William of Ypres (Dutch : Willem van Yper; c. 1090 – 24 January 1165 ) was a Flemish nobleman and one of the first mercenary captains of the Middle Ages. Following two unsuccessful bids for the County of Flanders, William became King Stephen of England's chief lieutenant during the civil war of 1139–54 known as the Anarchy. He held Kent, though not the title of earl, until the early years of King Henry II's reign, when he returned to Flanders.
A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is an individual who takes part in military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, and is not a member of any other official military. Mercenaries fight for money or other forms of payment rather than for political interests. Beginning in the 20th century, mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. Indeed, the Geneva Conventions declare that mercenaries are not recognized as legitimate combatants and do not have to be granted the same legal protections as captured soldiers of a regular army. In practice, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap, as was often the case among Italian condottieri.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
William was an illegitimate son of Philip of Loo, who was the son of the Flemish count Robert the Frisian and younger brother of Robert II, Count of Flanders.William's mother was a wool carder, which further diminished his status; Louis VI of France pointed out that she never rose from that station. The exact date of his birth is unknown, and although C.1090 is the commonly used date of his birth, several other dates later in the same decade are also plausible. His brother, Theobald Sorel, was likely born of another relationship of hers. His maternal origin did not prevent him from having a large influence in Flanders.
Robert II was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111. He became known as Robert of Jerusalem or Robert the Crusader after his exploits in the First Crusade.
Louis VI, called the Fat or the Fighter, was King of the Franks from 1108 to 1137, the fifth from the House of Capet. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis".
A succession crisis ensued in the County of Flanders in 1119 upon the sudden death of the childless Count Baldwin VII, William's cousin. Though illegitimate, William remained the last male-line descendant of Count Robert the Frisian. His claim to the countship was supported by Baldwin's mother, the powerful dowager Clementia of Burgundy,and her second husband Godfrey I, Count of Louvain , but Flanders nevertheless passed to the Danish prince Charles the Good, son of Robert I's daughter Adela and Canute IV of Denmark . . The chronicle of Galbert of Bruges attributes his failure to his illegitimate birth. It is possibly the case that, rather than being an active participant, William was simply a figurehead manipulated by his more powerful relatives; giving weight to this argument is the fact that not only did he survive the succession crisis, but he was also granted the same positions as his father, i.e. the effective Count of Ypres and the surrounding localities.
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
Baldwin VII of Flanders was Count of Flanders from 1111 to 1119.
A dowager is a widow who holds a title or property—a "dower"—derived from her deceased husband. As an adjective, dowager usually appears in association with monarchical and aristocratic titles.
Charles was assassinated on 2 March 1127 by the Erembald Clan, who then offered the countship to William, but he did not wish to be associated with them and he severed all ties with the murderers, going so far as to execute one of their members on 20 March.. Louis VII, as feudal overlord, rejected William's claim using his mother's status as an excuse, but this time William responded with force. He used funds allegedly given to him by King Henry I of England to hire 300 mounted warriors, with whom he occupied Ypres and forced its merchants to accept him as count. Henry was eager to prevent Flanders from passing to his nephew, William Clito, another contender and second cousin of William of Ypres, as William Clito also laid claim to Henry's Duchy of Normandy. The war united him with another nephew of Henry and likewise a second cousin, Stephen of Blois. Ypres was besieged a month later on the 26 April by William Clito and Louis VI of France. After bitter fighting, the gates of Ypres were opened by the citizens, and William of Ypres was imprisoned along with his brother on 10 September. At Bruges there was an inquest into the death of Charles the Good. It is unclear how seriously William's involvement was considered, but in the end he escaped implication and was released in March 1128 having given an oath of loyalty to Clito. However, by this stage Clito had alienated most of his allies and faced a new opponent Thierry of Alsace, who was the son of Gertrude, the daughter of Robert the Frisian. Clito was killed in July 1128 at the siege of Aalst, leading to Thierry being confirmed as Count. William made one final attempt to take the county in 1130, though the events are veiled in obscurity. He was unable to prevail against Thierry and unlike his predecessors, Thierry was less than forgiving, banishing William from Flanders sometime between 1133 and 1135. .
Henry I, also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children.
