Winifred Marjorie Williams
23 June 1897
|Died||5 March 1980 82) (aged|
(m. 1915;died in 1930)
Winifred Marjorie Wagner (née Williams; 23 June 1897 – 5 March 1980) was the English-born wife of Siegfried Wagner, the son of Richard Wagner, and ran the Bayreuth Festival after her husband's death in 1930 until the end of World War II in 1945. She was a friend and supporter of Adolf Hitler, himself a Wagner enthusiast, and she and Hitler maintained a regular correspondence.
Wagner was born Winifred Marjorie Williams in Hastings, England, to John Williams, a journalist and critic, and his wife, née Emily Florence Karop. She lost both her parents before the age of two and initially was raised in a number of homes. Eight years later, she was adopted by a distant German relative of her mother, Henrietta Karop, and her husband Karl Klindworth, a musician and a friend of Richard Wagner.
The Bayreuth Festival was seen as a family business, with the leadership to be passed from Richard Wagner to his son Siegfried Wagner, but Siegfried, who was secretly bisexual, showed little interest in marriage. It was arranged that Winifred Klindworth, as she was called at the time, aged 17, would meet Siegfried Wagner, aged 45, at the Bayreuth Festival in 1914. A year later, they were married. It was hoped that the marriage would end Siegfried's homosexual encounters and the associated costly scandals, and provide an heir to carry on the family business.
Following their marriage on 22 September 1915, they had four children in rapid succession:
After the death of Siegfried Wagner in 1930, Winifred Wagner took over the Bayreuth Festival, running it until the end of World War II.
In 1923, Wagner met Adolf Hitler, who greatly admired Richard Wagner's music. When Hitler was jailed for his part in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch, Wagner sent him food parcels and stationery on which Hitler's autobiography Mein Kampf may have been written. In the late 1930s, she served as Hitler's personal translator during treaty negotiations with Britain.[ citation needed ]
Although Wagner remained personally faithful to Hitler, she denied that she ever supported the Nazi party. Her relationship with Hitler grew so close that by 1933 there were rumours of impending marriage (there were similar rumours about her love for English novelist Hugh Walpole).Haus Wahnfried , the Wagner home in Bayreuth, became Hitler's favorite retreat. Hitler gave the festival government assistance and tax-exempt status, and treated Wagner's children solicitously.
According to biographer Brigitte Hamann, Wagner was reported to be "disgusted" by Hitler's persecution of the Jews. In one notable incident, in the late 1930s, a letter from her to Hitler prevented Hedwig and Alfred Pringsheim (whose daughter Katia was married to Thomas Mann) from being arrested by the Gestapo.
According to Gottfried Wagner, Winifred Wagner's grandson, she never admitted the error of her ways. After the war, her posthumous devotion to the man she cryptically referred to as "USA" – for Unser Seliger Adolf (our blessed Adolf) – remained undimmed. She corresponded with Hitler for nearly two decades. Scholars have not been allowed to see the letters, which have been kept locked away by Amélie Lafferentz, one of Winifred Wagner's grandchildren, who has insisted that they not be released until the whole family agrees to do so.
Like Hitler, Wagner believed profoundly in the rite of a secular cult of German nationalism, of Nordic self-realization, and völkisch aspiration. After the collapse of the Third Reich, a denazification court banned her from the Bayreuth Festival, which she passed to her sons Wieland and Wolfgang.
In the 1950s, she again became a political hostess. Her grandson Gottfried Wagner later recalled that
My aunt Friedelind was outraged when my grandmother again slowly blossomed as the first lady of right-wing groups and received political friends such as Emmy Göring, Ilse Hess, the former NPD Adolf von Thadden, Gerdy Troost, the wife of the Nazi architect and friend of Hitler Paul Ludwig Troost, the British fascist leader Oswald Mosley, the German NS-movie director Karl Ritter and the racist author and former Senator of the Reich Hans Severus Ziegler.
In 1975, Wagner gave a filmed interview to Hans-Jürgen Syberberg in which she appeared unrepentant concerning her past. "To have met him [Hitler]," she declared, "is an experience I would not have missed." She was interviewed that year by David Irving, who reported that she had said she would still welcome Hitler at her door and that she had discussed with Hitler the saving of some individuals.[ citation needed ]
She died in Überlingen, one of the best preserved medieval sites, on the shore of Lake Constance on 5 March 1980 at the age of 82 and was interred at Bayreuth.
