father's death as 2nd Earl of Shelburne in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Wycombe in the Peerage of Great Britain. [13] As a result, he lost his seat in both Houses of Commons and moved up to the House of Lords, though he would not take his seat in the Irish House of Lords until April 1764. [9] He was succeeded in Wycombe by one of his supporters Colonel Isaac Barré who had a distinguished war record after serving with James Wolfe in Canada.

Economics

Shelburne displayed a serious interest in economic reform, and was a proselytizer for free trade. He consulted with numerous English, Scottish, French and American economists and experts. He was on good terms with Benjamin Franklin and David Hume. He met in Paris with leading French economists and intellectuals. [15] By the 1770s Shelburne had become the most prominent British statesmen to advocate free trade. [16] Shelburne said his conversion from mercantilism to free trade ultimately derived from long conversations in 1761 with Adam Smith. [17] In 1795 he described this to Dugald Stewart:

I owe to a journey I made with Mr Smith from Edinburgh to London, the difference between light and darkness through the best part of my life. The novelty of his principles, added to my youth and prejudices, made me unable to comprehend them at the time, but he urged them with so much benevolence, as well as eloquence, that they took a certain hold, which, though it did not develop itself so as to arrive at full conviction for some few years after, I can fairly say, has constituted, ever since, the happiness of my life, as well as any little consideration I may have enjoyed in it. [18]

Ritcheson is dubious on whether the journey with Smith actually happened, but provides no evidence to the contrary. There is proof that Shelburne did consult with Smith on at least one occasion, and Smith was close to Shelburne's father and his brother. [19]

Early political career

Shelburne's new military role close to the King brought him into communication with Lord Bute, who was the King's closest advisor and a senior minister in the government. In 1761 Shelburne was employed by Bute to negotiate for the support of Henry Fox. Fox held the lucrative but unimportant post of Paymaster of the Forces, but commanded large support in the House of Commons and could boost Bute's powerbase. Shelburne was opposed to Pitt, who had resigned from the government in 1761. Under instructions from Shelburne, Barré made a vehement attack on Pitt in the House of Commons.

During 1762 negotiations for a peace agreement went on in London and Paris. Eventually a deal was agreed but it was heavily criticised for the perceived leniency of its terms as it handed back a number of captured territories to France and Spain. Defending it in the House of Lords, Shelburne observed "the security of the British colonies in North America was the first cause of the war" asserting that security "has been wisely attended to in the negotiations for peace". [20] Led by Fox, the government was able to push the peace treaty through parliament despite opposition led by Pitt. Shortly afterwards, Bute chose to resign as Prime Minister and retire from politics and was replaced by George Grenville.

Shelburne joined the Grenville ministry in 1763 as First Lord of Trade. By this stage Shelburne had changed his opinion of Pitt and become an admirer of him. After failing to secure Pitt's inclusion in the Cabinet he resigned office after only a few months. Having moreover on account of his support of Pitt on the question of John Wilkes's expulsion from the House of Commons incurred the displeasure of the King, he retired for a time to his estate.

Southern Secretary

After Pitt's return to power in 1766 he became Southern Secretary, but during Pitt's illness his conciliatory policy towards America was completely thwarted by his colleagues and the King, and in 1768 he was dismissed from office. During the Corsican Crisis, sparked by the French invasion of Corsica, Shelburne was the major voice in the cabinet who favoured assisting the Corsican Republic. Although secret aid was given to the Corsicans it was decided not to intervene militarily and provoke a war with France, a decision made easier by the departure of the hard-line Shelburne from the cabinet.

In June 1768 the General Court incorporated the district of Shelburne, Massachusetts from the area formerly known as "Deerfield Northeast" and in 1786 the district became a town. The town was named in honour of Lord Shelburne, who, in return sent a church bell, which never reached the town.

