William Wentworth

Last updated

William Wentworth
William Wentworth.jpg
c. 1861
Born
William Charles Wentworth

(1790-08-13)13 August 1790
Norfolk Island
Died20 March 1872(1872-03-20) (aged 81)
England
Burial place Wentworth Mausoleum, Vaucluse
NationalityAustralian
Education Peterhouse, Cambridge, Middle Temple, London
OccupationPastoralist
Years active1820s 1860s
Known forExplorer, author, newspaper owner and politician
Spouse(s)Sarah Cox
Children11 children

William Charles Wentworth (13 August 1790 20 March 1872) [1] was an Australian explorer, journalist, politician and author, and one of the leading figures of early colonial New South Wales. He was the first native-born Australian to achieve a reputation overseas, and a leading advocate for self-government for the Australian colonies.

Contents

Birth

William Charles Wentworth was born on 13 August 1790 to D'Arcy Wentworth and Catherine Crowley. D'Arcy was the impecunious distant offspring of the aristocratic Wentworth family. D'Arcy was born in Ireland in 1762, but had left to train as a surgeon in London. To maintain his lifestyle he apparently became a highwayman, but soon found himself in trouble with the law. After being acquitted four times of highway robbery, to avoid a further prosecution, D'Arcy took the position of assistant surgeon to the new colony of New South Wales. He boarded the Neptune sometime in December 1789. On board the ship was a seventeen-year-old girl from Ireland, who was being transported to Sydney following a conviction for stealing some clothing. [1] On board ship, D'Arcy Wentworth and Catherine Crowley became lovers.

The Neptune arrived in Sydney as part of the Second Fleet on 29 June 1790. [2] [3] :6 D'Arcy and Catherine, now heavily pregnant, departed for Norfolk Island on the Surprize . While anchored off Norfolk Island in August, possibly the 13th, Catherine gave birth to a son whom she named William. Although born less than nine months after they first met, D'Arcy acknowledged the boy as his. [3] :8

There has always been confusion about the date and circumstances of Wentworth's birth. The text of his obituary in the Sydney Morning Herald of 6 May 1872, [4] [5] says about the year 1792. Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891–1896, Page 96, says he was born in 1793, describes his mother as Catherine Parry, and that she was the wife of D'Arcy. In the biography "William Charles Wentworth" by A C V Melbourne, he says that he was born in 1792. [6] His mother is believed to have been a Catherine Williams, who had been a convict on the Neptune, where D'arcy first became acquainted with her. [7] The date 26 October 1793 was celebrated as his birth date for some years. [8] His coffin had attached to it a plate of pure silver which bore the simple inscription, William Charles Wentworth, born 26 October 1793 died March, 20th, 1872. [9]

Early life

In 1796 D'Arcy and Catherine Wentworth moved from Norfolk Island to Sydney, with the young William. The family lived at Parramatta, where his father became a prosperous landowner. Catherine died at Parramatta in 1800. [1] In 1803 William along with his brother, was sent to England, where he was educated at a school in Greenwich. [10] In about 1807, D'Arcy Wentworth sold 450 acres (180 ha) at the Brush Farm (near Eastwood) to Gregory Blaxland for £1,500. William returned to Sydney in 1810, where he was appointed acting Provost Marshal by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, and given a land grant of 1,750 acres (710 ha) [1] on the Nepean River.

On 15 October 1810, at Hyde Park, now in the centre of Sydney, Wentworth rode his father's horse Gig to victory in the first official horse races on Australian soil. [11]

Crossing the Blue Mountains

William Charles Wentworth - Journal of his expedition across the Blue Mountains. Held at the State Library of New South Wales. William Charles Wentworth - Journal expedition across Blue Mountains a1461003.jpg
William Charles Wentworth – Journal of his expedition across the Blue Mountains. Held at the State Library of New South Wales.

