Last updated
111223 VW Kraftwerk WOB.jpg
VW power station at night
Flagge Wolfsburg.svg
DEU Wolfsburg COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Wolfsburg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lower Saxony location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates: 52°25′23″N10°47′14″E / 52.42306°N 10.78722°E / 52.42306; 10.78722 Coordinates: 52°25′23″N10°47′14″E / 52.42306°N 10.78722°E / 52.42306; 10.78722
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Urban district
Subdivisions16 Ortschaften,
40 Stadtteile
   Lord Mayor Klaus Mohrs (SPD)
  Total204.02 km2 (78.77 sq mi)
63 m (207 ft)
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Density610/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
Dialling codes 05361, 05362, 05363, 05365, 05366, 05367, 05308
Vehicle registration WOB
Website www.Wolfsburg.de

Wolfsburg ( UK: /ˈvɒlfsbɜːrɡ/ VOLFS-burg, [2] US: /ˈwʊlfsbɜːrɡ, ˈvɔːlfsbʊərk/ WUULFS-burg, VAWLFS-boork, [3] [4] German: [ˈvɔlfsbʊɐ̯k] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller. It lies about 75 km (47 mi) east of Hanover and 230 km (143 mi) west of Berlin.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.


In 2013, Wolfsburg ranked as the richest city in Germany with a GDP per capita of $128,000 due to its thriving auto industry. [5]

Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AG's headquarters and the world's biggest car plant. The Autostadt is a visitor attraction next to the Volkswagen factory that features the company's model range: Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Ducati, Lamborghini, MAN, Neoplan, Porsche, Scania, SEAT, Škoda Auto, TRATON AG, and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. Wolfsburg is one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. From its founding on 1 July 1938 as a home for workers producing the "KdF-Wagen" (VW Beetle) until 25 May 1945, the city was called "Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben". In 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000.

Wolfsburg Volkswagen Plant

The Wolfsburg Volkswagen Factory is the largest manufacturing plant in the world, in terms of area at just under 6.5 million m². The Wolfsburg plant produced 815,000 cars in 2015. It is the worldwide headquarters of the Volkswagen Group.

Autostadt museum

The Autostadt is a visitor attraction adjacent to the Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, with a prime focus on automobiles. The complex was designed by Henn GmbH.

MAN SE German mechanical engineering company

MAN SE, formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich. Its primary output is for the automotive industry, particularly heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, and also turbomachinery.


Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal (Midland Canal). It is bordered by the districts of Gifhorn and Helmstedt.

Aller (Germany) river in Germany, sidestream of the river Weser

The Aller is a 215-kilometre (134 mi) long river in the states of Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony in Germany. It is a right-hand, and hence eastern, tributary of the Weser and is also its largest tributary. Its last 117 kilometres (73 mi) form the Lower Aller federal waterway (Bundeswasserstraße). The Aller was extensively straightened, widened and, in places, dyked, during the 1960s to provide flood control of the river. In a 20-kilometre (12 mi) long section near Gifhorn, the river meanders in its natural river bed.

Gifhorn is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Helmstedt is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is bounded by the district of Wolfenbüttel, the City of Braunschweig, the District of Gifhorn, the City of Wolfsburg and the State of Saxony-Anhalt.


The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm (21 in) which is quite low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all observation stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Weather Service) record lower measurements. The driest month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October. Precipitation hardly diversifies and is constantly distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation.

Deutscher Wetterdienst

The Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD for short, is the German Meteorological Service, based in Offenbach am Main, Germany, which monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany and provides weather services for the general public and for nautical, aviational or agricultural purposes. It is attached to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. The DWDs principal tasks include warning against weather-related dangers and monitoring and rating climate changes affecting Germany. The organization runs atmospheric models on their supercomputer for precise weather forecasting. The DWD also manages the national climate archive and one of the largest specialized libraries on weather and climate worldwide.


Wolfsburg Castle Schloss Wolfsburg 2016-1.jpg
Wolfsburg Castle

The castle "Wolfsburg" was first mentioned in 1302 in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. Originally a keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later. In 1372, the first documentary reference to the Burg Neuhaus (castle of Neuhaus) near Wolfsburg appeared. After the extinction of the Bartensleben line in 1742, the property and its Schloss Wolfsburg (Wolfsburg Castle) passed on to the Earls of the Schulenburg. The communal manor was an important employer for the nearby settlements Rothenfelde and Heßlingen.