Opposition

Shelburne went into Opposition where he continued to associate with William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. They were both critical of the policies of the North government in the years leading up to the outbreak of the American War of Independence in 1775. As the war progressed Shelburne co-operated with the Rockingham Whigs to attack the government of Lord North. After a British army was compelled to surrender at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, Shelburne joined other leaders of the Opposition to call for a total withdrawal of British troops.

Prime Minister

Lord Shelburne by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Joshua Reynolds - William Petty.jpg
Lord Shelburne by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

In March 1782 following the downfall of the North Government Shelburne agreed to take office under Lord Rockingham on condition that the King would recognise the United States. Following the sudden and unexpected death of Lord Rockingham on 1 July 1782 Shelburne succeeded him as Prime Minister. Shelburne's appointment by the King provoked Charles James Fox and his supporters, including Edmund Burke, to resign their posts on 4 July 1782. [21] Burke scathingly compared Shelburne to his predecessor Rockingham. One of the figures brought in as a replacement was the 23-year-old William Pitt, son of Shelburne's former political ally, who became Chancellor of the Exchequer. That year, Shelburne was appointed to Order of the Garter as its 599th Knight.

Peace negotiations

Shelburne's government continued to negotiate for peace in Paris using Richard Oswald as the chief negotiator. Shelburne entertained a French peace envoy Joseph Matthias Gérard de Rayneval at his country estate in Wiltshire, and they discreetly agreed on a number of points which formed a basis for peace. Shelburne's own envoys negotiated a separate peace with American commissioners which eventually led to an agreement on American independence and the borders of the newly created United States. Shelburne agreed to generous borders in the Illinois Country, but rejected demands by Benjamin Franklin for the cession of Canada and other territories. Historians have often commented that the treaty was very generous to the United States in terms of greatly enlarged boundaries. Historians such as Alvord, Harlow and Ritcheson have emphasized that British generosity was based on Shelburne's statesmanlike vision of close economic ties between Britain and the United States. The concession of the vast trans-Appalachian areas was designed to facilitate the growth of the American population and create lucrative markets for British merchants, without any military or administrative costs to Britain. [22] The point was the United States would become a major trading partner. As the French foreign minister Vergennes later put it, "The English buy peace rather than make it". [23]

Downfall

Shelburne, Charles James Fox and Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford by James Gillray (1783) William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (Lord Shelburne); Charles James Fox; Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford by James Gillray.jpg
Shelburne, Charles James Fox and Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford by James Gillray (1783)

Fox's departure led to the unexpected creation of a coalition involving Fox and Lord North which dominated the Opposition. In April 1783 the Opposition forced Shelburne's resignation. The major achievement of Shelburne's time in office was the agreement of peace terms which formed the basis of the Peace of Paris bringing the American War of Independence to an end.

His fall was perhaps hastened by his plans for the reform of the public service. He had also in contemplation a Bill to promote free trade between Britain and the United States.

Later life

When Pitt became Prime Minister in 1784, Shelburne, instead of receiving a place in the Cabinet, was created Marquess of Lansdowne. Though giving a general support to the policy of Pitt, he from this time ceased to take an active part in public affairs. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. [24]

Family

Lord Lansdowne was twice married:

First to Sophia Petty, Countess of Shelburne (26 August 1745 – 5 January 1771), daughter of the 1st Earl Granville, through whom he obtained the Lansdowne estates near Bath. They had at least one child:

Secondly, to Louisa Petty, Marchioness of Lansdowne (1755 – 7 August 1789), daughter of the 1st Earl of Upper Ossory. They had at least two children:

Lord Lansdowne's brother, The Hon. Thomas Fitzmaurice (1742–1793) of Cliveden, was also a Member of Parliament.

