Wojciech Stattler

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Wojciech Stattler
Wojciech Stattler - Self portrait.jpg
Stattler, Self-portrait, 1828;
oil painting stolen in World War II
BornApril 20, 1800
DiedNovember 6, 1875(1875-11-06) (aged 75)

Wojciech Korneli Stattler or Albert Kornel Stattler [1] (April 20, 1800 – November 6, 1875) was a Polish Romantic painter of Swiss aristocratic ancestry, who started training in Vienna and at age 17 went to St. Luke's Academy in Rome. From 1831 he taught as professor at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. 1850 he returned to Rome. His most famous pupil in Poland was nominal painter Jan Matejko. [2]

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Romanticism in Poland

Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.

Kraków City in Lesser Poland, Poland

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Contents

Early years

Stattler was born in Kraków five years after the third of the military partitions of Poland by the three neighbouring Empires and the suppression of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising by the occupying forces. He was the son of city councilor Joachim Stattler, deputy to the Sejm of Kraków, City which became part of the Austrian Empire. Stattler began his studies in 1816, initially in the field of mathematics and natural sciences. A year later, he enrolled at the drawing class of the School of Fine Arts and made quick progress in the workshops of professors Antoni Brodowski, Józef Peszka and Franciszek Lampi. In 1818–27 he went to Italy, and continued his art studies at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome under Andrea Pozzi and privately with Vincenzo Camuccini and Bertel Thorvaldsen; as well as at the Academy of Vienna since 1822 under Antonio Canova. During 1819–25 he was the recipient of state scholarships. [3]

Partitions of Poland Forced partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.

Kościuszko Uprising uprising against the second partition of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Prussian partition in 1794. It was a failed attempt to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland (1793) and the creation of the Targowica Confederation.

Antoni Brodowski Polish painter

Antoni Stanisław Brodowski was a Polish painter in the Classical style.

Artistic career

Maccabees, 1830-1842, oil on canvas, 262 x 371 cm Stattler-Machabeusze.jpg
Maccabees , 1830-1842, oil on canvas, 262 x 371 cm

Upon his return from abroad, Stattler was appointed Professor of the School of Fine Arts in Kraków in 1831. [5] Just before that, in 1829 he was in Łańcut at the estate of Count Aleksander Potocki, portraying members and children of his family and receiving a salary. In 1830 he was in Puławy, where he made preparatory sketches for a portrait of Prince Adam Czartoryski. [3] Back in Kraków, he embarked on a programme of dramatic changes at the School of Fine Arts, introducing live model studies as well as nude art models. [6]

Łańcut Place in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland

Łańcut is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 18,004 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009. Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, it is the capital of Łańcut County.

Aleksander Stanisław Potocki Polish noble

Count Aleksander Stanisław Potocki (1778–1845) was a Polish noble, landowner and politician. He was the senator-castellan of the Polish Kingdom in 1824 and chamberlain of Napoleon I. He was awarded Order of the White Eagle on 24 May 1829.

Puławy Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

Puławypronounced [puˈwavɨ] is a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province of northern Lesser Poland, located at the confluence of the Wisła and Kurówka rivers. According to the GUS census estimate, the city had a total population of 49,839 in 2006. Puławy is the capital of Puławy County, and was known as Nowa Aleksandria, or Nowo Aleksandria, from 1846 to 1918 during partitions of Poland. Its coat of arms is the Pahonia.

Stattler travelled abroad frequently. He was friends with Juliusz Słowacki, Aleksander Fredro, Antoni Odyniec and prominent others, including Adam Mickiewicz with whom he corresponded. [3] He painted their portraits. During Stattler's stay in Vienna as guest of Konstanty Czartoryski, he met an Italian-born Klementyna Zerboni di Colonna (c.1804–1897), [7] also referred to as Katarzyna Zerboni by others. Mickiewicz himself attended their wedding, [8] which took place in 1830 in her native Rome. [9]

Juliusz Słowacki Polish poet

Juliusz Słowacki was a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was the drama, but he also wrote lyric poetry. His most popular works include the dramas Kordian and Balladyna and the poems Beniowski and Testament mój.

Aleksander Fredro Polish writer

Aleksander Fredro was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires. His works including plays written in the octosyllabic verse (Zemsta) and in prose as well as fables, belong to the canon of Polish literature. Fredro was harshly criticized by some of his contemporaries for light-hearted humor or even alleged immorality which led to years of his literary silence. Many of Fredro's dozens of plays were published and popularized only after his death. His best-known works have been translated into English, French, German, Russian, Czech, Romanian, Hungarian and Slovak.

Antoni Edward Odyniec Polish writer

Antoni Edward Odyniec was a Polish Romantic-era poet who penned the celebrated "Song of the Filaretes".

