Winchester

Last updated
Winchester
City
Winchester cathedral - geograph.org.uk - 1628919.jpg
Winchester city centre and Cathedral from the north-west
Wintonia.png
Coat of arms of Winchester
Hampshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Winchester
Location within Hampshire
Population45,184  [1]
OS grid reference SU485295
  London 60 miles (97 km)
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WINCHESTER
Postcode district SO22, SO23
Dialling code 01962
Police Hampshire
Fire Hampshire
Ambulance South Central
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Hampshire
51°03′48″N1°18′29″W / 51.0632°N 1.308°W / 51.0632; -1.308 Coordinates: 51°03′48″N1°18′29″W / 51.0632°N 1.308°W / 51.0632; -1.308

Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, at the western end of the South Downs National Park, on the River Itchen. [2] It is 60 miles (97 km) south-west of London and 14 miles (23 km) from Southampton, the closest other city. At the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184. The wider City of Winchester district, which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham, has a population of 116,595. [3]

Contents

Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe. The city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the oldest public school in the United Kingdom still using its original buildings.[ citation needed ]

History

Prehistory

The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, and Worthy Down all nearby. In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum , although the archaeology of this phase remains obscure. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime in the 1st century BCE. It seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, derived from the Brittonic for "town" or "meeting place", [4] or the word for "white" (Welsh gwyn), due to Winchester's situation upon chalk. [5]

Roman period

After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital (Latin : civitas) of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, "Venta of the Belgae". Although in the early years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester, Venta eclipsed them both by the latter half of the second century. [6] At the beginning of the third century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. [7] At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres (58 ha), making it among the largest towns in Roman Britain by surface area. [8] There was a limited suburban area outside the walls. [9] Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the later fourth century. [8] [10]

Statue of Alfred the Great by Hamo Thornycroft in Winchester Winchester-alfred-wyrdlight.jpg
Statue of Alfred the Great by Hamo Thornycroft in Winchester

Medieval period

After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, urban life seems to have continued at Venta Belgarum until around 450, and a small administrative centre might have continued after that on the site of the later Anglo-Saxon palace. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic [11] ("Fort Venta") is listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britons . [12] Amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement.

A mention of Wintan-ceastre in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Wintan ceastre (British Library Cotton MS Tiberius A VI, folio 12r).jpg
A mention of Wintan-ceastre in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The city became known as Wintan-ceastre ("Fort Venta") in Old English. [13] In 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul, later known as the Old Minster. This became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames. The present form of the city dates from reconstruction in the late 9th century, when King Alfred the Great obliterated the Roman street plan in favour of a new grid in order to provide better defence against the Vikings. The city's first mint appears to date from this period. [14]

In the early 10th century there were two new ecclesiastical establishments: the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfred's widow Ealhswith, [15] and the New Minster. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a leading figure in the monastic reform movement of the later 10th century. He expelled the secular canons of both minsters and replaced them with monks. He created the drainage system, the "Lockburn", which served as the town drain until 1875, and still survives. Also in the late 10th century, the Old Minster was enlarged as a centre of the cult of the 9th century Bishop of Winchester, Saint Swithun. The three minsters were the home of what architectural historian John Crook describes as "the supreme artistic achievements" of the Winchester School. [14]

The consensus among historians of Anglo-Saxon England is that the court was mobile in this period and there was no fixed capital. [16] [17] [18] Martin Biddle has suggested that Winchester was a centre for royal administration in the 7th and 8th centuries, but this is questioned by Barbara Yorke, who sees it as significant that the shire was named after Hamtun, the forerunner of Southampton. [19] However, Winchester is described by the historian Catherine Cubitt as "the premier city of the West Saxon kingdom" [20] and Janet Nelson describes London and Winchester as Alfred the Great's "proto-capitals". [21]

There was a fire in the city in 1141 during the Rout of Winchester. Much later, William of Wykeham played a role in the city's restoration. As Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, and he founded the still extant public school Winchester College. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline.[ citation needed ] The curfew bell in the bell tower (near the clock in the picture), still sounds at 8:00 pm each evening.

Winchester High Street in the mid 19th century. Winchester High Street Mudie 1853.jpg
Winchester High Street in the mid 19th century.

Jews in Winchester

Jews lived in Winchester from at least 1148, and in the 13th century the Jewish community in the city was one of the most important in England. There was an archa in the city, and the Jewish quarter was located in the city's heart (present day Jewry street). There were a series of blood libel claims against the Jewish community in the 1220s and 1230s, which likely was the cause of the hanging of the community's leader, Abraham Pinch, in front of the synagogue of which he was the head. Simon de Montfort ransacked the Jewish quarter in 1264, and in 1290 all Jews were expelled from England. [22]

Modern period

The Winchester Buttercross The Buttercross in Winchester.jpg
The Winchester Buttercross

The City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) has been dated to the 15th century, and features 12 statues of the Virgin Mary, other saints and various historical figures. Several statues appear to have been added throughout the structure's history. In 1770, Thomas Dummer purchased the Buttercross from the Corporation of Winchester, intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury Park, near Otterbourne. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross, they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city, who "organised a small riot", [23] and they were forced to abandon their task. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile, which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. [24] The Buttercross itself was restored by George Gilbert Scott in 1865, and still stands in the High Street. It is now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. [25]

Three notable bronze sculptures can be seen in or from the High Street by major sculptors of the 19th and 20th centuries, the earliest a monumental statue of Queen Victoria, now in the Great Hall, by Sir Alfred Gilbert (also known as the sculptor of 'Eros' in London's Piccadilly Circus), King Alfred, facing the city with raised sword from the centre of The Broadway, by Hamo Thornycroft and the modern striking Horse and Rider by Dame Elizabeth Frink at the entrance to the Law Courts.

The novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. [26] While staying in Winchester from mid-August to October 1819, the Romantic poet John Keats wrote "Isabella", "St. Agnes' Eve", "To Autumn", "Lamia" and parts of "Hyperion" and the five-act poetic tragedy "Otho The Great". [27]

In 2013, businesses involved in the housing market were reported by a local newspaper as saying that the city's architectural and historical interest, and its fast links to other towns and cities, had led Winchester to become one of the most expensive and desirable areas of the country and [ who? ]ranked Winchester as one of the least deprived areas in England and Wales. [28]

Geography

Winchester is situated on a bed of Cretaceous lower chalk with small areas of clay and loam soil, inset with combined clay and rich sources of fuller's earth.[ citation needed ]

Climate

As with the rest of the UK, Winchester experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). The nearest Met Office station is in Martyr Worthy, just outside the city.

Climate data for Martyr Worthy, Winchester (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
7.8
(46.0)
10.6
(51.1)
13.6
(56.5)
17.2
(63.0)
20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.5
(72.5)
19.3
(66.7)
14.9
(58.8)
10.6
(51.1)
7.8
(46.0)
14.5
(58.2)
Average low °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
1.0
(33.8)
2.6
(36.7)
3.7
(38.7)
6.7
(44.1)
9.4
(48.9)
11.3
(52.3)
11.4
(52.5)
9.4
(48.9)
7.1
(44.8)
3.7
(38.7)
1.7
(35.1)
5.8
(42.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)77
(3.0)
52
(2.0)
57
(2.2)
50
(2.0)
52
(2.0)
47
(1.9)
48
(1.9)
52
(2.0)
56
(2.2)
88
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
80
(3.1)
748
(29.3)
Average rainy days12910998989111212118
Mean monthly sunshine hours 588110816519519019919114211071531,563
Source: Met Office [29]

Suburbs

Aside from the city centre, there are several suburbs and neighbourhoods within the city, including:

Governance

Map of the wards of Winchester itself within the wider City of Winchester District Winchester proper ward borders.svg
Map of the wards of Winchester itself within the wider City of Winchester District

From 1835 to 1974, Winchester was governed as a municipal borough of Hampshire. [30] Until 1902 the city's affairs were also administered partly by its parishes: St Lawrence, St Mary Kalendar, St Maurice, St Michael, St Peter Colebrook, St Swithin, St Thomas, St John, St Bartholomew Hyde, Milland, St Faith, and St Peter Cheesehill, and its extra-parochial areas: Cathedral Precincts, St Mary's College Precincts, St Cross Hospital Precinct, and Wolvesey. [31] Historically, the south of the city had come under the "Liberty of the Soke", and was thereby self-governing to a large extent. [32] [33] Since 1974 the city has been governed as part of the wider City of Winchester district of Hampshire. The district has 16 electoral wards, Five of these cover the area of the city itself: St Barnabas, St Paul, St Luke, St Bartholomew, and St Michael; [34] they have three councillors each apart from St Luke, which is a two-member ward. For Hampshire County Council elections, the City of Winchester district is made up of 7 wards, with Winchester Westgate and Winchester Eastgate covering the city itself.

The current ward boundaries were adopted in 2016, when all seats were up for election. Since then, Winchester City Council elections take place in three out of every four years, with one third of the councillors elected in each election. From the 2006 election until the 2010 election the council was led by Conservatives. [35] In 2010 it was briefly controlled by the Liberal Democrats, before being controlled by the Conservatives again from 2011 until 2019, when the Liberal Democrats took control.

Winchester is currently represented in the House of Commons by Steve Brine, of the Conservatives, who in the 2010 General Election beat Martin Tod, the Liberal Democrat candidate, by 3048 votes (a margin of 5.4%). [36] Mark Oaten had previously won the seat for the Liberal Democrats during the 1997 general election in which he defeated Gerry Malone, a Health Minister in John Major's Conservative Government who had held the seat since 1992. Brine was re-elected in 2015 and in 2017. In 2019 he briefly sat as an Independent before being re-elected as a Conservative in the 2019 election.

The Mayor of Winchester currently exists as a ceremonial role, but dates back at least as far as the late 12th century [37] . The mayoral term length is currently one year.

Landmarks

Cathedral

A view of Winchester Cathedral. WinCath30Je6-4836wiki.jpg
A view of Winchester Cathedral.

