Witham

Last updated

Witham
Town Hall, Witham, Essex - geograph.org.uk - 65400.jpg
Witham Town Hall
Essex UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Witham
Location within Essex
Population25,542  [1]
OS grid reference TL821145
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WITHAM
Postcode district CM8
Dialling code 01376
Police Essex
Fire Essex
Ambulance East of England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Essex
51°47′52″N0°38′14″E / 51.7978°N 0.6373°E / 51.7978; 0.6373 Coordinates: 51°47′52″N0°38′14″E / 51.7978°N 0.6373°E / 51.7978; 0.6373

Witham ( /ˈwɪtəm/ ) is a town in the county of Essex in the East of England, with a population (2011 census) of 25,353. [1] [2] It is part of the District of Braintree and is twinned with the town of Waldbröl, Germany. Witham stands between the city of Chelmsford (8 miles to the south-west) and the City of Colchester (13 miles to the north-east), on the Roman road between the two. The River Brain runs through the town and joins the River Blackwater just outside.

Contents

History

Early history

Excavations by Essex County Council Field Archaeological unit at the recent Maltings Lane development discovered evidence of Neolithic occupation at Witham, including human remains and several trackways across ancient marsh. Excavations of the Witham Lodge (Ivy Chimneys) area of the town in the 1970s unveiled remains of a Roman temple as well as a pottery kiln. This would have been alongside the main Roman road from Colchester to London and used as a stopover point on the long journey. Another notable find during the excavation was a votive offering pool in the grounds of the temple, containing several artefacts that would have been offered to the gods.

In 913, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , Edward the Elder marched from Hertford to reconquer Essex, and encamped in Witham on his route to set up a base at Maldon. Witham's position on the Roman road in relation to the major Viking army based at Colchester was the most likely reason for this, and it would have effectively cut Essex in two.

The place-name Witham is first attested in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 913 (mentioned above), where it appears as Witham. It also appears as Witham in the Domesday Book of 1086. The name may mean 'village in a bend'. [3] Another suggestion is that the name is part Brythonic (probably from a cognate of Gwydd = "Woods" in modern Welsh) and "ham", a very common Saxon village designation. [4]

The manor of Witham was given to the Knights Templar in 1148. To the north of the current town is Cressing Temple which was the earliest foundation of Templar lands in Britain, built over 700 years ago. The manor of Witham was held by the Church after the dissolution of the Templars in England in c.1309. [5] The manor was sold to Sir John Southcott in c.1575, he was a prominent Judge and Politician from Devon. His heirs held the manor for almost two centuries, until 1648 when the Southcott family had their lands destroyed for supporting the royalist cause in the English Civil War. [6]

The town as it is now started life on 'Chipping Hill', which is the location of St Nicolas's Church. As the years went by, the hamlet grew to become 'Witham' and St Nicolas's Church of England Church (a unique spelling) serves a congregation of around 150 people each Sunday. During the latter half of the 18th century and the early 19th century, Admiral Sir William Luard was the town's most prominent citizen, a resident of Chipping Hill and a founder and patron of St Nicolas's Church. His funeral cortège through the town in 1910 was witnessed by thousands.

In the 18th century, Witham briefly enjoyed a period as an affluent spa town after the discovery of a mineral-bearing spa by a Dr Taverner. Witham was also a centre of the wool trade until the decline of the industry in the late 17th century.

Witham rail crash

Witham railway station, 1 September 1905 Witham.jpg
Witham railway station, 1 September 1905

Witham railway station was the scene of a serious accident c.09:27 AM on 1 September 1905. The London Liverpool Street-to-Cromer 14-coach express derailed whilst travelling at speed through the station. Ten passengers and a luggage porter were killed when several of the carriages somersaulted on to the platforms causing considerable damage to the rolling stock and the station. Seventy-one passengers were seriously injured. [7] [8] It remains to this day the worst single loss of life in a railway accident in Essex.

In 2005, an opportunity to commemorate the centenary was missed and the incident is now largely forgotten. Ben Sainty, a signalman, whose quick action averted the next train hitting the wreckage, has a road named after him in the town, Ben Sainty Court.

