William Wakefield Baum
|Major Penitentiary Emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary|
Cardinal William Baum (2005)
|See||Santa Croce in Via Flaminia|
|Appointed||April 6, 1990|
|Term ended||November 22, 2001|
|Successor||Luigi De Magistris|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santa Croce in via Flaminia|
|Ordination||May 12, 1951|
by Edwin Vincent O'Hara
|Consecration||April 6, 1970|
by John Carberry
|Created cardinal||May 24, 1976|
by Paul VI
|Birth name||William White|
|Born||November 21, 1926|
Dallas, Texas, United States of America
|Died||July 23, 2015 88) (aged|
Washington D.C., United States of America
|Motto||Ministerium reconciliationis (The ministry of reconciliation) |
— 2 Corinthians 5:18
|Coat of arms|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Ordination history of
William Wakefield Baum
William Wakefield Baum (November 21, 1926 – July 23, 2015) was an American cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau (1970–73) and Archbishop of Washington (1973–80) before serving in the Roman Curia as Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education (1980–90) and Major Penitentiary (1990–2001).He was elevated to the College of Cardinals in 1976. At the time of his 1980 appointment as Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education, he was the highest-ranking American ever in the Church. Cardinal Baum was the longest-serving American cardinal in history.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Washington is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. It comprises the District of Columbia and Calvert, Charles, Montgomery, Prince George's and Saint Mary's counties in the state of Maryland. It was originally part of the Archdiocese of Baltimore
William Wakefield White was born in Dallas, Texas, to Harold E. and Mary Leona (née Hayes) White.His father, a Presbyterian, died when William was a young child, and he and his mother moved to Kansas City, Missouri. His mother married Jerome Charles Baum, a Jewish businessman, who adopted William and gave him his last name; Jerome Baum died when William was 12.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland.
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States. It is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated; shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after.
He received his early education at the parochial school of St. Peter's Church, and began to serve as an altar boy at age 10.He entered St. John's Minor Seminary in 1940, and then studied philosophy at Cardinal Glennon College in St. Louis. In 1947, he entered Kenrick Seminary, also in St. Louis, for his theological studies.
A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts. The word "parochial" comes from the same root as "parish", and parochial schools were originally the educational wing of the local parish church. Christian parochial schools are often called "church schools" or "Christian schools". In Ontario, parochial schools are called "separate schools".
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy. An altar server attends to supporting tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying, ringing the altar bell, among other things. A young male altar server is commonly called an altar boy, whereas a young female altar server is commonly called an altar girl.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?
Baum was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Edwin V. O'Hara on May 12, 1951.His first assignment was as assistant pastor of St. Aloysius Church in Kansas City. He taught theology and Church history at St. Theresa College from 1954 to 1956, as well as at St. Aloysius Academy and Glennon High School. He then studied at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome, where he earned a Doctorate of Sacred Theology degree in 1958. His thesis was entitled: "The Teaching of Cardinal Cajetan on the Sacrifice of the Mass".
Edwin Vincent O'Hara was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. A pastor also gives advice and counsel to people from the community or congregation.
Avila University is a private university in Kansas City, Missouri, sponsored by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet. It offers bachelor's degrees in 36 majors and master's degrees — Master of Science in Counseling Psychology, Master in Management, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science in Organizational Development, and Master of Arts in Education. Its 13 buildings are situated on a campus of 50 acres (20.2 ha) in the heart of Kansas City. They include four residence halls, a fieldhouse and auxiliary pavilion for basketball and volleyball; a sports complex for football, baseball, softball, and soccer; a library, a theatre, a chapel, and some classroom facilities.
Returning to Kansas City, Baum resumed his teaching duties at St. Theresa College (1958–63) and served as secretary of the Diocesan Tribunal.He also did pastoral work at St. Theresa's Church and St. Peter's Church, both in Kansas City. In 1960, he became pastor of St. Cyril's Church in Sugar Creek. He published "Considerations Toward the Theology of the Presbyterate" in 1961. He was named a papal chamberlain by Pope John XXIII in April 1961, and vice-chancellor of the Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph in 1962.
Sugar Creek is a city in Clay and Jackson counties in the U.S. state of Missouri. The population was 3,345 at the 2010 census.
Presbyterium is a modern term used in the Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches after the Second Vatican Council in reference to a college of priests, in active ministry, of an individual particular church such as a diocese or eparchy. The body, in union with their bishop as a collective, is a symbol of the collaborative and collegial nature of their sacerdotal ministry as inspired by the reforms made during the Second Vatican Council.
Monsignor is an honorific form of address for some members of the clergy, usually of the Roman Catholic Church, including bishops, honorary prelates and canons. In some cases, these ecclesiastical honorific titles derive from the pope, but in other cases it is simply a customary or honorary style belonging to a prelate or honorary prelate. These are granted to individuals who have rendered valuable service to the church, or who provide some special function in church governance, or who are members of bodies such as certain chapters. Although in some languages the word is used as a form of address for bishops, which is indeed its primary use in those languages, this is not customary in English. Monsignor is the apocopic form of the Italian monsignore, from the French mon seigneur, meaning "my lord". It is abbreviated Mgr or Mons, Msgr, or Mons.
