William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (1588 –24 October 1660) was an English nobleman and Royalist commander in the English Civil War.
The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by King Edward III of England in 1348. It is the most senior order of knighthood in the British honours system, outranked in precedence only by the Victoria Cross and the George Cross. The Order of the Garter is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") principally over the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Seymour was the son of Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache (who predeceased his own father) by his wife Honora Rogers. He was the grandson of Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, by his wife Lady Katherine Grey, a sister of Lady Jane Grey, "The Nine Days Queen", which thus gave him a distant claim to the throne through Katherine's descent from Mary Tudor, younger sister of King Henry VIII. He was the great-grandson of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500-1552), the uncle of King Edward VI and Lord Protector of England.
Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, 1st Baron Beauchamp, KG, of Wulfhall and Tottenham House in Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, of Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset, of Netley Abbey, Hampshire, and of Hertford House, Cannon Row in Westminster, is most noted for incurring the displeasure of Queen Elizabeth I by more than one clandestine marriage.
Katherine Seymour, Countess of Hertford, born Lady Katherine Grey, was a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey.
Mary Tudor was an English princess who was briefly Queen consort of France, the progenitor of a family that eventually claimed the English throne. She was the younger surviving daughter of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the third wife of Louis XII of France, who was more than 30 years older than she. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The marriage was performed secretly in France during the reign of her brother Henry VIII and without his consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey; Henry eventually pardoned the couple, but they were forced to pay a large fine.
Seymour made a secret marriage at Greenwich on 22 June 1610 to Arbella Stuart (died 1615), daughter of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish. Arbella was thirteen years his senior, and King James I disapproved of the marriage as the union of two potential Tudor pretenders to the throne, who were respectively fourth and sixth in line, could only be seen as a threat to the ruling dynasty. As a result, William was condemned to life imprisonment in the Tower of London and thus became the fourth of five generations of Seymours to spend time in that prison.
Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox, was the fourth son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret Tudor and granddaughter of King Henry VII of England. His brother was Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
Elizabeth Stuart, Countess of Lennox née Cavendish was an English noblewoman and the wife of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox. She was the mother of Arbella Stuart, a close claimant to the English and Scottish thrones.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.
In June 1611 Seymour escaped from the Tower, planning to meet up with Arbella, who also had escaped captivity. They were to flee to the Continent, but bad weather and other circumstances prevented their meeting, and Arbella was recaptured and placed back in the Tower.William managed to reach safety abroad at Ostend, but was never reunited with Arbella who remained in the Tower until her death in 1615.
Ostend is a coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders, Belgium. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde, Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast. Most famous for the birth of Divock Origi
In December 1620 Seymour was elected Member of Parliament for Marlborough in Wiltshire, but vacated the seat soon afterwards on his elevation to the House of Lords, having succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Hertford in 1621. In the House of Lords he became a prominent opponent to King Charles I, where he supported the Petition of Right of 1628, and co-signed the letter of the twelve Peers of 1640, along with his brother-in-law Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex.
Marlborough was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1868, and then one member from 1868 until 1885, when the borough was abolished.
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
During the Long Parliament Hertford eventually parted company with the more radical opponents of the King, and in 1641 was created by him Marquess of Hertford. In the Civil War he was a moderate royalist, along with such figures as Sir Edward Hyde, and throughout sought a compromise settlement, by continuing unofficial negotiations throughout the war with his brother-in-law Essex, the Parliamentary commander. He was nevertheless a trusted supporter of the king, who made him guardian of his son the future King Charles II, and he undertook several important military commands in royalist service over the course of the war, including commanding troops from South Wales.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, and which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640. He intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; and, those members did not agree to its dissolution until 16 March 1660, after the English Civil War and near the close of the Interregnum.
The titles of Earl of Hertford and Marquess of Hertford have been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667. He was loyal to the king, built up the royalist cause, and served as the chief minister after 1660. He was one of the most important historians of England, as author of the most influential contemporary history of the Civil War, The History of the Rebellion (1702). He was the maternal grandfather of two monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.
After the end of the First Civil War and the king's imprisonment, Hertford was the most prominent nobleman to remain alongside the king throughout his captivity, and was with him until his execution in 1649. He was one of four lords (the others being the duke of Richmond, and the earls of Lindsey and Southampton) who petitioned the Commons to be allowed to assume responsibility for the king's actions and to suffer death in his place.During the Inter-regnum, Hertford kept himself away from both politics and royalist conspiracies, in the belief that the monarchy would eventually be restored and that conspiracies would only delay that event.
When the Restoration of the Monarchy came in 1660, Hertford was restored to all his former positions, and his services in the Royalist cause were further recognised by King Charles II, who in 1660 restored Hertford to his great-grandfather's Dukedom of Somerset, which had been forfeited in 1552. He thus became the 2nd Duke of Somerset.
William Seymour married twice:
Firstly and secretly (see above), on 22 June 1610, to his cousin Lady Arbella Stuart (died 1615), who was then fourth in line to the succession of their cousin, King James I. There were no children from the marriage.
