William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, KG (c. 1312 – 16 September 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander.
He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan. He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile.
William de Bohun assisted at the arrest of Roger Mortimer in 1330, allowing Edward III to take power. After this, he was a trusted friend and commander of the king and he participated in the renewed wars with Scotland.
In 1332, he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Great Haseley, Ascott, Deddington, Pyrton and Kirtlington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Nottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex.
In 1335, he married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313 – 8 June 1356). Her parents Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere, and Margaret de Clare had both turned against Edward II the decade before. Elizabeth and William were granted some of the property of Elizabeth's first husband, who had also been Mortimer's son and heir.
William was created Earl of Northampton in 1337, one of the six earls created by Edward III to renew the ranks of the higher nobility. Since de Bohun was a younger son, and did not have an income suitable to his rank, he was given an annuity until suitable estates could be found.
In 1349 he became a Knight of the Garter. He served as High Sheriff of Rutland from 1349 until his death in 1360.
In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland, and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crécy. His most stunning feat was commanding an English force to victory against a much bigger French force at the Battle of Morlaix in 1342. Some of the details are in dispute, but it is clear that he made good use of pit traps, which stopped the French cavalry.
In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of King David Bruce, King of Scots, who was held prisoner by the English.
From the 8 March 1352 to 5 March 1355 he was appointed Admiral of the Northern Seas, Fleet.
1. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford (1341–1373)
2. Elizabeth de Bohun (c. 1350–1385); married Richard FitzAlan, 4th Earl of Arundel
In Bernard Cornwell's series the Grail Quest, the Earl of Northampton plays a minor role as Thomas of Hookton's lord.
Inquisition Post Mortem
William de Bohun's IPM #168 and his wife Elizabeth de Bohun #169 follows Inquisition Post Mortem.
|Ancestors of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton|
Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere was an English soldier, diplomat, Member of Parliament, landowner and nobleman. He was the son and heir of Sir Gunselin de Badlesmere and Joan FitzBernard. He fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years of the reign of Edward I of England and the earlier part of the reign of Edward II of England. He was executed after participating in an unsuccessful rebellion led by the Earl of Lancaster.
Bartholomew Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh, called "the elder", was an English nobleman and soldier, a younger son of Robert Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh and Maud Badlesmere, sister of Bartholomew Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere. He was the father of Bartholomew Burghersh the younger.
Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.
William Ros, 2nd Baron Ros of Helmsley was the son of William Ros, 1st Baron Ros and Maud de Vaux.
Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Northampton, 7th Earl of Hereford, 6th Earl of Essex, KG was the son of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, and Elizabeth de Badlesmere, and grandson of Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, by Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, daughter of King Edward I. He became heir to the Earldom of Hereford after the death of his childless uncle Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford.
Pleshey is a historic village and civil parish in the Chelmsford district, in the county of Essex, England, 6 miles (10 km) north-west of Chelmsford. The Normans built a motte and bailey in the late 11th century; the motte is one of the largest of its kind in Great Britain. It was besieged several times during the Barons' Wars and rebellions in the 13th centuries.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age.
Events from the 1320s in England.
Margaret de Bohun, Countess of Devon was the granddaughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile, and the wife of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377). Her seventeen children included an Archbishop of Canterbury and six knights, of whom two were founder knights of the Order of the Garter. Unlike most women of her day, she received a classical education and was a lifelong scholar and collector of books.
Margaret de Badlesmere, Baroness Badlesmere was a Norman-Irish noblewoman, suo jure heiress, and the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.
John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford was the nephew and heir of Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford who succeeded as Earl of Oxford in 1331, after his uncle died without issue.
Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Northampton was the wife of two English noblemen, Sir Edmund Mortimer and William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton. She was a co-heiress of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere.
Elizabeth Fitzalan, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey was a member of the Anglo-Norman Bohun family, which wielded much power in the Welsh Marches and the English government. She was the first wife of Richard FitzAlan, a powerful English nobleman and military commander in the reigns of Edward III and Richard II. She was the mother of seven of his children, and as the wife of one of the most powerful nobles in the realm, enjoyed much prestige and took precedence over most of the other peers' wives.
Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere was an English nobleman.
Sir Hugh Courtenay, KG, was the eldest son and heir apparent of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377), whom he predeceased, and was a founding member of the Order of the Garter.
Sir Edmund Mortimer was the eldest son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville. By his wife Elizabeth de Badlesmere he was the father of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March. Though Edmund survived his father by one year, he did not inherit his father's lands and titles as they were forfeited to the Crown and his son only reacquired them gradually.
Stephen Devereux of Bodenham and Burghope was a member of a prominent knightly family in Herefordshire during the reigns of Edward I, Edward II and Edward III. An important retainer of the de Bohun Earls of Hereford, he gave rise to the Devereux Earls of Essex and Viscounts of Hereford.
Sir Walter Devereux of Bodenham was a member of a prominent knightly family in Herefordshire during the reigns of Edward I, and Edward II. He gave rise to the Devereux Barons of Whitchurch Maund, Earls of Essex and Viscounts of Hereford.
The de Bohun then Bohun family is an English noble family of Norman origin that played a prominent role in English political and military history during the Late Middle Ages. The swan used by the family and their descendants as a heraldic badge came to be called the Bohun swan.