Wittlich

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Wittlich
Wappen-Stadt-Wittlich.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Wittlich within Bernkastel-Wittlich district
Wittlich in WIL.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wittlich
Rhineland-Palatinate location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wittlich
Coordinates: 49°59′13″N06°53′23″E / 49.98694°N 6.88972°E / 49.98694; 6.88972 Coordinates: 49°59′13″N06°53′23″E / 49.98694°N 6.88972°E / 49.98694; 6.88972
Country Germany
State Rhineland-Palatinate
District Bernkastel-Wittlich
Subdivisions6
Government
   Mayor Joachim Rodenkirch (2009-) (CDU)
Area
[1]
  Total49.63 km2 (19.16 sq mi)
Elevation
160 m (520 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31) [2]
  Total18,906
  Density380/km2 (990/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
54516
Dialling codes 06571
Vehicle registration WIL
Website www.wittlich.de

The town of Wittlich is the seat of the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Its historic town centre and the beauty of the surrounding countryside make the town a centre for tourism in southwest Germany.

Bernkastel-Wittlich is a district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Vulkaneifel, Cochem-Zell, Rhein-Hunsrück, Birkenfeld, Trier-Saarburg and Bitburg-Prüm.

In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is the Landkreis ; the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, which use the term Kreis. Most major cities in Germany are not part of any Kreis, but instead themselves perform functions like those of the Kreise; such a city is referred to as a Kreisfreie Stadt or Stadtkreis.

Rhineland-Palatinate State in Germany

Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany.

Contents

Wittlich is the middle centre for a feeder area of 56 municipalities in the Eifel and Moselle area with a population of roughly 64,000. With some 18,000 inhabitants, Wittlich is the biggest town between Trier and Koblenz and the fourth biggest between Mainz and the Belgian border.

Central place theory geographical theory explaining the number, size and location of human settlements in an urban system

Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system. The theory was created by the German geographer Walter Christaller, who asserted that settlements simply functioned as 'central places' providing services to surrounding areas.

Eifel low mountain range in Germany

The Eifel is a low mountain range in western Germany and eastern Belgium. It occupies parts of southwestern North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Rhineland-Palatinate and the south of the German-speaking Community of Belgium.

Trier Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Trier, formerly known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region. The German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.

Geography

Location

The town lies in the South Eifel on the River Lieser in a side valley of the Moselle on the northern edge of the Wittlich Depression. This stretch of country is bounded in the west by the low mountains of the Moselle Eifel and in the east by the Moselle valley.

Lieser (river) river in Germany

The Lieser is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Moselle. It rises in the Eifel, near Boxberg, north of Daun. The Lieser flows south through Daun, Manderscheid and Wittlich. It flows into the Moselle west of the village of Lieser.

Wittlich Depression German geographical feature

The Wittlich Depression , less commonly, the Wittlich Basin, is the continuation of the Trier Valley in a northeasterly direction. It is not only recognisable in the terrain as an elongated depression, but also from its geological structure as a basin. From a natural region perspective, the Wittlich Depression (252) is one of three major units of the Moselle Valley major unit group Moseltal (25). The Wittlich Depression Cycleway runs through the region.

Moselle Eifel mountain range

The Moselle Eifel forms the southeastern strip of the East Eifel to the left of the Moselle from the city of Trier downstream as far as Moselkern; in the southeast it does not reach as far as the Moselle Valley. It lies exclusively within the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate and is a truncated highland, roughly half of which is forested.

Constituent communities

Wittlich's Stadtteile or Ortsbezirke (districts or suburbs), besides the main centre, also called Wittlich, are Bombogen, Dorf, Lüxem, Neuerburg, and Wengerohr, [3] each of which was a self-administering municipality. [4] until 7 June 1969.

History

Ruins of ancient Roman villa in Wittlich Roemischevillawitt1.JPG
Ruins of ancient Roman villa in Wittlich

The oldest known remnants of human settlement activity come from the third millennium BC.

In Roman times there stood right on the River Lieser, where the autobahn bridge is now, a stately villa rustica or countryside villa.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Autobahn national expressway in Germany

The AutobahnIPA: [ˈʔaʊtoˌba:n](listen), German plural Autobahnen) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn, which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of the word Bundesautobahn is "Federal Auto(mobile) Track".

