|Part of Red River Rebellion|
Red River Expedition at Kakabeka Falls by Frances Anne Hopkins, 1877
| United Kingdom |
|Commanders and leaders|
|Garnet Wolseley||Louis Riel|
|Casualties and losses|
|None|| No immediate casualties;|
At least one later killed by militia
The Wolseley expedition was a military force authorized by Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to confront Louis Riel and the Métis in 1870, during the Red River Rebellion, at the Red River Colony in what is now the province of Manitoba. The expedition was also intended to counter American expansionist sentiments in northern border states. Leaving Toronto in May, the expedition arrived at Fort Garry on August 24.After a three month journey in arduous conditions, the expedition arrived at, and captured, Fort Garry. This extinguished Riel's Provisional Government and eradicated the threat of the American expansion into western Canada.
Prior to the deployment of the Wolseley Expedition, there had been a series of rebellions led by Louis Riel. The Métis led by Riel at Red River were dissatisfied with the Canadian government's deal with the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) concerning the transfer of Rupert's Land.Riel was angry that there was no official communication between the government at Red River Settlement and the Canadian government informing them of a new governor, William McDougall, who had been dispatched to assume control over the settlement. The first major clash of the Red River Rebellion came when government land surveyors arrived at the Red River Settlement on October 11, 1869. A group of Métis soldiers obstructed the surveyor's work and forced them from the settlement. Following this clash, Riel prevented McDougall from entering Rupert's Land, took over Upper Fort Garry and established a provisional government. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald proposed in 1869 that a force of police officer troops be sent to Manitoba to control the Métis in the area. He wished to model this police force after the Irish Constabulary with not only rifleman but also a mounted force. However, this motion was not acted upon, and was later reorganized into the military expedition under Garnet Wolseley. In January and February 1870 Riel led a series of failed negotiations with the federal government and the HBC. On March 4, 1870, Riel executed Thomas Scott, a loyal supporter of the Canadian government. There are various reasons given for his execution, including considering it an attempt to compel the Canadians into real negotiations, to Riel disliking Thomas Scott himself. The true reason for the execution of Scott remains uncertain, but Peter McArthur's firsthand account of the events suggests that Scott was considerably outspoken regarding his opinion of the Métis and needs of prisoners, which may have angered Riel.
Under the leadership of Colonel Garnet Wolseley the expedition set out in May 1870 from Toronto's New Fort York in an attempt to interdict Riel. Previously, British and Canadian officials such as McDougall had been permitted to enter the western territories of British North America via the United States. However, the U.S. government steadfastly refused to grant permission for British or Canadian troops to cross U.S. soil. It was widely thought to be impossible to move a military force into Western Canada via an all-Canadian route, the Dawson Road having been mapped out only three years earlier and the railway still many years away.
The Dawson Road is so named after its original architect, S.J. Dawson. Dawson was given the contract to construct a road large enough for the passage of wagon-laden horses that stretched from the shores of Lake Superior to the navigable waters of the interior.Dawson was given the task of having the road passable by May 1, when the expedition was due to arrive at that stage of the journey. However, due to unfavourable weather in the form of rain, and a series of forest fires prior to the rain fall, the road was not completed on time. Wolseley ordered a work party consisting of soldiers to aid in the road construction. After working from May 25 until mid-way through July, Wolseley cut a path from the road to the Winnipeg River. The only other upset to the plans was the turnabout of Lake of the Woods set before the mouth of the Winnipeg River. Wolseley and his flotilla were lost for several days before finally finding their portage. Wolseley sent Indian paddlers back to the other flotillas to assist in their journey across the lake. The difficulties were overcome, and the force arrived at Winnipeg in August.
