Sir William Smith in 1893
|Died||August 7, 1893 80)(aged|
|Occupation||Lexicographer and editor|
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 –7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer. He became known for his advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
Smith was born in Enfield in 1813 to Nonconformist parents. He attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney.Originally destined for a theological career, he instead became articled to a solicitor. Meanwhile, he taught himself classics in his spare time, and when he entered University College London carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes. He was entered at Gray's Inn in 1830, but gave up his legal studies for a post at University College School and began to write on classical subjects.
Smith next turned his attention to lexicography. His first attempt was A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities , which appeared in 1842, the greater part being written by him. Then followed the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology in 1849. A parallel Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geographyappeared in 1857, with some leading scholars of the day associated with the task.
In 1867, Smith became editor of the Quarterly Review , a post he held until his death.
Smith published the first of several school dictionaries in 1850, and in 1853 began the Principia series, which marked an advance in the school teaching of Greek and Latin. Then came the Student's Manuals of History and Literature, of which the English literature volume went into 13 editions.He himself wrote the Greek history volume.
He was joined in the venture by the publisher John Murray when the original publishing partner met difficulties. Murray was the publisher of the 1214-page Latin–English Dictionary based upon the works of Forcellini and Freund that Smith completed in 1855. This was periodically reissued over the next 35 years. It goes beyond "classical" (100 BC – AD 100) Latin to include many entries not found in other dictionaries of the period, including Lewis and Short.
Perhaps the most important of the books Smith edited were the ones that dealt with ecclesiastical subjects: the Dictionary of the Bible (1860–1865), the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (1875–1880), undertaken in collaboration with Archdeacon Samuel Cheetham, and the Dictionary of Christian Biography (1877–1887), done jointly with Henry Wace.
The Atlas, on which Sir George Grove collaborated, appeared in 1875.From 1853 to 1869 Smith was classical examiner to the University of London, and on retirement he became a member of the Senate. He sat on the Committee enquiring into questions of copyright and was for several years registrar of the Royal Literary Fund. He edited Gibbon, with Guizot's and Milman's notes, in 1854–1855.
Smith was created a DCL by Oxford and Dublin. A knighthood was conferred on him in 1892. He died on 7 October 1893 in London.
In Greek mythology, Aeolus is a name shared by three mythical characters. These three personages are often difficult to tell apart, and even the ancient mythographers appear to have been perplexed about which Aeolus was which. Diodorus Siculus made an attempt to define each of these three, and his opinion is followed here.
Lucius Accius, or Lucius Attius, was a Roman tragic poet and literary scholar. The son of a freedman and a freedwoman, Accius was born at Pisaurum in Umbria, in 170 BC. The year of his death is unknown, but he must have lived to a great age, since Cicero writes of having conversed with him on literary matters.
Aegle is the name of several different figures in Greek mythology:
In Greek mythology, Erebus, also Erebos, was often conceived as a primordial deity, representing the personification of darkness; for instance, Hesiod's Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence, born of Chaos.
Henry George Liddell was dean (1855–91) of Christ Church, Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–74), headmaster (1846–55) of Westminster School, author of A History of Rome (1855), and co-author of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", which is still widely used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice.
Dictys Cretensis, i.e. Dictys of Crete of Knossus was a legendary companion of Idomeneus during the Trojan War, and the purported author of a diary of its events, that deployed some of the same materials worked up by Homer for the Iliad. The story of his journal, an amusing fiction addressed to a knowledgeable Alexandrian audience, came to be taken literally during Late Antiquity.
Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope,, styled Viscount Mahon between 1816 and 1855, was an English antiquarian and Tory politician. He held political office under Sir Robert Peel in the 1830s and 1840s but is best remembered for his contributions to cultural causes and for his historical writings.
Charles Anthon was an American classical scholar.
George Long was an English classical scholar.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English language encyclopedia first published in 1842. The second, improved and enlarged, edition appeared in 1848, and there were many revised editions up to 1890. The encyclopedia covered law, religion, architecture, warfare, daily life, and similar subjects primarily from the standpoint of a classicist. It was one of a series of reference works on classical antiquity by William Smith, the others cover persons and places. It runs to well over a million words in any edition, and all editions are now in the public domain.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.
Agamede was a name attributed to two separate women in classical Greek mythology and legendary history.
The Bibliotheca Classica, or Classical Dictionary containing a full Account of all the Proper Names mentioned in Ancient Authors is the best-known work of John Lemprière, an English classical scholar. Edited by various later scholars, the dictionary long remained a readable if not absolutely trustworthy reference book in mythology and classical history. Lemprière wished "to give the most accurate and satisfactory account of all the proper names which occur in reading the Classics, and by a judicious collection of anecdotes and historical facts to draw a picture of ancient times, not less instructive than entertaining."
William Sandys Wright Vaux FRS, was a celebrated English antiquary and numismatist of the 19th century.
Almo was in ancient Roman religion the eponymous god of the small river Almo in the vicinity of Rome. Like Tiberinus and others, he was prayed to by the augurs of Rome. In the water of Almo the aniconic stone embodying the mother of the gods, Cybele, used to be washed. He had a naiad daughter named Larunda.
Alexander Allen was an English writer and linguist who specialised in studies of Greece.
In Greek mythology, Leucippus was a Messenian prince. The Boeotian town of Leuctra is said to have derived its name from him.
Aganippe was the name of both a spring and the Naiad associated with it. The spring is in Boeotia, near Thespiae, at the base of Mount Helicon, and was associated with the Muses who were sometimes called Aganippides. Drinking from it was considered to be a source of poetic inspiration. The nymph is called a daughter of the river-god Permessus. Ovid associates Aganippe with Hippocrene.
Augustus Samuel Wilkins (1843–1905) was an English classical scholar. He held a professorship of Latin in Manchester for 34 years.
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