Winchester Cathedral was originally built in 1079 and remains the longest Gothic cathedral in Europe. It contains much fine architecture spanning the 11th to the 16th centuries and is the place of interment of numerous Bishops of Winchester (such as William of Wykeham), Anglo-Saxon monarchs (such as Egbert of Wessex) and later monarchs such as King Canute and William Rufus. [38] It was once an important pilgrimage centre and housed the shrine of Saint Swithun. The ancient Pilgrims' Way to Canterbury begins at Winchester. The plan of the earlier Old Minster is laid out in the grass adjoining the cathedral. The New Minster (the original burial place of Alfred the Great and Edward the Elder [38] ) once stood beside it. The cathedral has a girls choir and a boys choir, who sing regularly in the cathedral.

Winchester Cathedral Close contains a number of historic buildings from the time when the cathedral was also a priory. Of particular note is the Deanery , which dates back to the 13th century. It was originally the Prior's House, and was the birthplace of Arthur, Prince of Wales in 1486. Not far away is Cheyney Court, a mid 15th-century timber-framed house incorporating the Porter's Lodge for the Priory Gate. It was the Bishop's court house.

The earliest hammer-beamed building still standing in England is situated in the Cathedral Close, next to the Dean's garden. It is known as the Pilgrims' Hall, as it was part of the hostelry used to accommodate the many pilgrims to Saint Swithun's shrine. Left-overs from the lavish banquets of the Priors (the monastic predecessors of the later Deans) would be given to the pilgrims, who were welcome to spend the night in the hall. It is thought by Winchester City Council to have been built in 1308. Now part of The Pilgrims' School, the hall is used by the school for assemblies in the morning, drama lessons, plays, orchestral practices, Cathedral Waynflete[ clarification needed ] rehearsals, the school's Senior Commoners' Choir rehearsals etc.

Entrance for pedestrians to the North garth of the cathedral is via the Norman arches of Saint Maurice's tower, in the High Street. [39]

Wolvesey Castle and Palace

Wolvesey Castle was the Norman bishop's palace, dating from 1110, but standing on the site of an earlier Saxon structure. It was enhanced by Henry de Blois during the Anarchy of his brother King Stephen's reign. He was besieged there for some days. In the 16th century, Queen Mary Tudor and King Philip II of Spain were guests just before their wedding in the Cathedral. The building is now a ruin (maintained by English Heritage), but the chapel was incorporated into the new palace built in the 1680s, only one wing of which survives.

Castle

The "Winchester Round Table" in the Great Hall of Winchester Castle Winchester RoundTable.jpg
The "Winchester Round Table" in the Great Hall of Winchester Castle

Winchester is well known for the Great Hall of its castle, which was built in the 12th century. The Great Hall was rebuilt sometime between 1222 and 1235, and still exists in this form. It is famous for King Arthur's Round Table , which has hung in the hall from at least 1463. The table actually dates from the 13th century, and as such is not contemporary to Arthur. Despite this it is still of considerable historical interest and attracts many tourists. The table was originally unpainted, but was painted for King Henry VIII in 1522. The names of the legendary Knights of the Round Table are written around the edge of the table surmounted by King Arthur on his throne. Opposite the table are Prince Charles's 'Wedding Gates'. In the grounds of the Great Hall is a recreation of a medieval garden. Apart from the hall, only a few excavated remains of the stronghold survive among the modern Law Courts. The buildings were supplanted by the adjacent King's House, now incorporated into the Peninsula Barracks where there are five military museums. [40] (The training that used to be carried out at the barracks is now done by the Army Training Regiment Winchester, based at the Sir John Moore Barracks, 2 miles (3 km) outside the city). [41]

Hospital of St Cross

The Hospital of St Cross The Hospital of St Cross.jpg
The Hospital of St Cross

The almshouses and vast Norman chapel of Hospital of St Cross were founded just outside the city centre by Henry de Blois in the 1130s. Since at least the 14th century, and still available today, a 'wayfarer's dole' of ale and bread has been handed out there. It was supposedly instigated to aid pilgrims on their way to Canterbury.

Winchester Guildhall, built in 1871 Winchesterguildhall.jpg
Winchester Guildhall, built in 1871

City museum

The City Museum, located on the corner of Great Minster Street and The Square, contains much information on the history of Winchester. Early examples of Winchester measures of standard capacity are on display. The museum was one of the first purpose-built museums to be constructed outside London. [42] Local items featured include the Roman Venta Belgarum [43] gallery, and some genuine period shop interiors taken from the nearby High Street. Other places of cultural interest include the Westgate Museum (which showcases various items of weaponry), and the Historic Resources Centre, which holds many records related to the history of the city. In 2014 ownership of the City museum was transferred to the Hampshire Cultural Trust as part of a larger transfer of museums from Hampshire County Council and Winchester City Council [44]

Other buildings

Other important historic buildings include the Guildhall dating from 1871 in the Gothic revival style, [45] the Royal Hampshire County Hospital, designed by William Butterfield, and Winchester City Mill, one of the city's several water mills driven by the River Itchen that runs through the city centre. The mill has recently been restored, and is again milling corn by water power. It is owned by the National Trust. [45]

Castle Hill is the location of the Council Chamber for Hampshire County Council. [46]