Wolfsburg Castle

The Wolfsburg is medieval lowland and water castle in North Germany that was first mentioned in the records in 1302, but has since been turned into a Renaissance schloss or palace. It is located in eastern Lower Saxony in the town of Wolfsburg named after it and in whose possession it has been since 1961. The Wolfsburg developed from a tower house on the River Aller into a water castle with the character of a fortification. In the 17th century it was turned into a representative, but nevertheless defensible palace that was the northernmost example of the Weser Renaissance style. Its founder and builder was the noble family of von Bartensleben. After their line died out in 1742 the Wolfsburg was inherited by the counts of Schulenburg.

Some of today's urban districts, including Heßlingen, belonged to the Duke of Magdeburg during the 18th century. In 1932, these districts were detached from the Prussian province Saxony and integrated in the administrative district of Lüneburg belonging to Hannover.

Other urban districts, like Vorsfelde and the villages transferred to Wolfsburg from the county of Helmstedt, belonged to the later Duke of Braunschweig (Brunswick) for centuries. Fallersleben and other villages belonged to the Electorate of Braunschweig - Lüneburg or the Kingdom of Hanover.

Wolfsburg was founded on 1 July 1938 as the Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben (English: City of the KdF Car at Fallersleben ), a planned town centred around the village of Fallersleben, built to house workers of the Volkswagen (people's car) factories erected to assemble the Volkswagen Beetle.

During World War II military cars, aeroplanes, and other military equipment were built there, mainly by forced workers and POWs.[ citation needed ]. In 1942, German authorities established the Arbeitsdorf concentration camp in the city for a few months.

At the urging of the British occupying power, the city was renamed as Wolfsburg on 25 May 1945, after the eponymous castle located there. In 1951, Wolfsburg was separated from the District of Gifhorn, and became an urban district.

In 1955 the one-millionth VW Beetle was manufactured in Wolfsburg. Postwar Beetle production ended in Wolfsburg in 1974, though German Beetle production continued in Emden until 1978. The factories in Wolfsburg remain a key part of Volkswagen's production capacity.

During the German economic miracle Wolfsburg experienced a large influx of immigrant workers, especially from Italy.

In 1958 the city hall was built. In 1960 the Volkswagenwerk GmbH (limited partnership with a limited liability) was changed into an AG (public limited company).

In the course of a land reform in Lower Saxony in 1972, 20 localities were added to the city through the "Wolfsburg-Act". Wolfsburg gained the status of major city with nearly 131,000 inhabitants. The city's area grew from 35 to nearly 204 square kilometers. In 1973, the city's population peaked at 131,971.

In 1982 the A39, a side road of the A2 (Oberhausen - Hannover - Werder), was built as a direct freeway to Wolfsburg.

In 1988, the city became a university town with the establishment of the University of Applied Science Braunschweig/Wolfenbüttel. Today its name is Ostfalia University of Applied Science.

As a launch promotion for the 5th generation of the Volkswagen Golf the city of Wolfsburg welcomed visitors on the internet, on the official stationery, and on every city limit sign with the name "Golfsburg" from 25 August to 10 October 2003. This campaign gained the nationwide attention of press, radio, and TV broadcasting.

In the summer of 2009, Wolfsburg gained nationwide attention when their football team, VfL Wolfsburg, won the German football league. A party was held in the city centre with about 100,000 people, and was a first in the history of the city.

Culture and attractions

The Autostadt Autostadt, Wolfsburg Gelande.jpg
The Autostadt

The centre of Wolfsburg is unique in Germany. Instead of a medieval town center, Wolfsburg features a new and modern attraction called the Autostadt. The old part of the town Alt Wolfsburg (de) shows some manor buildings in traditional framework style. Atop a hill by the River Aller is the Wolfsburg Castle.