Stattler went to France in 1843–44 with his painting Maccabees (Machabeusze), which won the Louis Philippe Gold Medal, [10] at the Paris Salon. Working on-and-off, it took him 12 years to complete it. Juliusz Słowacki described it as the Polish epic in Roman costume, with Antiochus demanding submission and subservience from the Jews like Russians from the Poles in the November Uprising. This painting is currently on display at the National Museum, Kraków. [4]

Maccabees Group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea

The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees, were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 167 BCE to 37 BCE, being a fully independent kingdom from about 110 to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism.

Salon (Paris) art exhibition periodically held in Paris from 1667 to 1890

The Salon, or rarely Paris Salon, beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world. At the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, and eleven engravers contributed. From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français.

Roman mythology traditional stories pertaining to ancient Romes legendary origins and religious system

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period.

Stattler served as Professor of the Academy for 26 years, until 1857. He also wrote articles and papers on art and art-education, including a memoir (Pamiętnik) published decades later by Maciej Szukiewicz in 1916. Stattlers had a son, Henryk, born in 1834. [11] Financial needs prompted them to leave Kraków for Warsaw around 1870, nevertheless Stattler refused the lucrative offer to paint 50 copies of the Russian Tsar Alexander. He painted religious themes in his old age and died in Warsaw on November 6, 1875. [3] He was buried at the Powązki Cemetery.

Warsaw Capital of Poland

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.78 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 517.24 square kilometres (199.71 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical old town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Alexander II of Russia Emperor of Russia

Alexander II was the emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the king of Poland and the grand duke of Finland.

Powązki Cemetery cemetery located in the Wola district, western part of Warsaw, Poland

Powązki Cemetery, also known as the Stare Powązki is a historic cemetery located in the Wola district, western part of Warsaw, Poland. It is the most famous cemetery in the city, and one of the oldest, having been established in 1790 on land donated by Melchior Szymanowski. It is the burial place of many illustrious individuals from Polish history. Some are interred along the "Avenue of the Distinguished" - Aleja Zasłużonych, created in 1925. It is estimated that over 1 million people are buried at Powązki.

Selected portraiture

Notes and references

  1. [[https://books.google.com/books?id=_tlHAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA218&dq=Albert+Stattler&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiUiIOUnLnTAhVG9mMKHf-SDjwQ6AEIMjAC#v=onepage&q=Albert%20Stattler&f=false Albert Kornel Stattler
  2. Bogna Lewtak - Baczyńska (2006). "Fryderyk Chopin i Wojciech Korneli Stattler". Artyści z rodziny. Well-Art. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on February 21, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2012. Wojciech Korneli Stattler pochodził ze szwajcarskiej hrabiowskiej rodziny (siedem pałek w herbie) z kantonu Uri. Jego rodzina po przybyciu do Polski osiadła początkowo w Krakowie gdzie pełniła zaszczytne funkcje m.in. dostojników miasta.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Stefan Kozakiewicz (Warszawa 1976). "Stattler, Wojciech Korneli (20.04.1800 Kraków – 06.11.1875 Warszawa)". Malarstwo Polskie - Oświecenie, Klasycyzm, Romantyzm (in Polish). Sztuka zaprasza.net. Retrieved October 21, 2012.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. 1 2 Magdalena Wróblewska (December 2010). "Wojciech Korneli Stattler "Machabeusze"". Sztuki wizualne (in Polish). Culture.pl Adam Mickiewicz Institute. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  5. Wydawnictwo Fogra (2012). "Stattler Wojciech Korneli (1800-1875)". Malarstwo, Europa (in Polish). Encyklopedia WIEM. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  6. Maria Poprzęcka (2006). Akt Polski. Warsaw: Edipresse Polska SA. pp. 2nd page, cover. ISBN   83-7477-066-X.
  7. "Klementyna Stattler (Zerboni de Colonna) (c.1804 - 1897)". Geni, Inc. Genealogy, Los Angeles, California. Retrieved October 22, 2012. Klementyna Stattler Birth records available with subscription
  8. Adam Mickiewicz (1886). "Ślub Wojciecha Stattlera". Full text of "Adam Mickiewicz; zarys biograficzno-literacki" (ROZDZIAŁ II). NAKŁAD GEBETHNERA I WOLFFA. p. 474. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  9. WŁADYSŁAW MICKIEWICZ. "Mickiewicz na ślubie Stattlera w Rzymie". Full text of "Żywot Adama Mickiewicza [microform] : podług zebranych przez siebie materyałów : oraz z własnych wspomnień". US Archive.org (DRUKARNIA DZIENNIKA POZNAŃSKIEGO, 1892). p. 112. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  10. "Louis Philippe I medal, 1842 (sample)". Aukcje online: Francja - Ludwik Filip I 1830-1848, medal. Warszawskie Centrum Numizmatyczne. 06-07-2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012. Louis Philippe I Roi des Francais, L'armee au Duc d'Orleans Prince RoyalCheck date values in: |date= (help)
  11. Paweł Freus. "Henryk Antoni Stattler". Sztuki wizualne (in Polish). Culture.pl Adam Mickiewicz Institute. Retrieved October 22, 2012.

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