Between Jewry Street and St Peter's Street is St Peter's Catholic Church. It was built in 1924 and designed by Frederick Walters. Next to it is Milner Hall, built in the 1780s it was the first Catholic church to be consecrated since 1558. [47]

Painted bollards

The Square after snow The Square after snow, Winchester - geograph.org.uk - 1146180.jpg
The Square after snow

A series of 24 bollards on the corner of Great Minster Street and The Square were painted in the style of famous artists, or with topical scenes, by The Colour Factory between 2005–2012 at the behest of Winchester City Council.( 51°03′43″N1°18′55″W / 51.062°N 1.31525°W / 51.062; -1.31525 (The Square) )

Education

State-funded schools

Primary schools

Winchester has a variety of Church of England primary schools, including both state and private provision schools. St Peters Catholic Primary School had the highest SATS results, after achieving a perfect score of 300 in 2011. [48]

Secondary schools

There are four state comprehensive secondary schools in Winchester; the Henry Beaufort School, Kings' School Winchester, and The Westgate School are all situated in the city. A fourth state school, the Osborne School, a community special school is also located in Winchester. [49]

Independent schools

Winchester College War Cloister Winchester College War Cloister.jpg
Winchester College War Cloister

Independent junior/preparatory schools are The Pilgrims' School Winchester, the Prince's Mead School and Twyford School, which is just outside the city and claims to be the oldest preparatory school in the United Kingdom. [50] There are two major independent senior schools in Winchester, St Swithun's (a day and boarding school for girls from nursery to sixth form) and Winchester College, a boys' public school. [51]

Both schools often top the examination result tables for the city and county. [52]

Special schools

Osborne School is a state-funded special school for pupils aged 11 to 19 which is located in Winchester. Shepherds Down Special School is a state funded special school for pupils aged 4 to 11, located just outside of the city in the boundaries of Compton.

Tertiary, further and higher education

The University of Winchester (formerly King Alfred's College) is a public university based in Winchester and the surrounding area. It is ranked 10th for teaching excellence in The Times and The Sunday Times 2016 Good University Guide, with a 92% rating, and fourth for student satisfaction in England in the National Student Survey 2015. [53] The University origins go back as far as 1840—originally as a Diocesan teacher training centre. King Alfred's, the main campus, is located on a purpose built campus near the city centre. The West Downs campus is a short walk away, and houses student facilities and accommodation and the business school. [54]

The Winchester School of Art was founded in the 1860s as an independent institution and is now a school of the University of Southampton.

Peter Symonds College is a college that serves Winchester. It began as a Grammar School for boys in 1897, and became a co-educational sixth form college in 1974. [55]

Sport

Winchester has Winchester City FC who currently play in the Southern League and Winchester Castle FC, who have played in the Hampshire League since 1971. The local Saturday football league, the Winchester & District League, folded in 2010.

Winchester City Flyers are a girls and ladies football club established in 1996 with nearly 200 members, playing from U9 to ladies football.

The St Cross Symondians Cricket Club is one of the first cricket clubs in Hampshire, and, with 5 men's sides, 2 women's sides, a successful junior's side, and weekend sides, is one of the largest as well.

Winchester has a rugby union team, Winchester RFC, and an athletics club, Winchester and District AC. The city has a field hockey club, Winchester Hockey Club, [56]

Lawn bowls is played at several clubs. The oldest bowling green belongs to Friary Bowling Club (first used in 1820), [57] while the oldest bowls club is Hyde Abbey Bowling Club (established in 1812). [58] Riverside Indoor Bowling Club remains open during the winter months.

There are three 18-hole golf courses. Royal Winchester Golf Club is on downland adjacent to the Clarendon Way with fine views over distant country. John Henry Taylor was the club professional when winning the Open Championship in 1894 and 1895, and there is a room with memorabilia named after him. Hockley Golf Club is dramatically positioned on St Catherine's Hill, also with extensive views. South Winchester Golf Club is another downland course, and a relative newcomer, designed by David Thomas and Peter Alliss. Visitors are welcome at all three clubs.

Winchester College invented and gave its name to Winchester College Football, played exclusively at the College and in some small African/South American communities.[ citation needed ]

Transport

Road

Winchester is located near the M3 motorway and at the meeting of the A34, A31, A3090 and A272 roads. Once a major traffic bottleneck, the city still suffers from congestion at peak times. It is just to the south of the A303 and A30.

Roman road

A Roman road originating in Salisbury called The Clarendon Way ends in Winchester. [59] The Clarendon Way is now a recreational footpath.

Bus services

Winchester bus station Winchester bus station 2.jpg
Winchester bus station

Local, rural and Park and Ride bus services are provided by Stagecoach South, who run to Andover, Alton, Basingstoke, Petersfield, Romsey and Fareham. Bluestar provide services to Eastleigh and Southampton. Many services are subsidised by Hampshire County Council and community transport schemes are available in areas without a regular bus service.[ citation needed ] National Express coaches provide services mainly to Bournemouth, Poole, Portsmouth and London.