20th and 21st centuries

The town expanded greatly in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the Greater London Council built three large council estates on the west and north sides of the town, and a smaller one to the south, for families from London to move to as part of the New Town and Expanded Town overspill policy of that time.

Witham Public Library Witham Public Library (geograph 5405138).jpg
Witham Public Library

A famous one-time resident of the town was the author Dorothy L. Sayers, whose statue stands opposite the town's library, which is a short distance from the author's house. The library stands on the site of the old Whitehall cinema, which closed in the late 1970s and which was itself a conversion of the White Hall country house.

Witham has grown in size after the development of the Maltings Lane estate to the south of the town between 2002 and 2003. This was followed, in 2012, by the moving of Chipping Hill Primary School from its old premises in Church Street to a new-build in Owers Road. The development of this area has continued, including the opening of an Aldi superstore in 2015. [9]

Approved developments in this period include the reconstruction of both the New Rickstones Academy and the Maltings Academy, [10] completed in 2011; the Marston's pub and restaurant on Gershwin Boulevard, completed in 2013 with the adjacent Seymour House day nursery; the refurbishment and opening of a Morrisons store in the old premises of the Jack & Jenny pub in 2014; and the newly-built Witham Leisure Centre [11] on Spinks Lane, replacing Bramston Sports Centre, completed in 2014.

Transport

The town is served by Witham railway station, situated on the Great Eastern Main Line operated by Abellio Greater Anglia. Trains take approximately 40–45 minutes to reach Liverpool Street. The station is also the junction for a branch line to Braintree. Another branch line went from Witham to Maldon, but this has now been dismantled having been closed to passengers in 1964.

Witham is situated on the A12 trunk road between Chelmsford and Colchester, which was originally a Roman road from London to Colchester. The A12 used to run in a straight line through the middle of the town, but a by-pass now completely avoids the town.

Witham is on National Cycle Route 16.

The town has a large number of residents who commute to work in London because of its excellent transport links. This is evident by Witham railway station's appearance within the 150 busiest railway stations in Great Britain, [12] which would not be expected based on the town's population alone.

Economy and facilities

Witham has a mainly linear town centre, focused on the high street and two shopping precincts to form a cross that bisects the high street; these are the Newlands Shopping Centre of 1970s design to the north and the Grove Centre of a 1980s brick design to the south. There are also a range of small shops, restaurants, pubs, major high-street banks and several national commercial chains. The town also has five supermarkets: Tesco in the Grove Centre, Morrisons near the railway station, Asda on Highfields Road, Aldi at the southern entrance to the town and Lidl that recently opened towards the centre of town on the old Bramston sports centre site.

A significant industrial presence remains in the town, concentrated on three industrial estates on the eastern side of the town close to the junction with the A12. There are also commercial offices located in the town centre area.

In March 2007, Crittall Windows closed its Braintree factory and returned to Witham to occupy a new factory on the Freebournes Industrial Estate. The factory Crittall moved into was built for J.L. French in 2001, but never used for production. The new Crittall factory is visible on the right hand side of the road exiting Witham towards Colchester, via the A12.

In December 2013, the financial service provider Cofunds relocated to the former Marsh building on the Grove, bringing approximately 600 jobs to the town. [13]

Sport and leisure

Witham has a Non-League football club Witham Town F.C. who play at Spa Road.

There is also a rugby club situated behind the football ground.

Witham also has a hockey club formed in 1924 and is now made up of 5 men's teams and 3 women's teams. Witham also participates in the local mixed league as well as the men's and women's summer league and indoor league. Witham hockey club play on the astro turf across the road from Maltings Academy on Spinks Lane. The hockey club share a clubhouse with the cricket club which is situated next to the recreation ground, commonly known as the Maldon Road Park, on Maldon Road.

Leisure facilities include Benton Hall Golf and Country Club, a pool club, and a library which occupies the site of what was the town's long-closed cinema, the Whitehall. A 'River Walk' runs for three-and-a-half miles through the town and is home to a range of wildlife. Witham Leisure Centre is located in Spinks Lane, adjacent to the former Bramston Sports Centre.

