Wollemi National Park

Last updated

Wollemi National Park
New South Wales
IUCN category Ib (wilderness area)
(1)Capertee River.jpg
Capertee River, located within the southern portion of the national park
Australia New South Wales relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Wollemi National Park
Nearest town or city Lithgow
Coordinates 32°52′26″S150°29′32″E / 32.87389°S 150.49222°E / -32.87389; 150.49222 Coordinates: 32°52′26″S150°29′32″E / 32.87389°S 150.49222°E / -32.87389; 150.49222
EstablishedDecember 1979 (1979-12) [1]
Area5,017 km2 (1,937.1 sq mi) [1]
Managing authorities NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Website Wollemi National Park
See also Protected areas of
New South Wales

The Wollemi National Park is a protected national park and wilderness area that is located in the northern Blue Mountains and Lower Hunter regions of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 501,703-hectare (1,239,740-acre) park, the second largest national park in New South Wales, contains the 361,113-hectare (892,330-acre) Wollemi Wilderness the largest such wilderness area in Australia [2]  and is situated approximately 130 kilometres (81 mi) northwest of Sydney.

State park protected area managed at the federated state level

State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are typically established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U.S. state, some of the Mexican states, and in Brazil. The term is also used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, Argentina, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies.

National park park used for conservation purposes of animal life and plants

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.

A wilderness area is a region where the land is in a natural state; where impacts from human activities are minimal—that is, as a wilderness. It might also be called a wild or natural area. Especially in wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated Wilderness Areas, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.

Contents

The Wollemi National Park is one of the eight protected areas that, in 2000, was inscribed to form part of the UNESCO World Heritage listed Greater Blue Mountains Area. [3] The Wollemi National Park is the most northwesterly of the eight protected areas within the World Heritage Site. The national park forms part of the Great Dividing Range.

UNESCO specialized agency of the UN that promotes education, science and culture

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

World Heritage Site place listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or natural significance

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

Greater Blue Mountains Area

The Greater Blue Mountains Area is a World Heritage Site in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. The 1,032,649-hectare (2,551,730-acre) area was inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 24th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairns in 2000.

It contains the only known living wild specimens of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis), a species thought to have become extinct on the mainland approximately thirty million years ago, but discovered alive in three small stands in 1994. [4]

The national park is bounded to the north by the Goulburn River National Park and the Bylong Valley Way; to the east by the Yengo National Park, the Parr State Conservation Area, and the Putty Road; to the south by the Blue Mountains National Park and the Bells Line of Road; to the southwest by the Wolgan Valley and the Gardens of Stone National Park; and to the west by open farmland that surround the towns of Rylstone and Kandos and the Capertee Valley. [5]

Goulburn River National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Goulburn River National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 213 kilometres (132 mi) northwest of Sydney and it is 35 kilometres (22 mi) south-west of Merriwa. The Goulburn River National Park is located in the Hunter Valley region and covers approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) of the Goulburn River. It is near the towns of Sandy Hollow, Denman, Merriwa, and Mudgee.

Bylong Valley Way road in New South Wales

Bylong Valley Way is a New South Wales country road linking the Golden Highway near Sandy Hollow to the Castlereagh Highway near Ilford. It is named after the Bylong Valley, through which the road passes.

Yengo National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Yengo National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Lower Hunter region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 154,328-hectare (381,350-acre) park is situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) northwest of the Sydney central business district, 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Cessnock, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Wisemans Ferry, and 155 kilometres (96 mi) southwest of Newcastle.

Geology

The Colo River valley. Colo river valley.jpg
The Colo River valley.

The Wollemi National Park is located on the western edge of the Sydney Basin. It sits on four strata of sedimentary rock; the Narrabeen and Hawkesbury sandstone and shale, the Illawarra and Singleton Permian coal measures and the Wianamatta shales. The strata at this area of the Sydney Basin have an upwards tilt to the north-west. Throughout most of the park the Hawkesbury and Wianamatta series have been eroded away exposing the Narrabeen group. The landscape of the park is dominated by deep valleys, canyons, cliffs and waterfalls, formed by the weathering of the sandstone and claystone the Narrabeen group consists of. The parts of the park that lie on the Narrabeen and Hawkesbury sandstones generally have shallow soil with low nutrient levels while areas that lie on the Wianamatta shale usually have deeper and more nutrient rich soils allowing for a greater diversity of plant life. The coal measures are visible beneath cliff lines along river valleys. This layer is generally rich in nutrients and weathers to form deep clay loams. Tertiary basalt is common in the north west of the park. Basaltic peaks include Mount Coriaday, Mount Monundilla and Mount Coricudgy, the highest peak in the northern Blue Mountains. In some locations the basalt in the core of extinct volcanoes has eroded faster than the surrounding sandstone. [6]

Sydney Basin Region in New South Wales, Australia

The Sydney Basin is an interim Australian bioregion and is both a structural entity and a depositional area, now preserved on the east coast of New South Wales, Australia and with some of its eastern side now subsided beneath the Tasman Sea. The basin is named for the city of Sydney, on which it is centred.