Villa rustica Roman villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate

Villa rustica was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (latifundium). The adjective rusticum was used to distinguish it from an urban or resort villa. The villa rustica would thus serve both as a residence of the landowner and his family and also as a farm management centre. It would often comprise separate buildings to accommodate farm labourers and sheds and barns for animals and crops. In modern British archaeology, a villa rustica is commonly referred to simply as a "Roman villa".

In 1065, Wittlich had its first documentary mention. In 1300, Archbishop-Elector Diether von Nassau of Trier granted Wittlich town rights. It had long been assumed, however, that Wittlich had already been granted town rights in 1291, leading to the 700th-anniversary celebrations in 1991.

In the middle ages, the prince-electors of Trier constructed a castle in Wittlich, Burg Ottenstein. This castle was replaced in the 18th century by a hunting lodge, Schloss Philippsfreude, which was destroyed during the times of the French Revolution.

In 1912, Germany's first youth prison was built in Wittlich, which also still borders on the Justizvollzugsanstalt Wittlich (“Wittlich Correctional Facility”).

Building projects in town

In 2009, the town of Wittlich was included in the programme Aktive Stadtzentren (“Active Town Centres”) of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Since then, some investors have been interested in the town of Wittlich.

Politics

Town council

The council is made up of 32 honorary council members, and a full-time mayor as chairman.

Recent municipal elections have yielded the following results: [5]

   SPD    CDU    FDP   GRÜNE Linke FWG Total
2014814241332 seats
2009813341332 seats
200491433332 seats
1999101622232 seats

Coat of arms

The German blazon reads: In rotem Feld parallel nebeneinander zwei aufrecht, mit dem Schlüsselbart nach oben voneinander abgekehrte silberne Schlüssel mit übereinandergelegten Griffen, wobei der linke über dem rechten angeordnet ist. Die Mauerkrone ist Zierelement des Wappens: ein Zinnenturm mit offenem Tor in der Mitte zwischen Mauern und Zinnen.

The town's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Gules two keys palewise addorsed, the wards to chief and the bow of the dexter surmounting that of the sinister, argent, ensigning the shield a tower with an open gateway and flanking walls, the whole embattled, of the second.

The German blazon identifies the “left” key as the one that surmounts the other, although the example shown at the town's own website clearly shows the dexter key surmounting the sinister. This may arise from a common misunderstanding about heraldry, in which left and right – or sinister and dexter – are told from the armsbearer's point of view, not the viewer's. [6] [7]

The example of the arms shown at the town's own website shows the crenellated (“embattled”) tower on top of the escutcheon; [8] however, the example at Heraldry of the World shows the arms without this. [9] This same webpage also shows a coat of arms for Wittlich which apparently appeared in the old Coffee Hag albums. It might be described as “Argent two keys per saltire, the wards to chief, the one in bend sinister surmounting the other, azure.” In other words, the field tincture was silver (“argent”) instead of red (“gules”), and the keys were not only blue instead of silver, but also crossed to form an X (“per saltire”).

Whichever way the keys are arranged, they symbolize Saint Peter, who was the patron saint of the Electorate of Trier, to which Wittlich belonged until 1794. The current tinctures were the ones borne by Trier, whereas the ones in the Coffee Hag image were those borne by the House of Wittelsbach.

The town's first great seal, from the time just after Wittlich had been raised to town, showed a crenellated tower over an open gate between two turrets, each with a roundle high on its wall. The court seal from the early 14th century, on the other hand, showed a two-key charge quite similar to the one in today's arms, thus providing the model for the coat of arms now borne by the town.

The crenellated tower on top of the escutcheon was only “rediscovered” much later.