Secondly, on 3 March 1617 at Drayton Bassett, he married Lady Frances Devereux (1599–1674), daughter of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by his wife Frances Walsingham, daughter of Francis Walsingham. By Frances he had at least eight children:
Hertford died at Essex House in London and was buried on 1 November 1660 at Great Bedwyn in Wiltshire. He was succeeded by his grandson William Seymour, 3rd Duke of Somerset.
|Ancestors of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset|
Lady Arbella Stuart was an English noblewoman who was considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I of England.
Duke of Somerset, from the county of Somerset, is a title that has been created four times in the peerage of England. It is particularly associated with two families: the Beauforts, who held the title from the creation of 1448, and the Seymours, from the creation of 1547, in whose name the title is still held. The present dukedom is unique, in that the first holder of the title created it for himself in his capacity of Lord Protector of the Kingdom of England, using a power granted in the will of his nephew King Edward VI.
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was a British peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, and inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial; his vanity, which earned him the sobriquet of "the proud duke", was a byword among his contemporaries and was the subject of numerous anecdotes; Macaulay described him as "a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease".
Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, KG was an English nobleman. He was a grandee and one of the wealthiest peers of the court of Elizabeth I. Under James I, Northumberland was a long-term prisoner in the Tower of London, due to the suspicion that he was complicit in the Gunpowder Plot. He is known for the circles he moved in as well as for his own achievements. He acquired the sobriquet The Wizard Earl, from his scientific and alchemical experiments, his passion for cartography, and his large library. His mild deafness and slight speech impediment did not prevent him from becoming an important intellectual and cultural figure of his generation.
Sir Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Winchilsea (1628–1689) of Eastwell, Kent, was the 3rd Earl of Winchilsea.
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG, styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was an English statesman, a staunch supporter of King Charles II who after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 rose to the position of Lord High Treasurer, which term began with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry. He "was remarkable for his freedom from any taint of corruption and for his efforts in the interests of economy and financial order," a noble if not completely objective view of his work as the keeper of the nation's finances. He died before the impeachment of Lord Clarendon, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government.
Anne Seymour, Duchess of Somerset was the second wife of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who held the office of Lord Protector during the first part of the reign of their nephew King Edward VI. The Duchess was briefly the most powerful woman in England. During her husband's regency she unsuccessfully claimed precedence over the queen dowager, Catherine Parr.
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, KG, PC, PC (Ire) was a British courtier and politician.
John Seymour, 4th Duke of Somerset and 3rd Marquess of Hertford was an English peer and MP.
William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford KG PC was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he inherited his Peerage as 5th Earl of Bedford and removed to the House of Lords. He fought in the Parliamentarian army and later defected to the Royalists during the English Civil War. He is also known for developing the Bloomsbury area of London.
Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hatch had a theoretically strong claim to the throne of England through his mother, but whose legitimacy was questioned.
Sir John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath, PC was an Earl in the peerage of England. He also succeeded to the titles of 12th Baron FitzWarin, Baron Daubeney and 4th Count of Eu.
Francis Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, of Marlborough Castle and Savernake Park in Wiltshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1641 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Seymour of Trowbridge. He supported the Royalist cause during the English Civil War.
Frances Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, was an English noblewoman who lived during the reigns of Elizabeth I, James I, Charles I and Charles II. Her father was Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Elizabeth I's favourite who was executed for treason in 1601. She was the second wife of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, and the mother of his seven children.
Charles Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, 3rd Baron Clifford, FRS, was an English peer and politician. He was a member of a famous Anglo-Irish aristocratic family.
Sir Edward Rodney was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1642.
The feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp or honour of Hatch Beauchamp was an English feudal barony with its caput at the manor of Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset. The site of the mediaeval manor house is today occupied by Hatch Court, a grade I listed mansion built in about 1755 in the Palladian style.
Frances Darcy, Countess of Holderness, formerly Lady Frances Seymour, was an English noblewoman of royal descent, who was married three times to titled men.
|Parliament of England|
Sir Francis Popham
| Member of Parliament for Marlborough |
With: Richard Digges
The Earl of Pembroke
| Lord Lieutenant of Somerset |
jointly with The Earl of Pembroke 1639–1640
Lord Herbert 1640–1646
Sir Francis Seymour
| Custos Rotulorum of Wiltshire |
|English Interregnum|| Lord Lieutenant of Somerset |
The Marquess of Ormonde
| Custos Rotulorum of Somerset |
Sir Charles Berkeley
| Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire |
The Earl of Southampton
| Custos Rotulorum of Wiltshire |
The Lord Seymour of Trowbridge
Earl of Pembroke
| Chancellor of the University of Oxford |
Earl of Pembroke
| Chancellor of the University of Oxford |
Earl of Clarendon
|Peerage of England|
forfeit in 1552
Title last held byEdward Seymour
| Duke of Somerset |
|New creation|| Marquess of Hertford |
| Earl of Hertford |
| Baron Beauchamp |
(writ in acceleration)