Stratum layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics

In geology and related fields, a stratum is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.

Sedimentary rock Rock formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of material

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of mineral or organic particles on the floor of oceans or other bodies of water at the Earth's surface. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock are called sediment, and may be composed of geological detritus (minerals) or biological detritus. Before being deposited, the geological detritus was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation. Biological detritus was formed by bodies and parts of dead aquatic organisms, as well as their fecal mass, suspended in water and slowly piling up on the floor of water bodies. Sedimentation may also occur as dissolved minerals precipitate from water solution.

The Wollemi National Park is key in maintaining the quality of many tributary rivers to the Hawkesbury River and Goulburn-Hunter River catchments. The national park incorporates rivers such as the Wolgan River, Colo River and Capertee River which arise from outside the park. The Colo River is regarded as the last unpolluted river in New South Wales because the majority of it flows through the Wollemi National Park.

Hawkesbury River river in New South Wales, Australia

The Hawkesbury River, is a semi–mature tide dominated drowned valley estuary located to the west and north of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Hawkesbury River and its associated main tributary, the Nepean River, virtually encircle the metropolitan region of Sydney.

Goulburn River (New South Wales) river in New South Wales, Australia

Goulburn River, a perennial river of the Hunter River catchment, is located in the Upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia.

Hunter River (New South Wales) river

The Hunter River is a major river in New South Wales, Australia. The Hunter River rises in the Liverpool Range and flows generally south and then east, reaching the Tasman Sea at Newcastle, the second largest city in New South Wales and a major harbour port. Its lower reaches form an open and trained mature wave dominated barrier estuary.

Biology and ecology

Eucalypt dominated open forests comprise 90% of Wollemi National Park, with over 70 species of Eucalypt recorded. The remaining 10% of the National Park comprises rainforest, heath and grassland. [7]

The variety of habitats within Wollemi National Park allow for large diversity in animals. 58 reptile species, 38 frog species, 235 bird species and 46 mammal species have been recorded in the park. [8]

As well as the Wollemi Pine and Wollemi Mint Bush, the park contains populations of the rare Banksia conferta subsp. penicillata , only described in 1981. The Wollemi Stringybark is a recently discovered new species of Eucalyptus tree. [7]

Aerial perspective of the Grey Gum International Cafe, nestled between Wollemi and Yengo national parks on an autumn morning. February 2018. Aerial perspective of Grey Gum International Cafe.jpg
Aerial perspective of the Grey Gum International Cafe, nestled between Wollemi and Yengo national parks on an autumn morning. February 2018.

Aboriginal sites

There are many aboriginal sites within the park including cave paintings, axe grinding grooves and rock carvings. In 2003 the discovery of Eagle's Reach cave was publicly announced. This site was found by bushwalkers in 1995 but remained unknown to the wider community until a team from the Australian Museum reached the cave in May 2003. The art within this small cave is estimated to be up to 4,000 years old and it consists of up to a dozen layers of imagery depicting a wide variety of motifs rendered in ochre and charcoal. The team who recorded this site counted over 200 separate images, mainly of animals and birds but also stencils of hands, axes and a boomerang. [9]

It is a very significant site and the remote location is being kept secret for its own protection.

Activities

Phipps Cutting Picnic Area on the Bylong Valley Way is an entry point for hiking PhippsCuttingPicnicArea.JPG
Phipps Cutting Picnic Area on the Bylong Valley Way is an entry point for hiking

Ganguddy Campground is a campsite located on the Cudgegong River in the park. [10] The local Wiradjuri Aboriginal people know the area as Ganguddy, the alternative name is Dunns Swamp. National Parks and Wildlife Service,New South Wales manages the location.

Historical places

See also

Related Research Articles

Blue Mountains (New South Wales) Region in New South Wales, Australia

The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region and a mountain range located in New South Wales, Australia. The region borders on Sydney's metropolitan area, its foothills starting about 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of centre of the state capital. The public's understanding of the extent of the Blue Mountains is varied, as it forms only part of an extensive mountainous area associated with the Great Dividing Range. Officially the Blue Mountains region is bounded by the Nepean and Hawkesbury rivers in the east, the Coxs River and Lake Burragorang to the west and south, and the Wolgan and Colo rivers to the north. Geologically, it is situated in the central parts of the Sydney Basin.

