Sir William Russell
William Russell in ca 1878
|4th Leader of the Opposition|
26 June 1894 –3 July 1901
|Preceded by||William Rolleston|
|Succeeded by||William Massey|
|7th Minister of Defence|
17 October 1889 –24 January 1891
|Prime Minister||Harry Atkinson|
|Preceded by||Thomas Fergus|
|Succeeded by||Richard Seddon|
William Russell Russell
12 November 1838
Sandhurst, Berkshire, England
|Died||24 September 1913 74) (aged|
Napier, New Zealand
|Spouse(s)||Harriette Julia Hodgkinson|
|Relations||Andrew Russell (father)|
|Children||7 sons & 4 daughters|
Sir William Russell Russell (12 November 1838 – 24 September 1913) was a New Zealand politician from 1870 to 1905. He was a cabinet minister, and was recognised as Leader of the Opposition from 1894 to 1901. Though considered by other politicians to have little sympathy with working people as a major landowner his panache and involvement in local affairs led him to be liked and admired by Hawkes Bay's élite.
In New Zealand, the Leader of the Opposition is the politician who commands the support of the Official Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not supporting the government: this is usually the parliamentary leader of the second largest caucus in the House of Representatives. In the debating chamber the Leader of the Opposition sits directly opposite the Prime Minister.
Russell was born in Sandhurst, Berkshire England and educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.His father Andrew Russell was in the 58th Regiment of Foot, and Russell came with him to New Zealand in the 1840s. He then joined the 58th Regiment, and came to New Zealand as an ensign in 1857. He transferred to the 14th Regiment of Foot and came out to Auckland in 1861, serving until 1862. In 1862 he sold his Captain’s commission to settle in Hawkes Bay taking up with his brother 31,000 acres of rolling hill country 25 miles west of Napier in Tunanui, part of it later known as Sherenden.
Sandhurst is a small town and civil parish in England of 7,966 homes and 20,803 inhabitants, primarily domiciliary in nature with a few light industries. It is in the south eastern corner of the ceremonial Royal County of Berkshire, within the Borough of Bracknell Forest, and is situated 32 miles (51 km) west-southwest of central London, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) north west of Camberley and 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Bracknell.
Berkshire is one of the home counties in England. It was recognised by the Queen as the Royal County of Berkshire in 1957 because of the presence of Windsor Castle, and letters patent were issued in 1974. Berkshire is a county of historic origin, a ceremonial county and a non-metropolitan county without a county council. The county town is Reading.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1884 –1887||9th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1887 –1890||10th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1890 –1893||11th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1893 –1896||12th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1896 –1899||13th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1899 –1902||14th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
|1902 –1905||15th||Hawke's Bay||Independent|
Russell was a member of the Hawke's Bay Provincial Council from 1870 until the abolition of the provinces in 1876.He won the election for the Napier electorate in the New Zealand Parliament on 30 December 1875 in the 1875 general election, and was re-elected on 8 September 1879 in the 1879 general election. In 1881 after an electorate redistribution, he was defeated by Fred Sutton for the Hawke's Bay electorate. He won the seat on 22 July 1884 in the 1884 general election, and held it until he was defeated by Alfred Dillon in 1905.
Napier is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the House of Representatives. It is named after the city of Napier, the main urban area within the electorate. The electorate was established for the 1861 election and has existed since. Since the 2014 general election, Napier has been held by Stuart Nash of the New Zealand Labour Party. Previously, it had been held by Chris Tremain of the New Zealand National Party, who stood down prior to the 2014 election.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world.
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He was a Minister (Postmaster-General) in the short-lived Fourth Atkinson ministry of 1884; which lasted only six (or fourteen) days. In 1889 he joined the Fifth (and last) Atkinson ministry of 1887 as Colonial Secretary, Minister of Defence and Minister of Justice. He represented New Zealand at the Federation Conference in Melbourne in 1890, and later at the Australian National Convention in Sydney in 1892.
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When the Liberal government of John Ballance came to power in 1890, the Opposition had not yet coalesced into a truly formal party. Russell was recognised as Leader of the Opposition from 1894 to 1901. Noted for his courtesy, honesty and consideration, Russell was at times completely overwhelmed by Prime Minister Richard Seddon in the cut and thrust of parliamentary debate. Even members of his own party acknowledged his nature was ill-suited to parliamentary brawls.
John Ballance was an Irish-born New Zealand politician who was the 14th Premier of New Zealand, from January 1891 to April 1893, the founder of the Liberal Party, and a Georgist. In 1891 he led his party to its first election victory, forming the first New Zealand government along party lines, but died in office three years later. Ballance supported votes for women and land reform, though at considerable cost to Māori.
The New Zealand general election of 1890 was one of New Zealand's most significant. It marked the beginning of party politics in New Zealand with the formation of the Liberal Government, which was to enact major welfare, labour and electoral reforms, including giving the vote to women.
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In June 1900, following defeat at the 1899 general election, the opposition strength fell considerably. The conservative MPs could not agree on a new leader upon holding their first caucus of the session. However, Seddon still continued to address Russell as their leader until July 1901.For over two years the conservatives were virtually leaderless, although chief whip William Massey often informally filled the role and eventually succeeded Russell as leader in September 1903.
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Russell was later appointed to the Legislative Council on 26 June 1913. He died at Napier soon after on 24 September 1913.
He married Miss Harriette Julia Hodgskin of Cawley Priory, Sussex, England in 1867. They had eleven children, four daughters and seven sons. One son, Second Lieutenant Lionel Philip Russell, of the Second Battalion, Prince of Wale's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment) was attached to the 14th Mounted Infantry in the South African War. He died aged 24 of the wounds he had received in Holland (19 December 1901). Another son, Captain Walter Russell 'Dick' Russell of the Northamptonshire Regiment, 2nd Battalion, attached to 1st Battalion, was killed in action on 23 October 1914 in France aged 33.
He lived on his estate Flaxmere near Hastings. He also owned Tunanui Station which he had bought with his brother near Napier. When the partnership expired he retained the Flaxmere and Sherenden estates. A sports lover, he was President of the New Zealand Jockey Club.
In recognition of his long service,he was made a knight bachelor on 14 August 1902, after the honour had been announced in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902. As was the custom until the first quarter of the 20th century he continued to use his military rank of Captain until he was knighted. His full name according to electoral rolls and the Cyclopedia of New Zealand was Captain the Hon. William Russell Russell, then Sir William Russell Russell, i.e. Russell was his middle name and also his surname.
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and Commissioner of Telegraphs
| Minister of Justice |
William Pember Reeves
|New Zealand Parliament|
| Member of Parliament for Napier |
Served alongside: Donald McLean, Fred Sutton
| Member of Parliament for Hawke's Bay |