In 1813 Wentworth, along with Gregory Blaxland and William Lawson, led the expedition which found a route across the Blue Mountains west of Sydney and opened up the grazing lands of inland New South Wales. Wentworth kept a journal of the exploration which begins by describing the first day of the journey:

On the Eleventh of May our party consisting of Mr. Gregory Blaxland, Lieutenant Lawson and Myself with four servants quitted Mr. Gregory Blaxland's farm on the South Creek and on the 29th of the June Month descended from the Mountain into forest land having travelled as nearly as I can compute about 60 Miles from Mr. Chapman's farm on the Nepean River although I do not imagine that we made more than 40 Miles of Westing. [12]

In the journal, Wentworth describes the landscapes they were exploring:

A country of so singular a description could in my opinion only have been produced by some Mighty convulsion in Nature – Those immense unconnected perpendicular Masses of Mountain which are to be seen towards its Eastern Extremity towering above the Country around, seem to indicate that the whole of this tract has been formed out of the Materials of the primitive mountains of which these masses are the only parts that have withstood the violence of the concussion.' [12]

The town of Wentworth Falls in the Blue Mountains commemorates his role in the expedition. As a reward he was granted another 1,000 acres (4.0 km2). [1] He then combined farming with sandalwood trading in the South Pacific, where the captain of the ship died at Rarotonga and Wentworth safely brought the ship back to Sydney. [1]

Studying in England

Wentworth returned to England in 1816. There he was admitted to the bar, travelled in Europe, and studied at Cambridge University, initially matriculating in Magdalene College. [10]

In 1819 Wentworth published the first book written by an Australian: A Statistical, Historical, and Political Description of the Colony of New South Wales and Its Dependent Settlements in Van Diemen's Land, With a Particular Enumeration of the Advantages Which These Colonies Offer for Emigration and Their Superiority in Many Respects Over Those Possessed by the United States of America, [1] in which he advocated an elected assembly for New South Wales, trial by jury and settlement of Australia by free emigrants rather than convicts.

Wentworth successfully completed his legal studies by 1822 and was called to the bar. In 1823 he was admitted to Peterhouse, Cambridge. [13] That year he also published an epic poem Australasia, which contains lines now famous in Australia: [14]

And, O Britannia!... may this — thy last-born infant — then arise,
To glad thy heart, and greet thy parent eyes;
And Australasia float, with flag unfurl'd,
A new Britannia in another world!

Political life

William Charles Wentworth (Thomas Woolner, 1854) William Charles Wentworth, by Thomas Woolner (1825-1892).tif
William Charles Wentworth (Thomas Woolner, 1854)

Wentworth returned to Sydney in 1824, accompanied by Robert Wardell. [15] D'Arcy Wentworth died in 1827 and William inherited his property, becoming one of the wealthiest men in the colony. He bought land in eastern Sydney and built a mansion, Vaucluse House, from which the modern suburb takes its name.

However, because his parents had never married, and his mother had been a convict, and his wife was the daughter of two convicts, Francis Cox and Frances Morton, he could not become a member of Sydney's "respectable" class, known as "the exclusives". Embittered by this rejection, he placed himself at the head of the "emancipist" party, which sought equal rights and status for ex-convicts and their descendants. [10]

A wild but gifted orator and a vitriolic journalist, Wentworth became the colony's leading political figure of the 1820s and '30s, calling for representative government, the abolition of transportation, freedom of the press and trial by jury. He became a bitter enemy of Governor Ralph Darling and the exclusives, led by the wealthy grazier John Macarthur and his friends. Macarthur's opposition to Wentworth was personal as well as political. Macarthur had broken up the relationship between his daughter Elizabeth and Wentworth, as he would not allow his daughter to marry someone with convict parents. [1]

Wentworth became Vice-President of the Australian Patriotic Association and founded a newspaper, The Australian , the colony's first privately owned paper, to champion his causes (this paper has no connection with the current Australian ). With a liberal editorial leaning, the paper was in frequent conflict with Governor Darling, [16] who was recalled in 1831. [10]

Under successive governors of differing opinions, Wentworth continued to exercise a powerful influence. [10] By 1840 the political climate in New South Wales had changed. With the abolition of transportation and the establishment of an elected Legislative Council, the dominant issue became the campaign to break the grip of the squatter (pastoral) class over the colony's lands, and on this issue Wentworth sided with his fellow landowners against the democratic party, who wanted to break up the squatters' runs for small farmers. He was elected to the Council in 1843 for City of Sydney and soon became the leader of the conservative party, opposed to the liberals led by Charles Cowper. [17] In 1852 he founded the University of Sydney, where his son afterwards founded bursaries in his honour. [10]