Cabinet of Lord Shelburne

PortfolioMinisterTookofficeLeftofficeParty
First Lord of the Treasury   The Earl of Shelburne *4 July 1782 (1782-07-04)26 March 1783 (1783-03-26) Whig
Lord Chancellor   The Lord Thurlow 3 June 1778 (1778-06-03)7 April 1783 (1783-04-07) Independent
Lord President of the Council   The Lord Camden 27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)2 April 1783 (1783-04-02) Whig
Lord Privy Seal   The Duke of Grafton 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig
Chancellor of the Exchequer   William Pitt the Younger 10 July 1782 (1782-07-10)31 March 1783 (1783-03-31) Tory
Secretary of State for the Home Department   Thomas Townshend 10 July 1782 (1782-07-10)2 April 1783 (1783-04-02) Whig
  The Lord Grantham 9 December 1780 (1780-12-09)2 April 1783 (1783-04-02) Whig
First Lord of the Admiralty   The Viscount Keppel 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig
  The Viscount Howe 1783 (1783)1788 (1788) Independent
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster   The Lord Ashburton 17 April 1782 (1782-04-17)29 August 1783 (1783-08-29) Independent
Master-General of the Ordnance   The Duke of Richmond 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig

Titles from birth to death

Ancestry

The Earl of Shelburne's family tree shows a degree of inbreeding: his parents were first cousins, while two of his great-grandmothers were sisters. Most of his ancestors were English, except for the Hiberno-Norman Fitzmaurices, who had held the title of Baron Kerry since the reign of Henry III.

See also

Notes

  1. "Past British Prime Ministers". British Government. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  2. Bignamini, I.; Hornsby, C. (2010). Digging And Dealing in Eighteenth-Century Rome. pp. 321–322.
  3. John Cannon, "Petty, William, second earl of Shelburne and first marquess of Lansdowne (1737–1805)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press, 2004)
  4. Childhood in the remotest parts of the south of Ireland probably refers to the family estates in County Kerry. The Pettys owned the Lansdowne Estates in the Kenmare area in South Kerry and the Fitzmaurice estates were in the Lixnaw area in North Kerry.
  5. Nelson p.20
  6. Fitzmaurice p.96
  7. Middleton p.175
  8. Fitzmaurice p.97
  9. 1 2 John Cannon, "Petty, William, second earl of Shelburne and first marquess of Lansdowne (1737–1805)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Sept 2013 accessed 23 Feb 2014
  10. "No. 10507". The London Gazette . 23–26 March 1765. p. 1.
  11. "No. 11251". The London Gazette. 23–26 May 1772. p. 2.
  12. "No. 12416". The London Gazette. 18–22 February 1783. p. 1.
  13. 1 2 Sir Lewis Namier, PETTY, William, Visct. Fitzmaurice (1737–1805), of Bowood, Wilts. in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790 (1964).
  14. "Biographies of Members of the Irish Parliament 1692–1800". Ulster Historical Foundation. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  15. Ritcheson (1983) p 328-33
  16. Bowood House web page
  17. Morrison, James Ashley (July 2012). "Before Hegemony: Adam Smith, American Independence, and the Origins of the First Era of Globalization". International Organization. 66 (3): 395–428. doi:10.1017/S0020818312000148. ISSN   1531-5088.
  18. Ian S. Ross (ed.), On The Wealth of Nations. Contemporary Responses to Adam Smith (Bristol: Theommes Press, 1998), p. 147.
  19. Ritcheson (1983) p 326-28
  20. Schweizer p.17
  21. Fleming p.179-180
  22. Charles R. Ritcheson, "The Earl of Shelbourne and Peace with America, 1782–1783: Vision and Reality." International History Review (1983) 5#3 pp: 322–345. online
  23. Quote from Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford and Shane J. Maddock, American foreign relations: A history, to 1920 (2009) vol 1 p 20
  24. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter L" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 July 2014.