Ypres is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders. Though the Dutch Ieper is the official name, the city's French name Ypres is most commonly used in English. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote. Together, they are home to about 34,900 inhabitants.
William Clito reigned as Count of Flanders and claimed the Duchy of Normandy. His surname "Clito" was a Latin term equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon "Aetheling" and its Latinized form "Adelinus". Both terms signified "man of royal blood" or, the modern equivalent, "prince".
Having failed to established himself as Count of Flanders, William went from his wife's lands in Sluis to Stephen's County of Boulogne.Stephen's accession to the English throne following Henry I's death in 1135 finally changed William's fortunes for the better. He commanded Stephen's troops against the forces of their cousin, Henry's daughter Empress Matilda, who claimed the throne. Many of the soldiers were William's fellow Flemings, including his brother. Stephen's campaign in Normandy failed because the local noblemen refused to co-operate with William and other Flemings.
The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of Belgian kings. The most recent holder died in 1983.
Sluis is a town and municipality located in the west of Zeelandic Flanders, in the south-western Dutch province of Zeeland.
The County of Boulogne was a county within the kingdom of France during the 9th to 15th centuries, centred on the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer. It was ruled by the counts of Flandres in the 10th century, but a separate House of Boulogne emerges in the 11th. It was annexed by Philip II of France in 1212 and after this was treated as part of the county of Artois, until it was finally annexed into the royal domain in 1550.
William was much more active in England, where he took part in the Battle of Lincoln (1141), during which Stephen was captured by the Empress's forces. William led his contingent away when it became clear that the battle was lost, for which he was reprimanded by the author of Gesta Stephani and excused by Henry of Huntingdon.At this moment most of Stephen's supporters either declared for the Empress or attempted to stay neutral. William, however, determinedly supported Stephen's wife, Matilda I of Boulogne, who took over during the King's imprisonment, and he assumed command over all of Stephen's forces. William distinguished himself during the Rout of Winchester and two subsequent battles which led to Stephen's release. He was involved in some of the most dishonorable events of the Anarchy, such as the plundering of Abingdon Abbey, burning of Wherwell Abbey and Andover, and threatening to burn St Albans.
The Battle of Lincoln, or the First Battle of Lincoln, occurred on 2 February 1141 between King Stephen of England and forces loyal to Empress Matilda. Stephen was captured during the battle, imprisoned, and effectively deposed while Matilda ruled for a short time.
Deeds of King Stephen or Acts of Stephen or Gesta Regis Stephani is a mid-12th-century English history by an anonymous author about King Stephen of England and his struggles with his cousin, Empress Matilda, also known as the "Empress Maud". It is one of the main sources for this period in the history of England.
Henry of Huntingdon, the son of a canon in the diocese of Lincoln, was a 12th-century English historian, the author of a history of England, the Historia Anglorum, "the most important Anglo-Norman historian to emerge from the secular clergy". He served as archdeacon of Huntingdon. The few details of Henry's life that are known originated from his own works and from a number of official records. He was brought up in the wealthy court of Robert Bloet of Lincoln, who became his patron.
Stephen rewarded William with the County of Kent and its revenues at Christmas 1141. Though no proof exists of his creation as Earl of Kent by King Stephen, chroniclers describe him as "possessing the county" and "having Kent in his custody". He exercised the same powers over this county as other earls over theirs, though he never adopted the comital style.William lost his sight in the late 1140s, which ended his military career and may have contributed to Stephen's compulsion to designate Empress Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet, as his heir. William founded the Cistercian house of Boxley c. 1146 and endowed monasteries in Flanders.
Despite his fierce loyalty to King Stephen, William was very unpopular,primarily for being a foreigner, but also due to plundering and extortion (common among English magnates). Upon Stephen's death in 1154, the crown passed to Henry Plantagenet, who found it a military and political necessity to banish Flemings and other foreigners. William initially held onto Kent but, being old and blind, could not be of use to the new monarch. He left England in 1157 and returned to Lo in Flanders, living quietly and piously. He died there on 24 January 1165.
Empress Matilda, also known as the Empress Maude, was one of the claimants to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter's Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies.