In 1853 Wentworth chaired the committee to draft a new constitution for New South Wales, which was to receive full responsible self-government from Britain. His draft provided for a powerful unelected Legislative Council and an elected Legislative Assembly with high property qualifications for voting and membership. He also suggested the establishment of a colonial peerage drawn from the landowning class. This draft aroused the bitter opposition of the democrats and radicals such as Daniel Deniehy, who ridiculed Wentworth's plans for what he called a "bunyip aristocracy".

The draft constitution was substantially changed to make it more democratic, although the Legislative Council remained unelected. With the establishment of responsible government in 1856 Wentworth retired from the Council and settled in England, where he founded the "General Association for the Australian Colonies", whose object was to obtain a federal assembly for the whole of Australia. [10] He refused several offers of honours, and was a member of the Conservative Party in the 1860s. He died in England, but at his request his body was returned to Sydney for burial. He was given the colony's first state funeral on 6 May 1873, a day declared by the governor as a public holiday. [18]

His family has remained prominent in Sydney society, and his great-grandson Bill Wentworth was a Liberal member of Parliament 1949–77.

Business

Wentworth was a director of the Bank of New South Wales (1825–1852). [19] He was a co-founder of The Australian newspaper in 1824. He provided £4,000 in capital and running costs to support the newspaper and wrote the occasional editorial. [20]

Family

In 1829 William Wentworth married Sarah Cox (1805–1880), with whom he had seven daughters and three sons:

He fathered at least one other child out of wedlock with Jamima Eagar, the estranged wife of Edward Eagar

Recognition

Wentworth Falls Upper Wentworth Falls, NSW, Australia 2 - Nov 2008.jpg
Wentworth Falls

The towns of Wentworth and Wentworth Falls, the federal Division of Wentworth, an electorate in Sydney's Eastern Suburbs, the Wentworth Falls waterfall, and Wentworth Avenue which runs through the suburb of Kingston in Canberra, were named after him.

An eight-foot high statue of Wentworth, sculpted by Pietro Tenerani of Rome, stands at the University of Sydney. Another statue of Wentworth is located on the exterior of the Department of Lands building in Sydney.

In 1963 he was honoured, together with Blaxland and Lawson, on a postage stamp issued by Australia Post depicting the Blue Mountains crossing, [21] and again in 1974 on the anniversary of the first newspaper publication. [22]

The Wentworth Building, where University of Sydney Union resides, was named after William Wentworth.

Pastoralist and newspaperman Horatio Wills named his son Thomas Wentworth Wills in homage of Wentworth, who was a close friend of Horatio's and served as the Wills family's lawyer. Thomas went on to become a renowned cricketer and co-founder of Australian rules football.

His clash with Darling was dramatised in the series The Patriots (1962).

Works

Sources

See also

Related Research Articles

Gregory Blaxland English explorer in Australia

Gregory Blaxland was an English pioneer farmer and explorer in Australia, noted especially for initiating and co-leading the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains by European settlers.

William Lawson (explorer) Australian pastoralist and explorer in New South Wales

William Lawson was an English-born Australian explorer, land owner, grazier and politician who migrated to Sydney, New South Wales in 1800. Along with his close friends and colleagues Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth, he pioneered the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains by European settlers.

D'Arcy Wentworth was an Irish surgeon, the first paying passenger to arrive in the new colony of New South Wales. He served under the first seven governors of the Colony, and from 1810 to 1821, he was great assistant to Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Wentworth led a campaign for the rights and recognition of emancipists and for trial by jury.

Bill Wentworth Australian politician

William Charles Wentworth AO was an Australian politician, who served as a Liberal and later Independent member of the House of Representatives from 1949 to 1977, with a reputation as a fierce anti-Communist.