Literature

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Edmund Waller
Member of Parliament for Wycombe
1760 – 1761
With: Edmund Waller 1760–1761
Robert Waller 1761
Succeeded by
Robert Waller
Isaac Barré
Parliament of Ireland
Preceded by
John Blennerhassett
Lancelot Crosbie
Member of Parliament for Kerry
1761–1762
With: John Blennerhassett
Succeeded by
John Blennerhassett
John Blennerhassett
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Townshend
First Lord of Trade
1763
Succeeded by
The Earl of Hillsborough
Preceded by
The Duke of Richmond
Secretary of State for the
Southern Department

1766–1768
Succeeded by
The Viscount Weymouth
Preceded by
The Earl of Hillsborough
as Secretary of State
for the Southern Department
Home Secretary
1782
Succeeded by
Thomas Townshend
Preceded by
The Viscount Stormont
Leader of the House of Lords
1782–1783
Succeeded by
The Duke of Portland
Preceded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister of Great Britain
4 July 1782 – 26 March 1783
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Marquess of Lansdowne
1784–1805
Succeeded by
John Petty
Preceded by
John Petty
Earl of Shelburne
1761–1805

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Baron Kerry is an ancient title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created circa 1223 for Thomas Fitzmaurice.

Earl of Shelburne

Earl of Shelburne is a title that has been created two times while the title of Baron Shelburne has been created three times. The Shelburne title was created for the first time in the Peerage of Ireland in 1688 when Elizabeth, Lady Petty, was made Baroness Shelburne. She was the wife of the noted economist Sir William Petty. The title was for life only and became extinct on her death in circa 1708. On the same day that Lady Shelburne was elevated to the peerage, her eldest son by Sir William Petty, Charles Petty, was also raised to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Shelburne. He died young in 1696, when the title became extinct. The barony was created for a third time in the Peerage of Ireland in 1699 in favour of the Hon. Henry Petty, younger son of Sir William Petty and Lady Shelburne. In 1719 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Dunkerron and Earl of Shelburne, also in the Peerage of Ireland. On his death in 1751 these titles also became extinct.

The Rockingham Whigs in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782. The Rockingham Whigs briefly held power from 1765 to 1766 and again in 1782, and otherwise were usually in opposition to the various ministries of the period.

Lansdowne or Lansdown may refer to:

Charles Maurice Petty-Fitzmaurice, 9th Marquess of Lansdowne,, styled Earl of Shelburne between 1944 and 1999, is a British peer and Vice-Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire.

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 4th Marquess of Lansdowne British politician

Henry Thomas Petty-Fitzmaurice, 4th Marquess of Lansdowne, styled Lord Henry Petty-FitzMaurice until 1836 and Earl of Shelburne between 1836 and 1863, was a British politician.

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 6th Marquess of Lansdowne British politician

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry William Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice, 6th Marquess of Lansdowne DSO MVO, styled Earl of Kerry until 1927, was a British soldier and politician.

Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry PC (Ire) was an Irish peer and politician.

Petty-Fitzmaurice is a double-barrelled Irish surname. People with the name Petty-Fitzmaurice include:

John Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne British politician

John Henry Petty, 2nd Marquess of Lansdowne was a British peer and politician. He was the eldest son of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, known to history as the Earl of Shelburne, the British prime minister who concluded the Peace of Paris recognising American independence, by his first wife, Lady Sophia Carteret.

William Thomas Petty-FitzMaurice, Earl of Kerry, styled Earl of Wycombe between 1811 and 1818, was a British Whig politician.

Derreen Garden

Derreen Garden lies on a promontory in Kilmakilloge Harbour on the Beara Peninsula, in Tuosist parish, near Kenmare in County Kerry. Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 4th Marquess of Lansdowne (1816–1866) initiated the planting of the garden in 1863, but it was his son, Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (1845–1927), who from 1870 onwards gave the garden its present shape. Today it covers more than 60 acres and includes nearly 12 km of paths.

The Honourable Thomas Fitzmaurice was a Member of Parliament for Calne from 1762 to 1774, and then for Chipping Wycome until 1780.