The friendship of Wagner and Hitler is treated fancifully in A.N. Wilson's novel Winnie and Wolf (2007).
The Music Keeper, an American play from 1982 by Elliot Tiber and André Ernotte, takes place two days before Wagner's death and is about Frau Wagner's relationship with Adolf Hitler and her obsession with the Bayreuth mystique and Hitler's malign mission.
The Bayreuth Festival is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented. Wagner himself conceived and promoted the idea of a special festival to showcase his own works, in particular his monumental cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal.
Siegfried Helferich Richard Wagner was a German composer and conductor, the son of Richard Wagner. He was an opera composer and the artistic director of the Bayreuth Festival from 1908 to 1930.
The Bayreuth Circle was a name originally applied by some writers to devotees of Richard Wagner's music who attended and supported the annual Bayreuth Festival in the later 19th and early twentieth centuries. As some of these devotees espoused nationalistic German politics, and some of them were supporters of Adolf Hitler from the 1920s onwards, this group of people has been associated by some writers with the rise of Nazism.
Wolfgang Wagner was a German opera director. He is best known as the director (Festspielleiter) of the Bayreuth Festival, a position he initially assumed alongside his brother Wieland in 1951 until the latter's death in 1966. From then on, he assumed total control until he retired in 2008, although many of the productions which he commissioned were severely criticized in their day. He had been plagued by family conflicts and criticism for many years. He was the son of Siegfried Wagner, who was the son of Richard Wagner, and the great-grandson of Franz Liszt.
Wieland Wagner was a German opera director, grandson of Richard Wagner. As co-director of the Bayreuth Festival when it re-opened after World War II, he was noted for innovative new stagings of the operas, departing from the naturalistic scenery and lighting of the originals. His wartime involvement in the development of the V-2 rocket was kept secret for many years.
Karl Eduard Maria Elmendorff was a German opera conductor.
Max Lorenz was a German heldentenor famous for Wagnerian roles.
Brigitte Hamann was a German-Austrian author and historian based in Vienna.
Friedelind Wagner was the elder daughter of German opera composer Siegfried Wagner and his English wife Winifred Williams and the granddaughter of the composer Richard Wagner. She was also the great-granddaughter of the composer Franz Liszt.
Adolf von Thadden was a German far-right politician. Born into a leading Pomeranian landowning family, he was the half-brother of Elisabeth von Thadden, a prominent critic of the Nazis who was executed by the Nazi government in September 1944.
The family of the composer Richard Wagner:
Wahnfried was the name given by Richard Wagner to his villa in Bayreuth. The name is a German compound of Wahn and Fried(e).
Wagner is derived from the Germanic surname Waganari, meaning "wagonmaker" or "wagon driver". The Wagner surname is German. The name is also well established in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, eastern Europe, and elsewhere as well as in all German-speaking countries, and among Ashkenazi Jews.
Verena Wagner Lafferentz was the fourth child and younger daughter of Winifred and Siegfried Wagner, and the youngest granddaughter of German composer Richard Wagner. She was also a great-granddaughter of the composer Franz Liszt.
Gerhardine "Gerdy" Troost, was a German architect interior designer and interior decorator and the wife of Paul Ludwig Troost.
Eva Maria Chamberlain was the daughter of Richard Wagner and Cosima Wagner, and the wife of Houston Stewart Chamberlain. When she was born, her mother was still married to Hans von Bülow. Through her mother, she was also a granddaughter of Franz Liszt. With her siblings Isolde and Siegfried, Eva was brought up by a house teacher.
Isolde Josefa Ludovika Beidler was the first child of the composer Richard Wagner and his wife, who is generally known as Cosima Wagner. Isolde herself married the Swiss-born conductor Franz Beidler (1872-1930) and was the mother of author Franz Wilhelm Beidler (1901-1981), celebrated at his birth as "Richard Wagner's first grandchild".
Mileva Roller was an Austrian painter in the Viennese Secession movement.
Emil Preetorius was a German illustrator and graphic artist. He is considered one of the most important stage designers of the first half of the 20th century.
Ulrich Roller (1911–1940) was an Austrian putschist, stage designer and SS guard. He was the younger son of the Viennese Secession artists Alfred and Mileva Roller.