From 1962 to 1965, Baum served as a peritus , or theological expert, to Bishop Charles Helmsing at the Second Vatican Council.In that capacity, he worked with the Secretariat for Christian Unity and helped draft Unitatis Redintegratio , the Council's decree on ecumenism. In 1964, he was named the first executive director of the Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs for the National Conference of Catholic Bishops, a post which he held for five years. He also served as a member of the Joint Working Group of representatives of the Catholic Church and World Council of Churches (1965–69) and of the Mixed Committee of representatives of the Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation (1965–66).
Peritus is the title given to Roman Catholic theologians attending an ecumenical council to give advice. At the Second Vatican Council, some periti accompanied individual bishops or groups of bishops from various countries. Others were formally appointed as advisers to the whole Council.
Charles Herman Helmsing was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as bishop of the Diocese of Kansas City–St. Joseph.
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965.
In 1967, Baum returned to Kansas City, where he served as chancellor of the diocese and pastor of St. James Church.He was named a domestic prelate in 1968.
On February 18, 1970, Baum was appointed the third Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau by Pope Paul VI.He received his episcopal consecration on the following April 6 from Cardinal John Carberry, with Bishops Charles Helmsing and Joseph Sullivan serving as co-consecrators. He selected as his episcopal motto: "Ministry of Reconciliation" (2 Corinthians 5:18).
He served as an American delegate to the World Synod of Bishops at the Vatican in 1971, and was chairman of the Bishops' Committee for Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs (1972–75).
Three years later Paul VI elevated him to Archbishop of Washington, D.C., and in the consistory of 1976 Baum was named Cardinal-Priest of Santa Croce in Via Flaminia. He participated in the two conclaves of 1978.
Under Pope John Paul II, in 1980 he was named to the Roman Curia as Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education, succeeding the French Cardinal Gabriel-Marie Garrone. The Italian Cardinal Pio Laghi succeeded him in that position. In 1990 he became the Church's Major Penitentiary, succeeding the Italian Cardinal Luigi Dadaglio, exchanging the responsibility of overseeing the Catholic Church's educational policy and structure, parochial schools, Catholic colleges and universities, Newman Centers, and seminaries worldwide, for that of supervising one of the three final appellate tribunals of the Church (the other two are the Roman Rota, which among other matters deals with marriage cases, and the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, which is the church's supreme court- which mainly resolves technicalities or procedural disagreements- for all cases the Pope does not hear). Cardinal Baum's position as Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary involved mostly dealing with the regulation of indulgences and matters of conscience (the internal forum)- especially the forgiveness of sins in the Sacrament of Reconciliation. He was succeeded as Major Penitentiary by Cardinal Luigi De Magistris, who in turn was replaced by another American, James Francis Stafford, who had been Archbishop of Denver.
Baum was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. Along with Benedict (then Cardinal Ratzinger) and Cardinal Jaime Sin, Baum was one of three remaining cardinals elevated by Paul VI to retain voting rights in that conclave. Cardinal Baum was the senior Cardinal Priest to participate in the 2005 papal conclave.
Somewhat frail in his later years, Baum also suffered from deteriorating eyesight. His resignation as Penitentiary was accepted the day after his 75th birthday in 2001, but he remained active in Rome to the extent that his health permitted, and attended the meeting of American cardinals called to deal with the sex abuse scandal in 2003. He lived in Washington, D.C. until his death, and died in a home in Washington, D.C., run by the Little Sisters of the Poor, where he had spent his last years.
With the election of Ratzinger as pope on April 19, 2005, followed by the death of Jaime Sin on June 21, 2005, Baum became the last cardinal elevated by Pope Paul VI to maintain voting rights in a papal conclave. Upon Baum reaching the age of 80 on November 21, 2006, all cardinals who may vote in a conclave had been elevated by Pope John Paul II or Pope Benedict XVI.
On March 8, 2011, Baum became the longest-serving American cardinal, surpassing the record established by James Gibbons of Baltimore in 1921.
On July 26, 2015 Baum died at the age of 88. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle in Washington, DC.
James Francis Stafford is an American cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary from 2003 to 2009. He previously served as President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity (1996–2003), Archbishop of Denver (1986–1996), Bishop of Memphis (1982–1986), and Auxiliary Bishop of Baltimore (1976–1982). He was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope John Paul II in 1998.
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Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the first resident Archbishop of Washington from 1948 to 1973, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1967.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield–Cape Girardeau is a Roman Catholic diocese in Missouri. The diocese is governed by Bishop Edward M. Rice.
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|Catholic Church titles|
Ignatius Jerome Strecker
| Bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau |
Bernard Francis Law
| Archbishop of Washington |
James Aloysius Hickey
| Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education |
| Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary |
Luigi De Magistris