Town partnerships

Wittlich fosters partnerships with the following places:

Culture and sightseeing

Bronze sculpture in memory of the Saubrennersage at Wittlich Market Wittlich03.jpg
Bronze sculpture in memory of the Säubrennersage at Wittlich Market
Former synagogue on Himmeroder Strasse Wittlich01.jpg
Former synagogue on Himmeroder Straße

Sightseeing

Regular events

Wittlich's Shrovetide festivities – Fastnacht – are outfitted each year by the two Carnival clubs, Schääl Saidt e.V. and Narrenzunft Rot-Weiß e.V. (“Fools’ Guild”). On the third weekend in August, the Säubrennerkirmes (“Sow Burner Fair”) is held; it is one of Rhineland-Palatinate's biggest folk festivals and was begun in 1951, based on the mediaeval Säubrennersage (a legend that tells of a sow that inadvertently allowed a siege force to enter Wittlich, sack it and burn it down after she ate the carrot that the gatekeeper had used instead of the bolt, which he could not find; all swine in the town were accordingly punished with burning – meaning, in effect, a huge pork barbecue). In October, Wittlich also holds Rhineland-Palatinate's biggest Oktoberfest.

Offener Kanal Wittlich

Wittlich also has a public access channel, the Offener Kanal Wittlich, which several times weekly reports on local news, events and suchlike.

Economy and infrastructure

Economy

Set of houses on the marketplace Wittlich02.jpg
Set of houses on the marketplace

In Wittlich, counting only workers on the social welfare contribution rolls, 14,500 people have jobs. This rises to more than 16,000 if officials and the self-employed are counted, making Wittlich's job density about 852 for each thousand inhabitants, and putting Wittlich itself in the very highest group of towns in Rhineland-Palatinate. Wittlich's importance as an economic and tourism centre is favoured by its location on two autobahns and by its mainline railway station on the Koblenz-Trier railway line.

Established businesses

Main railway station Wittlich Hbf.jpg
Main railway station
DB-InterCity at the station InterCity 432 4.jpg
DB-InterCity at the station

Franklin Fueling Systems GmbH manages a major distribution warehouse supplying fueling and service station equipment to all of Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Transport

Famous people

Honorary citizens

Sons and daughters of the town

Hans Friderichs in 1975 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046797-0028, Mainz, FDP-Bundesparteitag, Friderichs.jpg
Hans Friderichs in 1975

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Cochem-Zell is a district (Kreis) in the north-west of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Neighboring districts are Mayen-Koblenz, Rhein-Hunsrück, Bernkastel-Wittlich, and Vulkaneifel.

Bernkastel-Kues Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Bernkastel-Kues is a well-known winegrowing centre on the Middle Moselle in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The town is a state-recognized health resort (Erholungsort), seat of the Verbandsgemeinde of Bernkastel-Kues and birthplace of one of the most famous German polymaths, the mediaeval churchman and philosopher Nikolaus von Kues (Cusanus).

Zeltingen-Rachtig Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Zeltingen-Rachtig is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Neumagen-Dhron Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Neumagen-Dhron is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is a state-recognized tourism community, and it was the seat of the former Verbandsgemeinde of Neumagen-Dhron. Its situation and amenities make it a lower-order centre.

Lieser, Germany Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Lieser is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Trittenheim Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Trittenheim on the Middle Moselle is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Trier-Saarburg district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Arenrath Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Arenrath is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Flußbach Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Flußbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Hasborn Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Hasborn is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Hetzerath Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Hetzerath is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Minheim Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Minheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Niederöfflingen Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Niederöfflingen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Oberscheidweiler Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Oberscheidweiler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Osann-Monzel Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Osann-Monzel is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – and a winegrowing centre in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Pantenburg Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Pantenburg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Rivenich Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Rivenich is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Schladt Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Schladt is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Sehlem, Rhineland-Palatinate Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Sehlem is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Wallscheid Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Wallscheid is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Wittlich Hauptbahnhof railway station in Wittlich, Germany

Wittlich Hauptbahnhof is a railway station for the town of Wittlich in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate and is on the Koblenz–Trier line. Until the closure of the Wengerohr–Daun and Wengerohr–Bernkastel-Kues lines, it was a junction station and a regional rail node. Today it is the only station in Wittlich.

References

  1. "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  2. "Bevölkerungsstand 2017 - Gemeindeebene". Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (in German). 2018.
  3. Hauptsatzung der Stadt Wittlich, § 4 Ortsbezirke
  4. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz: Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis 2006 Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine , Seite 201 (PDF)
  5. Kommunalwahl Rheinland-Pfalz 2009, Stadtrat
  6. “Dexter” explained by Parker
  7. “Sinister” explained by Parker
  8. Description and explanation of Wittlich’s arms
  9. Wittlich’s arms at Heraldry of the World