Megabus also provide long-distance services. [60]

Rail

Winchester railway station is served by South Western Railway trains from London Waterloo, Weymouth, Portsmouth and Southampton, as well as by CrossCountry between Bournemouth, and either Manchester or Newcastle via Birmingham. Historically it was also served by a line to London via Alton, which partially survives as the Watercress Line. The closure of this line removed an alternative route between London and Winchester when, due to engineering works or other reasons, the main line was temporarily unusable. There was a second station called Winchester Chesil served by the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway, this closed in the 1960s. [60] This line provided a link to the Midlands and the North, bypassing the present longer route through Reading.

Law courts

Winchester Combined Court Centre consists of a crown court and county court. It is administered by Her Majesty's Courts Service, an Executive Agency of the Ministry of Justice. Winchester is a first-tier court centre and is visited by High Court judges for criminal and for civil cases (in the District Registry of the High Court). One of the most high-profile cases to be heard here was the murder trial of Rosemary West in 1995. [61]

Winchester has a separate district probate registry, which is part of the High Court. [62] This Court is separate from the main court establishment at the top of Winchester High Street and deals only with probate matters.

There is a heavily populated Victorian prison, HMP Winchester, opposite the hospital, on the B3040 heading up west from the town centre. [63]

Media and culture

Since 1974 Winchester has hosted the annual Hat Fair, a celebration of street theatre that includes performances, workshops, and gatherings at several venues around the city.

Winchester is the home of the award-winning Blue Apple Theatre, a company of actors. [64] [65]

Winchester hosts one of the UK's larger farmers' markets, with about 100 stalls. It is certified by FARMA.[ citation needed ] The market takes place on the second and last Sunday of the month in the city centre.

Four newspapers are published for Winchester. The weekly paid-for Hampshire Chronicle , which started out in 1772 reporting national and international news, now concentrates on Winchester and the surrounding area. The Southern Daily Echo mostly concerns Southampton, but does also feature Winchester. It has an office shared with sister paper the Hampshire Chronicle. The Mid-Hants Observer is a free, weekly independent paper for Winchester and nearby villages. Its sister paper, the weekly Hampshire Independent, which covers the whole county, is also based in Winchester. The free Winchester News Extra closed in 2017.

Winchester had its own radio station, Win FM, from October 1999 to October 2007.

In October 2006, the Channel 4 television programme The Best And Worst Places To Live In The UK, the city was celebrated as the "Best Place in the UK to Live in: 2006". [28] In the 2007 edition of the same programme, Winchester had slipped to second place, behind Edinburgh.[ citation needed ]

A number of public figures and celebrities were students at Peter Symonds College in Winchester, including TV presenter and model Alexa Chung, singer-songwriter and drummer Andy Burrows, glamour model Lucy Pinder, comedian Jack Dee, Magician Ben Hart and singer/actress Gina Beck. Harlequins rugby and England rugby player Joe Marchant. Actor Colin Firth is from Winchester and was educated at Montgomery of Alamein School (now Kings' School). The adventurer and model Laura Bingham was born and brought up in the local area attending The Westgate School. The singer-songwriter Frank Turner hails from Winchester, a fact that he often mentions at concerts as well as in his songs.[ citation needed ] The band Polly and the Billets Doux formed in Winchester, and are still based in the city. 2011 saw Winchester's first ever Oxjam Takeover music festival, held on 22 October. [66]

In March 2016, Winchester was named as the best place to live in Britain by the "Sunday Times Best Places To Live" guide. [67]

Winchester in fiction

Medieval

In the medieval narrative poem, Sir Orfeo, the main character Sir Orfeo is King of Winchester, which is said to be the modern name of Thrace. The final combat of the romance hero Guy of Warwick against the giant Colbrand takes place outside the walls of Winchester.

The Late Middle Ages author Sir Thomas Malory identified Winchester as the mythical home of Camelot and King Arthur in Le Morte d'Arthur, his collection of medieval legends about the Arthurian myths. (Malory's editor William Caxton disputed this, insisting that Camelot must be in Wales).

19th century

A scene in Henry Esmond (1852) by William Makepeace Thackeray is set in the choir of Winchester cathedral. Winchester is in part the model for Barchester in the Barsetshire novels of Anthony Trollope, who attended Winchester College; The Warden (1855) is said to be based on a scandal at the Hospital of St Cross. A fictionalised Winchester appears as Wintoncester in Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891). Some of the action in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's The Adventure of the Copper Beeches (1892) takes place in the city—the Black Swan hotel mentioned in the story formerly stood at the end of Southgate St and is still acknowledged by a figure on the outside of the building.

In Charles Kingsley's romantic history Hereward the Wake (1866), Hereward smashes his ash lance against the doors of the Westgate, Winchester showing by the strength of his arm that it is he. William the Conqueror is so impressed that he pardons him.

20th century

A fictitious estate near Winchester is the scene of a crime in the Sherlock Holmes adventure, The Problem of Thor Bridge (1922).