Robert Curthose, sometimes called Robert II, succeeded his father, William the Conqueror as Duke of Normandy in 1087 and reigned until 1106. Robert was also an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England. The epithet "Curthose" had its origins in the Norman French word courtheuse "short stockings" and was apparently derived from a nickname given to Robert by his father; the chroniclers William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis reported that William the Conqueror had derisively called Robert brevis-ocrea.
Geoffrey V —called the Handsome or the Fair and Plantagenet—was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England, Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle, who succeeded to the English throne as King Henry II (1154–1189) and was the first of the Plantagenet dynasty to rule England; the name "Plantagenet" was taken from Geoffrey's epithet. His ancestral domain of Anjou gave rise to the name Angevin for three kings of England, and what became known as the Angevin Empire in the 12th century.
William Ætheling (Old English: [ˈwiɫiɑm ˈæðeliŋg]; 5 August 1103 – 25 November 1120), commonly called Adelin, sometimes Adelinus, Adelingus, A(u)delin or other Latinised Norman-French variants of Ætheling, was the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir apparent to the English throne. His early death without issue caused a succession crisis, known in history as the Anarchy.
Theoderic, commonly known as Thierry of Alsace, was the fifteenth count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168. He was the youngest son of Duke Theoderic II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders. With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa, he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading.
Robert I of Flanders, known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to his death in 1093.
The Angevin Empire describes the possessions of the Angevin kings of England who held lands in England and France during the 12th and 13th centuries. Its rulers were Henry II, Richard I, and John. The Angevin Empire is an early example of a composite state.
Matilda I of Boulogne was Queen of England as the wife of King Stephen, whom she supported in his struggle for the English throne against their cousin Empress Matilda. During this period, Matilda played an unusually active role for a woman of the period when her husband was captured, and proved herself an effective general who managed to force their cousin to release him. Under the agreement that settled the civil war, her children did not inherit the throne. She was also Countess of Boulogne in her own right from 1125 until her death, when she was succeeded by her son, Eustace IV.
Ranulf II, 4th Earl of Chester (1099–1153), was an Anglo-Norman baron who inherited the honour of the palatine county of Chester upon the death of his father Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester. He was descended from the Counts of Bessin in Normandy.
The House of Normandy is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England and lasted until the House of Plantagenet came to power in 1154. It included the Viking Rollo and his descendants, and William the Conqueror and his heirs down through 1135. After that it was disputed between William's grandchildren, Matilda, whose husband Geoffrey was the founder of the Angevin Dynasty, and Stephen of the House of Blois.
Reginald de Dunstanville was an Anglo-Norman nobleman and an illegitimate son of King Henry I (1100–1135). He became Earl of Cornwall and High Sheriff of Devon.
Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, 1st Earl of Worcester, was the son of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois, and the twin brother of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. He is not referred to by any surname in a contemporary document other than 'Waleran son of Count Robert'.
Sibylla of Anjou was a countess consort of Flanders. She was the daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine, and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders. She was the regent of Flanders in 1147-1149.
Gertrude of Saxony, also known as Gertrude Billung, was a countess of Holland by marriage to Floris I, Count of Holland, and countess of Flanders by marriage to Robert I, Count of Flanders. She was regent of Holland in 1061-1067 during the minority of her son Dirk V, and regent of Flanders during the absence of her spouse in 1086-1093.
In the Rout of Winchester the army of imprisoned King Stephen of England, led by his wife, Queen Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's brother Bishop Henry of Blois, and William of Ypres, faced the army of Stephen's cousin Empress Matilda, whose forces were commanded by her half-brother Earl Robert of Gloucester. After Empress Matilda's army besieged a castle on the edge of Winchester, Queen Matilda's army arrived and blockaded the Angevin army within the city. Cut off from supplies, the Angevin army gave up the siege, then was crushed as it began to retreat. Robert of Gloucester was captured and was subsequently exchanged for Stephen, who was returned to the throne of England. However, the civil war known as The Anarchy dragged on with neither side gaining an advantage.
Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche, was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126. She was the daughter of Elias I, Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire.
Brian fitz Count was descended from the Breton ducal house, and became an Anglo-Norman noble, holding the lordships of Wallingford and Abergavenny. He was a loyal adherent of Henry I, King of England, and a staunch supporter of his daughter, the Empress Matilda, during the Anarchy (1135–1153).