George Evans (explorer) Australian explorer

George William Evans was a surveyor and early explorer in the Colony of New South Wales. Evans was born in Warwick, England, migrating to Australia in October 1802.

The Second Fleet was a convoy of six ships carrying settlers, convicts and supplies to Sydney Cove, Australia in 1789. It followed the First Fleet which established European settlement in Australia in the previous year.

Division of Wentworth Australian federal electoral division

The Division of Wentworth is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales.

Vaucluse, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Vaucluse is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 8 kilometres (5 mi) north-east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of Waverley Council and the Municipality of Woollahra.

History of Australia (1788–1850) history of the country Australia from 1788 to 1850

The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies. European colonisation created a new dominant society in Australia in place of the pre-existing population of Aboriginal Australians.

William Forster (Australian politician) Premier of New South Wales

William Forster was a pastoral squatter, colonial British politician, Premier of New South Wales from 27 October 1859 to 9 March 1860 and poet.

Sir Maurice Charles Philip O'Connell KCH was a commander of forces and lieutenant-governor of colonial New South Wales.

John Blaxland (explorer) Australian settler

John Blaxland was a pioneer settler and explorer in Australia.

Vaucluse House Heritage house in Sydney, Australia

Vaucluse House is a heritage-listed former Aboriginal land, residence, colonial farm and country estate and now tourist attraction, house museum and public park located at 69a Wentworth Road, Vaucluse in the Municipality of Woollahra local government area of New South Wales, Australia. Completed between 1803 and 1839 in the Gothic Revival style, its design was attributed to William Charles Wentworth and built by Sir Henry Browne Hayes and W. C. Wentworth. The property is owned by the Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. The site was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Simeon Lord Australian businessman

Simeon Lord was a pioneer merchant and a magistrate in Australia. He became a prominent trader in Sydney, buying and selling ship cargoes. Despite being an emancipist Lord was made a magistrate by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, and he became a frequent guest at government house. His business dealings were extensive. He became one of Sydney's wealthiest men. He was at various times a retailer, auctioneer, sealer, pastoralist, timber merchant and manufacturer. He is mentioned in many Australian History books, in particular regarding his status as an emancipist.

OConnell, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

O’Connell is a village in New South Wales, Australia. The village, classified by the National Trust of Australia, is 23 kilometres from Oberon on the O'Connell Road. At the 2006 census, O'Connell and the surrounding area had a population of 355.

1813 crossing of the Blue Mountains Australian mountaineering expedition

The 1813 crossing of the Blue Mountains was the expedition led by Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth, which became the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains in New South Wales by European settlers. The crossing enabled the settlers to access and use the land west of the mountains for farming, and made possible the establishment of Australia's first inland settlement at Bathurst.

Wentworth D'Arcy Uhr was an officer in the paramilitary Native Police in the British colony of Queensland. After being demoted for poor conduct, he resigned from this force and became a drover, leading the first herds of cattle into the region now known as the Northern Territory. He later became, amongst other vocations, a gold prospector, butcher and hotelier. Throughout his life, Uhr actively engaged in multiple incidents of frontier violence including several massacres of Aboriginals. He was also the subject of numerous court cases defending charges which ranged from murder and assault to race-fixing and fraud. In later life he moved to Western Australia and became a business partner with Charles Kidman, brother of the famous pastoralist, Sidney Kidman.

The members of the Wentworth family of both the U.S.A and Australia, as listed below, are descended from Thomas Wentworth and Jane, the daughter of Sir Oliver Mirfield. Sir Oliver died about 1522. The American Wentworths of New Hampshire are descended from Thomas' son Oliver. The Wentworth branch of Virginia and Maryland, and the Australian Wentworths, are descended from another son Roger. The Wentworth family, along with the Arden family, the Berkeley family and the Swinton family, is descended in the male line from pre-Norman Conquest Anglo-Saxon roots.

The Australian Patriotic Association is considered the first political party in Australia. It was formed in 1835 by a group of influential colonists of New South Wales which had among its leaders William Wentworth, the son of a convict woman and the publisher of the influential newspaper the Australian; Sir John Jamison, a surgeon and founder of the Agricultural Society; and William Bland, a prominent emancipist doctor.. Members included prominent businessman Prosper de Mestre, Samuel Terry, W.E. Riley, J. Blaxland and A.B. Spark.