Education

There are two secondary schools in Witham, Maltings Academy and New Rickstones Academy. Maltings Academy achieved 94% A*- C GCSE grades in 2012. (51% including English and Maths) and an above national average of 99% of pupils gaining at least one GCSE in 2012. The two schools are part of the AET Academies chain. New Rickstones Academy was rated Good by Ofsted in January 2015 and Maltings Academy was rated Outstanding by Ofsted in March 2015.

The town's primary schools are Templars, Holy Family Catholic School, Howbridge, Powers Hall, Chipping Hill (which became a primary school in September 2010), Rivenhall CoE, Elm Hall Primary, Southview, and Silver End Primary. Both Chipping Hill School and Powers Hall Junior School received Outstanding OfSTED reports in 2008.Chipping Hill was named the Top School in East Anglia by the Sunday Times.

The Chatten free school is a special educational needs school which opened in 2021. The school provides up to 75 places to pupils from across Essex with severe, complex autism. [14]

Governance

Witham is part of the Witham constituency of the House of Commons. The local Member of Parliament (MP) is the Conservative Home Secretary Priti Patel, who was elected at the 2010 general election, becoming the first Asian female Conservative MP. Ms Patel was re-elected at the 2015 general election with an increased majority and again in the 2019 general election.

The constituency includes Hatfield Peverel, Langford, Wickham Bishops, Marks Tey, Tiptree, Tolleshunt Knights, Stanway Kelvedon, and Coggeshall. It is regarded as one of the safest seats for the Conservative Party, and Priti Patel holds a strong 15,196 vote majority. Over 66% of the votes in the 2019 general election went to Ms Patel.

Witham is under the jurisdiction of Witham Town Council (its parish council), Braintree District Council and Essex County Council. Witham Town Council is based at Witham Town Hall. [15]

Witham, and parts of the Braintree district, hold one of the best recycling schemes in the UK, with compulsory recycling, reaching over 50% recycling.

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maldon</span> Town in Essex, England

Maldon is a town and civil parish on the Blackwater estuary in Essex, England. It is the seat of the Maldon District and starting point of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation. It is known for Maldon Sea Salt which is produced in the area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Essex</span> Aspect of history

Essex is a county in the East of England which originated as the ancient Kingdom of Essex and one of the seven kingdoms, or heptarchy, that went on to form the Kingdom of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Witham railway station</span> Railway station in Essex, England

Witham railway station is on the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML) in the East of England, serving the town of Witham, Essex. It is about half a mile (1 km) to the north of the town centre and is 38 miles 48 chains (62.1 km) down the line from London Liverpool Street. On the GEML Witham is situated between Hatfield Peverel to the west and Kelvedon to the east. It is the junction for the Braintree Branch Line to the east which opened in 1848, and between 1848 and 1964 it was also the junction for a west-facing branch line to Maldon. Its three-letter station code is WTM.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Braintree Town F.C.</span> Association football club in Braintree, England

Braintree Town Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Braintree, Essex, England. They are currently members of the National League South, the sixth tier of English football, and play at Cressing Road.

The Essex and Suffolk Border Football League is a football competition based in England. The league has a total of four divisions headed by the Premier Division which sits at step 7 of the National League System. The top club may apply for promotion to Division One of the Eastern Counties League.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Witham (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom since 2010

Witham is a parliamentary constituency in Essex represented by Priti Patel in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since its 2010 creation. She is a Conservative who was Home Secretary from 24 July 2019 until her resignation on 5 September 2022 following the announcement of the results of the Conservative Party leadership contest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colchester Institute</span>

Colchester Institute is a large provider of further and higher education based in the city of Colchester. Colchester Institute provides full-time and part-time courses for a wide variety of learners including 16 to 19 year olds, apprentices, adults, businesses and employers. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Higher Education courses are delivered through University Centre Colchester and validated by the University of East Anglia, University of Huddersfield and University of Essex.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kelvedon</span> Human settlement in England

Kelvedon is a village and civil parish in the Braintree District of Essex in England, between Chelmsford and Colchester. It had a population of 4,717 in 2001, reducing to 3,587 at the 2011 Census. It is now home to several businesses including Knight Group and Lysanda. Brockwell Meadows Local Nature Reserve is south-east of the village between a housing estate and the River Blackwater.