Blue Mountains National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Blue Mountains National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 267,954-hectare (662,130-acre) national park is situated approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Sydney, and the park boundary is quite irregular as it is broken up by roads, urban areas and inholdings. Despite the name mountains, the area is an uplifted plateau, dissected by a number of larger rivers. The highest point in the park is Mount Werong at 1,215 metres (3,986 ft) above sea level; while the low point is on the Nepean River at 20 metres (66 ft) above sea level as it leaves the park.

Gardens of Stone National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Gardens of Stone National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales in eastern Australia. The 15,080-hectare (37,300-acre) national park is situated 125 kilometres (78 mi) northwest of Sydney, and 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Lithgow. The national park draws its name from the natural stone pagodas within its boundaries.

Kanangra-Boyd National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Kanangra-Boyd National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central Tablelands region, west of the Southern Highlands and Macarthur regions, in New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 68,660-hectare (169,700-acre) national park is situated approximately 180 kilometres (110 mi) south-west of Sydney and is contiguous with the Blue Mountains National Park and the Nattai National Park. The park was established in 1969.

Colo River river in Australia

The Colo River, a perennial stream that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia.

Lithgow, New South Wales City in New South Wales, Australia

Lithgow is a city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia and is the administrative centre of the City of Lithgow local government area. It is located in a mountain valley named Lithgow's Valley by John Oxley in honour of William Lithgow, the first Auditor-General of New South Wales.

Wolgan Valley small valley in New South Wales

Wolgan Valley is a small valley located along the Wolgan River in the Lithgow Region of New South Wales, Australia. The valley is located approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi) north of Lithgow and 150 kilometres north-west of Sydney.. Accessible by the Wolgan Valley Discovery Trail from the Castlereagh Highway, the road travels through the valley leading onto the historical village of Newnes and its extensive industrial ruins.

Newnes, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Newnes, an abandoned oil shale mining site of the Wolgan Valley, is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The site that was operational in the early 20th century is now partly surrounded by Wollemi National Park. The settlement was originally built by the Commonwealth Oil Corporation.

Glen Davis, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Glen Davis is a village in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. The village is located in the local government area of the City of Lithgow. It is located 250 km north-west of Sydney and approximately 80 kilometres north of Lithgow. In the 2006 census Glen Davis had a population of 354.

Cumberland Plain plain in Australia

The Cumberland Plain is a relatively flat region lying to the west of Sydney CBD in New South Wales, Australia. Cumberland Basin is the preferred physiographic and geological term for the low-lying plain of the Permian-Triassic Sydney Basin found between Sydney and the Blue Mountains, and it is a structural sub-basin of the Sydney Basin.

Grose River river in Australia

The Grose River, a perennial river that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia.

Wolgan River river in New South Wales, Australia

The Wolgan River, a watercourse of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia.

The Capertee River, a perennial stream that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia.

Capertee Valley

The Capertee Valley is a large valley in New South Wales, Australia, 135 km (84 mi) north-west of Sydney.

Minchinbury Sandstone Sandy barrier island complex. Fine to medium-grained lithic sandstone.

Minchinbury Sandstone is a component of the Wianammatta Group of sedimentary rocks in the Sydney Basin of eastern Australia.

Berowra Valley National Park Protected area in New South Wales, Australia

The Berowra Valley National Park is a protected national park that is located in northern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The 3,884-hectare (9,600-acre) national park is situated approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-west of the Sydney central business district. Located within the Sydney Basin, the park is part of the dissected Hornsby Plateau which is dominated by Hawkesbury Sandstone and predominately covers the catchment area of Berowra Creek.

References

  1. 1 2 "Wollemi National Park: Park management". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  2. "Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area: Strategic Plan" (PDF). NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (PDF). Government of New South Wales. January 2009. p. 15. ISBN   978-1-74122-960-8 . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  3. "Greater Blue Mountains Area". World Heritage List. UNESCO. 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  4. Mattila, Samantha (2003). "Ancient World of Wollemi Pine Reveals New Treasure" . Retrieved 26 July 2006.
  5. "Wollemi National Park". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  6. "Wollemi National Park: Landscape and Geology". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  7. 1 2 "Wollemi National Park: Native vegetation". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  8. "Wollemi National Park: Native animals". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  9. "Wollemi National Park: Aboriginal heritage". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales . Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  10. "Dunns swamp - Ganguddy campground | NSW National Parks". NSW National Parks.