Wentworth Mausoleum

Wentworth Mausoleum is a heritage-listed mausoleum located at 5 Chapel Road, Vaucluse in the Municipality of Woollahra local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1872 to 1874 by Mansfield Brothers, architects. It is also known as Wentworth Mausoleum and site. The property is owned by Anglican Church Property Trust and is managed by Sydney Living Museums as part of Vaucluse House. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Persse, Michael. "Wentworth, William Charles (1790–1872)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Melbourne University Press. ISSN   1833-7538 . Retrieved 18 April 2019 via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  2. Ritchie, John; Brissenden collection (1997), The Wentworths : father and son, Miegunyah Press, p. 40, ISBN   978-0-522-84751-2
  3. 1 2 Tink, Andrew (2009). William Charles Wentworth : Australia's greatest native son. Allen & Unwin. ISBN   978-1-74175-192-5.
  4. "Obituary - William Charles Wentworth". Obituaries Australia. National Centre of Biography.
  5. "William Charles Wentworth". The Sydney Morning Herald . 6 May 1872. p. 5 via National Library of Australia.
  6. Melbourne, A C V (1934). William Charles Wentworth. Brisbane: Biggs. OCLC   5734962.
  7. "LITERATURE". The Advertiser . Adelaide. 22 September 1934. p. 8 via National Library of Australia.
  8. "Wentworth's birthday". The Sydney Morning Herald . 27 October 1923. p. 18 via National Library of Australia.
    "To-days yesterdays". The Courier-Mail . Brisbane. 26 October 1933. p. 12 via National Library of Australia.
    "Anniversaries". The West Australian . Perth. 26 October 1935. p. 18 via National Library of Australia.
    "Wentworth memorial service". The Sydney Morning Herald . 23 November 1937. p. 7 via National Library of Australia.
    "W C Wentworth". The Sydney Morning Herald . 24 October 1936. p. 13 via National Library of Australia.
    "Australian almanac". The Australian Women's Weekly . 25 October 1967. p. 35 via National Library of Australia.
  9. "Public funeral of Mr W C Wentworth". The Empire . Sydney. 7 May 1873. p. 2 via National Library of Australia.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Wentworth, William"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  11. Sydney Sydney Gazette & NSW Advertiser
  12. 1 2 "Wentworth's journal". Discover Collections. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  13. "Wentworth, William Charles (WNTT823WC)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  14. Frank Welsh, Great Southern Land: A New History of Australia, Penguin Books, 2005, p.27 ( ISBN   0-140-29132-6)
  15. Serle, Percival (1949). "Wentworth, William Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography . Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  16. Victor Isaacs and Rod Kirkpatrick. "Two hundred years of Sydney newspapers: a short history" (PDF). Rural Press Ltd. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  17. "Mr William Charles Wentworth (1790 - 1872)". Former Members of the Parliament of New South Wales . Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  18. The Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 3 November 2017
  19. 200 The Westpac Story: 200 years supporting Australia published 2017 by Westpac Banking Corporation 2017 p.296 ISBN   9780646964102
  20. Ritchie, p.209.
  21. 1963 postage stamp
  22. 1974 Postage stamp
  23. A Statistical Account of the British Settlements in Australasia (1819) Retrieved 18 July 2020
  24. Journal of an expedition, across the Blue Mountains, 11 May-6 June 1813, 1813
  25. John Ritchie: Obituary. Retrieved 12 December 2012

 

New South Wales Legislative Council
New creation Member for City of Sydney
June 1843 April 1854
With: William Bland 1843–48, 1849–50
Robert Lowe 1848–49
John Dunmore Lang 1850–51
Robert Campbell 1851–54
John Lamb 1851–53
William Thurlow 1853–54
Succeeded by
Henry Parkes
Preceded by
William Westbrooke Burton
President of the
New South Wales Legislative Council

24 June 1861 10 October 1862
Succeeded by
Terence Aubrey Murray