The Autostadt is an open-air museum-theme park dedicated to automobiles owned and operated by Volkswagen. In the center of the park are the pavilions featuring Volkswagen's major brands: Volkswagen and Audi to the north, further south are SEAT, Škoda Auto, Lamborghini, Bentley, Bugatti and the Premium Clubhouse. Right next to the lagoon is the Porsche pavilion. The striking Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles pavilion is in the south-east of the park. The Autostadt also includes: a planetarium; a Ritz-Carlton hotel; the Phaeno Science Center, the largest hands-on science museum in Germany; a water skiing resort; and a private art museum (Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg) specialised in modern and contemporary art.

Another major attraction is the Wolfsburg Water Show, the world's largest water-flame-laser-video fountain show with its up to 70 meter high fountains. [6]

Population development

From about 1,000 inhabitants in 1938, the population of the city increased to 25,000 in 1950 and doubled to 50,000 until 1958. On 1 July 1972, the population of Wolfsburg first went beyond the mark of 100,000 because of the suburbanization of several villages which made Wolfsburg a major city. In 1973, the population reached its highest level: 131,971. At the end of December 2010, 121,451 people were registered with their principal residence in Wolfsburg. Until the end of 2012, this number climbed to 123,144.

RankNationalityPopulation (31.12.2018)
1Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 5,506
2Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1,469
3Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1,349
4Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 682
5Flag of India.svg  India 563
6Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 521
7Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 475
8Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 450
9Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 450
10Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 403
11Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 326
12Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 310
13Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 308
14Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 261
15Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 259


The city of Wolfsburg is organized into 40 districts. One or more districts make up one of the total of 16 localities which are represented by their own councils. Every council has a local official as its mayor.

First the councils were only established in the 11 localities suburbanized in 1972. They partly took over the functions of the former town councils of each of the districts. In 1991 and 2001 some of the localities were split into smaller areas so that today there are 16 localities, each with its own council which are directly voted by the citizens.

The only exception from this organization is the Allerpark (Aller Park), a local recreation area surrounding the Allersee lake, and the area of the Volkswagen factory which are both located in the central city area.

The administrative area of Wolfsburg includes six nature reserves. Five of them are located in the ancient Aller river valley.


The town hall Rathaus Wolfsburg.jpg
The town hall

Head of the young "Stadt des KdF-Wagens" became the government assessor Karl Bock on enactment #145 of the chief president of the government of Lüneburg effective from 1 July 1938. His followers were also deployed by the government.

In 1946, the military government of the British zone of occupation established a communal constitution following the British example. After this, citizens voted for a council which elected a volunteer mayor/ lord mayor as the city's leader and representative. After 1946, the council elected a full-time director to lead the city council. In 2001, the city council's dual leadership was abolished. It is led by a full-time lord mayor who is also the city's representative, Klaus Mohrs. Since 2001, citizens directly elect the lord mayor. The council still has its own chairperson elected by the council's constitutive conference after every local election.

The city has been described as a “social democratic utopia”. [7]

City council

The city council is made up of the fractions of the different parties (47 seats) and the lord mayor with one seat. The lord mayor is head of administration, thus the superior of all employees of the city council. The lord mayor is supported by four departmental heads that are voted by the council on his proposal. Together, they make up the board of directors of the city administration where the most important decisions concerning administration are deliberated weekly.

Results of the local elections on 11 September 2011: [8]

PartySeatsVotes (%)Votes
SPD 1737.7%53.355
CDU 1431.6%44.635
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen 59.9%14.026
PIRATEN 23.9%5.528
FDP 12.4%3.326
Wolfsburger Linke 11.5%2.106

Voter participations: 49.4%.


Wolfsburg's emblem shows a silver two-tower castle with a closed gate on red ground over a green base with silver waved timbers. A golden wolf with a blue tongue paces over the castle's battlement. The city's flag is green and white.

Lower Saxony's Department of the Interior awarded the city of Wolfsburg's emblem in 1952 after it had been constituted in the association articles in 1947. In 1961, it was improved heraldically and newly awarded by the governmental executive committee of Lüneburg. The symbols of the wolf and the castle reflect the city's name (canting arm) and do not have a historical, directly conveyed reference. The flag was adopted in 1955.

Volkswagen used a modified version of the Wolfsburg coat of arms as its steering wheel emblem, (and occasionally as a hood ornament, on classic Beetles) until the early 1980s, when it was replaced by the VW roundel.