In Gerry Anderson's 1967 and 1968 programme Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons , background material published by, or with the approval of, Anderson identifies Winchester as the birthplace of the main character, Captain Scarlet, real name Paul Metcalfe. [68]

Winchester is the main location of John Christopher's post-apocalyptic science fiction series, Sword of the Spirits . Winchester Cathedral is featured in James Herbert's horror novel The Fog . The Siege of Winchester in 1141, part of The Anarchy (a civil war) between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda, is an important plot element in the detective novel An Excellent Mystery, part of the Brother Cadfael chronicles by Edith Pargeter writing as Ellis Peters. In Philip Pullman's novel The Subtle Knife (part of the His Dark Materials trilogy) the main male protagonist, Will Parry, comes from Winchester. However, little of the book is set there.

In the movie Merlin , King Uther's first conquest of Britain begins with Winchester, which Merlin foresaw would fall.

In the novel The Pillars of the Earth , by Ken Follett, which traces English historical events from 1123 C.E. to 1174 C.E., Winchester and its cathedral figure prominently in several chapters. The fictional town of Kingsbridge in the novel is based on Winchester, as Follett explained in the first episode of his Channel 4 2013 documentary series Ken Follett's Journey into the Dark Ages. [69] Accounts of wool merchants and their trading with sheep farmers in Winchester are related to the reader. The reign of Stephen is described and his military actions are recounted, including first-person "reporting" of the Battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141.

21st century

In the Japanese manga Death Note , The Wammy's House, an orphanage founded by Quillish Wammy, where the detective L's successors (Mello, Near, and Matt) are raised, is located in Winchester.

In the novel One Day by David Nicholls, the male protagonist Dexter Mayhew went to the public school Winchester College. [70] This is frequently referred to throughout the book, as well as mentioning St. Swithin's Day and the St. Swithin's weather myth. [70] [71]

Patrick Gale's 2009 book The Whole Day Through is set in Winchester. In S. M. Stirling's 2007 novel, The Sunrise Lands , it is revealed that the British capital has been moved to Winchester. Winchester is an important setting in The Saxon Stories by Bernard Cornwell. Tracy Chevalier's 2019 novel A Single Thread describes bellringing and embroidery in Winchester Cathedral.

Singer-songwriter Frank Turner, who was raised in the nearby village of Meonstoke (part of the City of Winchester district), wrote and performs the song "Wessex Boy" describing Winchester, and how it remains his home. He names the Cathedral, the Buttercross, Jewry Street and The Railway Inn in his homage to the city.[ citation needed ]

International relations

Winchester is twinned with: [72]

The Winchester district is twinned with

Winchester, Virginia, is named after the English city, whose Mayor has a standing invitation to be a part of the American city's Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival. Winchester also gave its name (Frenchified to Bicêtre) to a suburb of Paris, from a manor built there by John of Pontoise, Bishop of Winchester, at the end of the 13th century. It is now the commune of Le Kremlin-Bicêtre.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hampshire County of England

Hampshire is a county in South East England on the English Channel coast. The county town is Winchester, England's former capital city. Its two largest cities, Southampton and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities; the rest of the county is governed by Hampshire County Council. With a population of 1.8 million, Hampshire is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom.

York City in North Yorkshire, England

York is a cathedral city and unitary authority area in North Yorkshire, England. The population of the council area which includes nearby villages was 198,051 as of 2011 census. and the population of the urban area was 153,717 at the 2011 census. Located at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. The city is known for its famous historical landmarks such as York Minster and the city walls, as well as a variety of cultural and sporting activities, which makes it a popular tourist destination in England. The local authority is the City of York Council, a single tier governing body responsible for providing all local services and facilities throughout the city. The City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries. It is about 25 miles (40 km) north-east of Leeds and 34 miles (55 km) north-west of Kingston upon Hull. York is the largest settlement in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire.

Salisbury Cathedral city in Wiltshire, England

Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder and Bourne. The city is approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath.

Winchester Cathedral Church in Hampshire, United Kingdom

Winchester Cathedral is a cathedral of the Church of England in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral.

Swithun 9th-century Bishop of Winchester

Swithun was an Anglo-Saxon bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral. His historical importance as bishop is overshadowed by his reputation for posthumous miracle-working. According to tradition, if it rains on Saint Swithun's bridge (Winchester) on his feast day it will continue for forty days. The name was originally spelt Swithhun.

Wickham, Hampshire Human settlement in England

Wickham is a small village and civil parish in Hampshire, England, about three miles north of Fareham. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 4,816, falling to 4,299 at the 2011 Census.

Romsey Town in Hampshire, England

Romsey is a historic market town in the county of Hampshire, England. Romsey was home to the 17th-century philosopher and economist William Petty and the 19th-century British prime minister, Lord Palmerston, whose statue has stood in the town centre since 1857. The town was also home to the 20th-century naval officer and statesman Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, who lived at Broadlands. Notable buildings include a 13th-century hunting lodge, an 18th-century coaching inn and the 19th-century Corn Exchange.

Eastleigh Town in England

Eastleigh is a town in Hampshire, England, between Southampton and Winchester in Hampshire. It is 64 miles (103km) south-west of the notional centre of London at Charing Cross. It was originally developed as a railway town by the London and South-Western Railway

Ringwood Human settlement in England

Ringwood is a market town in south-west Hampshire, England, located on the River Avon, close to the New Forest, northeast of Bournemouth and southwest of Southampton. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxons, and has held a weekly market since the Middle Ages.