Silver End is a village in Braintree, Essex, in England. It was conceived as a model village by the industrialist Francis Henry Crittall who established a Crittall Windows Ltd factory there to manufacture components for metal windows.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cressing Temple</span>

Cressing Temple is a medieval site situated between Witham and Braintree in Essex, close to the villages of Cressing and White Notley. It was amongst the very earliest and largest of the possessions of the Knights Templar in England, and is currently open to the public as a visitor attraction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tolleshunt Major</span> Village in Essex, England

Tolleshunt Major is a small village approximately five miles north east of Maldon, in the Maldon District of Essex, England. It forms part of the electoral ward of Tolleshunt D'Arcy and is situated on the northern bank of the River Blackwater.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Braintree, Essex</span> Town in England

Braintree is a town and former civil parish in Essex, England. The principal settlement of Braintree District, it is located 10 miles northeast of Chelmsford and 15 mi (24 km) west of Colchester. According to the 2011 Census, the town had a population of 41,634, while the urban area, which includes Great Notley, Rayne and High Garrett, had a population of 53,477.

The Witham to Maldon branch line is a closed railway line joining Maldon to the British railway network at Witham in Essex, England. It was opened in 1848 and was 5+34 miles (9 km) long. It was extended to Woodham Ferris to give direct access to Southend-on-Sea, but that extension was not commercially successful.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maldon East and Heybridge railway station</span> Former railway station in England

Maldon East and Heybridge railway station served the town of Maldon and village of Heybridge in Essex, England. It was opened in 1848 by the Maldon, Witham & Braintree Railway (MWBR) on a branch line from Witham to Maldon. It was originally named Maldon but was renamed Maldon East in 1889 and then Maldon East and Heybridge in 1907.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great Totham</span> Human settlement in England

Great Totham is a village and civil parish in Maldon district, Essex, England, and midway between Chelmsford and Colchester. The village includes the Island of Osea in the Blackwater estuary and is separated into two parts, north and south. The north side and the south side are about a mile and a half apart, distributed along the B1022. The parish contains the hamlet of Totham Hill.

Crittall Windows Ltd is a notable English manufacturer of steel-framed windows, today based in Witham, Essex, close to its historic roots in the county. Its products have been used in thousands of buildings across the United Kingdom, including the Houses of Parliament and Tower of London, and are features particularly associated with the Art Deco and Modernist movements in early 20th-century architecture.

The North Essex League was a football league that was held in Essex, founded in 1895.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Witham Town Hall</span> Municipal building in Witham, Essex, England

Witham Town Hall is a municipal building in Newland Street, Witham, Essex, England. The building, which is the meeting place of Witham Town Council, is a Grade II listed building.

References

  1. 1 2 "Witham - Housing Stat Nav". Braintree District Council. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  2. Braintree District Council. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). KS01 Usual resident population. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  3. Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, p.527.
  4. Domesday Witham – Introduction and Method
  5. Malcolm Barber (2006), The Trial of the Templars, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press), p. 225
  6. History of the Manor House Witham Place
  7. "Event summary". Railways Archive. Accident at Witham on 1st September 1905. U.K. event 72.
  8. von Donop, P.G., Lt.Col. (1 November 1905). "Extract for the accident at Witham on 1st September 1905". Accident returns. Board of Trade via Railways Archive, U.K.
  9. "Aldi launch appeal against rejection of planned Witham store in Maltings Lane | Essex Chronicle". Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  10. "Witham: Planning applications in for new schools".
  11. "Welcome to the Witham Leisure Centre Community Information Website". Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  12. Office of Rail Regulation. http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/xls/station-usage-2006-07.xls. Station usage Excel sheet (2006–07). Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  13. "Cofunds move to Witham expected to boost trade in town | Essex Chronicle". Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  14. "New school opens up whole new world for students with severe autism in Essex". Gazette. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  15. "Town Hall". Witham Town Trail. Retrieved 5 May 2021.