Regional authorities

The city of Wolfsburg is a member of the association Braunschweigische Landschaft e.V. with a registered office in Braunschweig and in the Lüneburgischen Landschaftsverband e.V. with a registered office in Uelzen. These associations were founded to foster cultural establishments of the regions.[ citation needed ]


Cultural Center, Alvar Aalto (1958-62) Library Wolfsburg Alvar Aalto photo by Christian Ganshirt.jpg
Cultural Center, Alvar Aalto (1958-62)
Heilig-Geist-Church, Alvar Aalto (1958-62) Heilig Geist Kirche Wolfsburg Alvar Aalto 1958 62 photo by Christian Ganshirt.JPG
Heilig-Geist-Church, Alvar Aalto (1958-62)

Historical castles



The Volkswagen Arena Wolfsburg stadion.jpg
The Volkswagen Arena

The most famous professional sports club in the town is VfL Wolfsburg, established in 1945. The men's football team won the Bundesliga in 2009, the DFB Pokal in 2015 and the DFL-Supercup in 2015. The women's football team has been even more successful, winning the Bundesliga in 2013 and 2014 as well as the DFB-Pokal in 2013 and 2015. The women's team has also succeeded in winning the UEFA Women's Champions League in two consecutive years, 2013 and 2014.

Wolfsburg is also the home of the ice hockey team Grizzlys Wolfsburg, which since 2007 has made it to a leading position in the German ice-hockey league.

Also based in town is the tennis tournament Volkswagen Challenger, which has been held annually in Wolfsburg since 1993.

International relations

Sister city - twin towns - associated cities

Wolfsburg is twinned with the following towns:

Wolfsburg has relationships with the following Association Cities:

Wolfsburg panorama at dusk, viewed from Schillerteich-Center. The red-lit chimneys left of the center belong to the Volkswagen plant.

Notable people

Notable natives

Henry Schirmer (Born 1965) International Business Man

See also

Related Research Articles

Lower Saxony State in Germany

Lower Saxony is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2 (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining.

Braunschweig City and district in Lower Saxony, Germany

Braunschweig, also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker River which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser Rivers. In 2016, it had a population of 250,704.

Salzgitter Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Salzgitter is an independent city in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig. Together with Wolfsburg and Braunschweig, Salzgitter is one of the seven Oberzentren of Lower Saxony. With 101,079 inhabitants and 223.92 square kilometres (86.46 sq mi), its area is the largest in Lower Saxony and one of the largest in Germany. Salzgitter originated as a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, and is today made up of 31 boroughs, which are relatively compact conurbations with wide stretches of open country between them. The main shopping street of the young city is in the borough of Lebenstedt, and the central business district is in the borough of Salzgitter-Bad. The city is connected to the Mittellandkanal and the Elbe Lateral Canal by a distributary. The nearest metropolises are Braunschweig, about 23 kilometres to the northeast, and Hanover, about 51 km to the northwest. The population of the City of Salzgitter has exceeded 100,000 inhabitants since its foundation in 1942, when it was still called Watenstedt-Salzgitter. Beside Wolfsburg, Leverkusen and Eisenhüttenstadt, Salzgitter is therefore one of the few cities in Germany founded during the 20th century.

Wolfenbüttel Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, the administrative capital of Wolfenbüttel District. It is best known as the location of the internationally renowned Herzog August Library and for having the largest concentration of timber-framed buildings in Germany. It is an episcopal see of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick. It is also home to the Jägermeister distillery and houses a campus of the Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.

Nienburg, Lower Saxony Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Nienburg is a town and capital of the district Nienburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Peine Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Peine is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, capital of the district Peine. It is situated on the river Fuhse and the Mittellandkanal, approximately 25 km west of Braunschweig, and 40 km east of Hanover.

Fallersleben district of Wolfsburg in Lower Saxony, Germany

Fallersleben is a district in the City of Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany, with a population of 11,269. The village of Fallersleben was first mentioned in 942 under the name of Valareslebo. Fallersleben became a city in 1929, and was incorporated into Wolfsburg in 1972. Before 1972, it belonged to Gifhorn. In 1939, Fallersleben had 2,600 inhabitants.


Arbeitsdorf ("work-village") was a concentration camp established by the Nazis in Wolfsburg 1942.