Æthelbert was an eighth-century scholar, teacher, and Archbishop of York. Related to his predecessor at York, he became a monk at an early age and was in charge of the cathedral's library and school before becoming archbishop. He taught a number of missionaries and scholars, including Alcuin, at the school. While archbishop Æthelbert rebuilt the cathedral and sent missionaries to the Continent. Æthelbert retired before his death, and during his retirement built another church in York.

Whitchurch, Hampshire Human settlement in England

Whitchurch is a town in Hampshire, England. It is on the River Test, 13 miles (21 km) south of Newbury, Berkshire, 12 miles (19 km) north of Winchester, 8 miles (13 km) east of Andover and 12 miles (19 km) west of Basingstoke. Much of the town is a Conservation Area. Because of the amount of wildlife in and near the River Test, its course and banks are designated as Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Southwell, Nottinghamshire Human settlement in England

Southwell is a minster town in Nottinghamshire, England, the site of Southwell Minster, the cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham. A population of under 7,000 rose to 7,297 at the 2011 Census. The origin of the name is unclear. It lies on the River Greet, about 14 miles north-east of Nottingham. Other historic buildings include prebendal houses in Church Street and Westgate and the Methodist church, which has a right of way beneath it, so that the upper floor seats more than the lower. The workhouse (1824) was a prototype for many others. Owned by the National Trust, it shows its appearance in the 19th century. Behind the Minster is a partly ruined palace, once a residence of the Archbishop of York. It includes the recently restored State Chamber, Cardinal Wolsey's former dining room, and gardens among the ruins.

Lady chapel a chapel in a church dedicated to Mary

A Lady chapel or lady chapel is a traditional British term for a chapel dedicated to "Our Lady", the Blessed Virgin Mary, particularly those inside a cathedral or other large church. The chapels are also known as a Mary chapel or a Marian chapel, and they were traditionally the largest side chapel of a cathedral, placed eastward from the high altar and forming a projection from the main building as in Winchester Cathedral. Most Roman Catholic and many Anglican cathedrals still have such chapels, while mid-sized churches have smaller side-altars dedicated to the Virgin.

University of Winchester university in Winchester, United Kingdom

The University of Winchester is a public research university based in the city of Winchester, Hampshire, England. The university has origins tracing back to 1840, but was established in 2005.

Venta Belgarum human settlement in United Kingdom

Venta Belgarum was a town in the Roman province of Britannia Superior, the civitas capital of the local tribe, the Belgae, and which later became the city of Winchester.

Old Minster, Winchester

The Old Minster was the Anglo-Saxon cathedral for the diocese of Wessex and then Winchester from 660 to 1093. It stood on a site immediately north of and partially beneath its successor, Winchester Cathedral.

Hyde Abbey Medieval Benedictine monastery

Hyde Abbey was a medieval Benedictine monastery just outside the walls of Winchester, Hampshire, England. It was dissolved and demolished in 1538 following orders of King Henry VIII to destroy Catholic churches as well as the dissolution of monasteries and abbeys.

Edward the Elder Anglo-Saxon king, son of Alfred the Great

Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of Alfred the Great and his wife Ealhswith. When Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother and predecessor, Æthelred.

English Benedictine Reform Re-emphasis of monastic rule at the expense of secular clergy in English religious communities in the late 10th century

The English Benedictine Reform or Monastic Reform of the English church in the late tenth century was a religious and intellectual movement in the later Anglo-Saxon period. In the mid-tenth century almost all monasteries were staffed by secular clergy, who were often married. The reformers sought to replace them with celibate contemplative monks following the Rule of Saint Benedict. The movement was inspired by Continental monastic reforms, and the leading figures were Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Æthelwold, Bishop of Winchester, and Oswald, Archbishop of York.

The Choir Schools' Association is a U.K. organisation that provides support to choir schools and choristers, and promotes singing, in particular of music for Christian worship in the cathedral tradition. It represents 44 choir schools attached to cathedrals, churches, and college chapels.