Knesebeck Stadtteil of Wittingen in Lower Saxony, Germany

Knesebeck is a village in Gifhorn (district) (Lower-Saxony). It is home to an important industry in the region and offers at the same time opportunities to socialize. Knesebeck promotes its traditions such as its music, sports clubs, cultural events and ecclesiastic life. Military music is a well-established part of the social life - and well known as an integrating factor for literally all layers of the society, albeit most of the younger generation leave for better opportunities in the cities. People in Knesebeck are well known for their open and sociable character and for their hospitality, but tend to be very insular to the way of life, due to the geographic isolation of the town from any major city.

The Landesliga Braunschweig, called the Bezirksoberliga Braunschweig from 1979 to 1994 and 2006 to 2010, is the sixth tier of the German football league system and the second highest league in the German state of Lower Saxony. It covers the region of the now defunct Regierungsbezirk Braunschweig.

Brunswick Land landscape

Brunswick Land is a historical region in the Southeast of the German state of Lower Saxony, centred around the city of Braunschweig. It refers to the core territory of the historic Duchy of Brunswick and its successor, the Free State of Brunswick, which was disestablished in 1946.

Fallersleben Castle

Fallersleben Castle is located in Wolfsburg in the German state of Lower Saxony and, together with Neuhaus and Wolfsburg Castles, is one of the most important historic buildings in the town. It is in the district of Fallersleben and forms an historic setting along with the castle lake, St. Michael's Church and the Old Brewery.

Wolfsburg Hauptbahnhof railway station in Wolfsburg, Germany

Wolfsburg Hauptbahnhof is the main station of the city of Wolfsburg in the German state of Lower Saxony. It is on the Hanover–Berlin railway and it is the last Intercity-Express stop running east before Stendal or Berlin-Spandau.

Landestrost Castle castle in Germany

Landestrost Castle is a castle in the Weser renaissance style that was built between 1573-84 in Neustadt am Rübenberge in the north German state of Lower Saxony. Integrated into fortifications, together with the town, it developed into an urban fortress typical of the 16th century. The castle was the representative residence and administrative headquarters of its master, Duke Eric II of Brunswick-Lüneburg. During the construction period from 1574 he renamed the town of Neustadt as Landestrost, something which was reverted after his death in 1584.

Volkswagenwerk Braunschweig is a factory site for Volkswagen automobile parts in Braunschweig, Germany. Production started on 1938-02-23 for manufacturing steering components of „KdF-Wagen" and tools for Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke in Dessau. Until today, only components for vehicles of VW Group are produced, such as running gears, axles, shock absorbers, brake parts and all pedals.

Schloss Wolfenbüttel

The Schloss Wolfenbüttel is a castle in the town of Wolfenbüttel in Lower Saxony in Germany. As an extensive four-wing complex, it originated as a moated castle. It is the second-largest surviving schloss in Lower Saxony and served as the main residence for the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between 1432 and 1753. It is now used by a secondary school, the Federal Academy of Arts Education and a museum. In the immediate vicinity are the Herzog August Bibliothek, the Lessinghaus, the Zeughaus and the Kleine Schloss.


  1. Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen, LSN-Online Regionaldatenbank, Tabelle 12411: Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand 31. Dezember 2018.
  2. "Wolfsburg". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  3. "Wolfsburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  4. "Wolfsburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  5. DPA/The Local/jcw (29 July 2013). "Germany's Motown is country's richest city". The Local. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  6. "Water show Wolfsburg: A truly unique experience is provided by the world's largest mobile water-fountain show with its up to 70 meter high fountains. The show is being staged every night for a period of four weeks. Visitors can prepare themselves for an unforgettable spectacle. Every year, the show is being themed and staged differently and accompanied by a lavish play of colours and a laser show" . Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  7. J.C. (15 October 2017). "How to keep populists small and marginal". The Economist .
  8. Archived 2013-02-07 at the Wayback Machine (PDF-Datei, 200 kB), Nr. 37 vom 26. September 2011 (Jahrgang 7)
  9. "Bielsko-Biała - Partner Cities". © 2008 Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
  10. "American Takes Boston Marathon". Palm Beach Post. April 20, 1976. p. D2. Retrieved September 23, 2011.