References

  1. "Winchester Key Facts". Hampshire County Council. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  2. Landranger 185: Winchester & Basingstoke. Ordnance Survey. 2005. ISBN   978-0-319-22884-5.
  3. "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". National Statistics. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  4. Matasović, Ranko. "wentā" in the Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic at Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Brill Online, 2014. Accessed 24 July 2014. [ permanent dead link ]
  5. Long, Henry Lawes (1836). Observations Upon Certain Roman Roads and Towns in the South of Britain. Oxford University: Nichols and sons. p. 26. ISBN   978-1354701065 . Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  6. Cunliffe B. Wessex to AD 1000 1997
  7. "Winchester". Historic-uk.com. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  8. 1 2 "Major Roman Settlements". British towns. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  9. "PJO archaeology" . Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  10. "A History of Winchester". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  11. Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  12. Ford, David Nash. "The 28 Cities of Britain Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine " at Britannia. 2000.
  13. "'Wintan-ceaster'". Anglo Saxon Dictionary. Bosworth-Toller. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  14. 1 2 Crook, John (2014). "Winchester". In Lapidge, Michael; et al. (eds.). The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England (2nd ed.). Wiley Blackwell. ISBN   978-0-631-22492-1.
  15. Stenton, Frank M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.). Clarendon Press. p. 539. ISBN   978-0-19-280139-5.
  16. Foot, Sarah (2011). Æthelstan: the first king of England. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN   978-0-300-12535-1.
  17. Naismith, Rory (2019). Citadel of the Saxons: The Rise of Early London. London, UK: I. B. Tauris. p. 11. ISBN   978-1-3501-3568-0.
  18. Yorke, Barbara (1982). "The Foundation of the Old Minster and the Status of Winchester in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries". Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society (38): 79–80. ISSN   0142-8950.
  19. Cubitt, Catherine (2009). "Pastoral Care and Religious Belief". In Stafford, Pauline (ed.). A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland c.500- c.1100. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 399. ISBN   978-1-118-42513-8.
  20. Nelson, Janet (2000). "Power and authority at the Court of Alfred". In Roberts, and; Nelson, Janet (eds.). Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Related Themes in Memory of Lynne Grundy. London: King's College London Centre for Late Antique & Medieval Studies. pp. 327–28. ISBN   978-0-9522119-9-0.
  21. "The Jewish Community of Winchester". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  22. "The Buttercross, Winchester". City of Winchester. 1998. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  23. Yonge, Charlotte M. (1898). "Chapter 8: Old Otterbourne". John Keble's Parishes. Online literature. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  24. Historic England. "City Cross or 'Butter Cross', Winchester (1002938)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  25. "Jane Austen 'died from arsenic poisoning'". The Guardian. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  26. "John Keats – autumnal idealist or trenchant social commentator?". The Guardian. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  27. 1 2 "Winchester hits top ten list of places to live in the UK". Hampshire Chronicle. 26 December 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  28. "Winchester, Hampshire climate tables". Met Office.
  29. "Winchester: Introduction - British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
  30. "Winchester MB through time". www.visionofbritain.org.uk.
  31. "Winchester: The soke - British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk.
  32. "Winchester Soke/Liberty through time". www.visionofbritain.org.uk.
  33. "Winchester City Council Ward Map". Winchester City Council.[ permanent dead link ]
  34. "Winchester". BBC News. 19 April 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  35. Andrew Napier (May 2010). "Tories sweep in but lose control of city council". Hampshire Chronicle. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  36. phone; email. "History of the Mayor". Winchester City Council. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  37. 1 2 Dodson, Aidan (2004). The Royal Tombs of Great Britain. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co.
  38. Hampshire Churches, Margaret Green,Winton Pubs.Ltd.1967. Page 90.
  39. "Winchester's Military Museums". Winchester's Military Museums. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  40. "MOD Training and Education". MOD Training. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  41. "The City Museum, Winchester". City of Winchester. 1998. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  42. "Winchester City Museum". Hampshire Cultural Trust. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  43. "Hampshire and Winchester museums and art leased to trust". BBC News. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  44. 1 2 "History of Winchester Guildhall". Winchester Museum Collection. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  45. "Map" (PDF). Hampshire County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  46. Winchester (The Milner Hall) - St Peter Archived 16 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine from English Heritage, retrieved 16 July 2018
  47. "Primary Schools (KS1 and 2)". Hampshire Chronicle. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  48. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. "Winchester College Guise". Winchester College. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  51. "Winchester College grades". Winchester College. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  52. "The University of Winchester - The Student Room". www.thestudentroom.co.uk.
  53. "Our Campuses". Winchester.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  54. Add citation
  55. "Winchester Hockey Club". Winchesterhc.co.uk. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  56. Harold Thomas. The Friary Bowling Club 1820–1970.
  57. "Bowled over by support from mayors". Hampshire Chronicle. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  58. "The Clarendon Way". Hampshire County Council. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  59. 1 2 "Winchester Bus & Train Travel Times". Hampshire County Council. 2011.
  60. "Rosemary West". 29 June 2017.
  61. "The Probate Service - Registries". Her Majesty's Courts Service. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  62. "Under-fire jail criticised again". bbc.co.uk. 5 April 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  63. "Blue Apple Theatre Honored with Queen's Award for Voluntary Service 2012". Westend.broadwayworld.com. 23 June 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  64. "Blue Apple Theatre to take Hamlet on the road (From Hampshire Chronicle)". Hampshirechronicle.co.uk. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  65. "Oxjam in Winchester". Oxjam. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  66. "Winchester named best place to live in Britain".
  67. "Captain Scarlet bio". Aardman. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  68. "Ken Follett's Journey into the Dark Ages". Channel 4. 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  69. 1 2 "David Nicholls One Day - overview". Writer.com. David Nicholls. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  70. "David Nicholls, the man who made a nation cry". The Guardian. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  71. 1 2 3 "Twin Towns in Hampshire". Www3.hants.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 30 November 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  72. "Home". Winchestertwinning.org.uk. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  73. "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  74. "Gießen: Städtepartnerschaften" [Giessen: Twin towns] (in German). Stadt Gießen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.