The expedition travelled to Georgian Bay, then by steamer across Lake Huron to the U.S. Sault Canal where men and materiel had to be transported on the Canadian side of the river. The two steamers which were hired by the Canadian Government were the Algoma and the Chicora. 4.8 km (3 mi) portage of the soldiers and materials upriver on the Canadian side of the river to be loaded back onto the awaiting Algoma. The expedition then proceeded across Lake Superior to the Department of Public Works station at Thunder Bay, which Wolseley named Prince Arthur's Landing on May 25, in honour of Queen Victoria's third son. From there the troops carried small boats to Lake Shebandowan. On August 3, the first brigades of canoes started their journey towards Fort Garry, leaving from the shores of Shebandowan. The brigades followed the original HBC trapping line until they reached Kashabowie Lake, when they began to follow a new route which Dawson had found and constructed. Travelling further westwards, they passed through Fort Frances, arriving on August 4. Wolseley made it to Lake of the Woods; however, he lost his way. On August 15 he finally made Rat Portage with his flotilla and sent Iroquois guides back to help the remaining brigades cross the river. They proceeded down the Winnipeg River and across the south basin of Lake Winnipeg to the Red River finally arriving at Fort Garry in late August.The St. Mary's canal was a canal system which went through the territory of the United States, critical to moving supplies northward. The first steamer, the Algoma, made it through before the Chichora was stopped. American border agents stopped the steamers due to the movement of soldiers and the materials of war, which were viewed as a threat. The U.S. authorities forced Wolseley to unload the Chicora of all soldiers and materials of wars prior to permitting it to pass. Wolseley then arranged the
Wolseley formed up his troops and immediately began his advance on Upper Fort Garry. As first-hand accounts survive of the troops marching on the fort, the southern gate stood thrown open and the fort was abandoned.Fort Garry was officially reported as being taken back into the Canadian government's control as of August 24 with a ceremonial raising of the Union Jack. Louis Riel and his followers abandoned Fort Garry resulting in a bloodless victory for Wolseley. Riel and his followers abandoned the fort with the result it was taken in a "bloodless" action. The lack of resistance to the Wolseley expedition has been attributed to both the remoteness of the location and the federal government's efforts to avoid provoking the local inhabitants into further rebellion.
An eyewitness account of the expedition's arrival at Upper Fort Garry provided by a member of the expedition, William Perrin, appeared in the Manitoba Free Press in August 1900 on the 30th anniversary of the arrival. Perrin was a regular British soldier of the 60th Rifles (The King's Royal Rifle Corps).
The expedition is considered by military historians to have been among the most arduous in history. Over 1000 men had to transport all their provisions and weaponry, including cannon, over hundreds of miles of wilderness. At numerous portages, corduroy roads had to be constructed. As these jobs were being done the troops had to endure life in the bush for over two months, in summer heat and the inevitable plagues of blackflies and mosquitoes.
While Wolseley was able to maintain strict military discipline among the British regulars under his command, the militiamen wanted to avenge the execution of Thomas Scott. Moreover, the British soldiers promptly returned to Ontario, leaving the militia to garrison the community. Militia harassment of Métis exacerbated already intense feelings, and at least one death resulted.
Imperial military forces:
Transportation personnel: The expedition relied on the company of voyageurs and teamsters to provide their transportation. Over 400 Aboriginal voyageurs were hired to handle the canoes.Reports from the expedition comment on the 100 Iroquois voyageurs from the Montreal area as being the most reliable and best equipped to handle rapid moving water. Along with the use of boat to transport men and equipment, 150 horses and 100 teamsters; men who handle horses and wagons were hired. These men were primarily meant to transport material and men from Thunder Bay to Shebandowen Lake along the Dawson Road.
The North-West Mounted Police, established three years later in 1873, did not take part in the expedition.
Following the successful completion of the expedition, Wolseley penned a tribute to his men in recognition of their extraordinary efforts.
The expedition's inability to sail through the Soo Locks on the Michigan (US) side of the river led to a federal government effort to build a water passageway on the Ontario side. This resulted in construction of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, completed in 1895. That canal is now used for recreational boating as part of the national park system, and is a National Historic Site managed by Parks Canada.
The Red River Expedition of 1870 was named a National Historic Event on January 12, 2018.
The street adjacent to the site of Wolseley's landing in the City of Thunder Bay is named Wolseley Street.
Louis Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people. He led two resistance movements against the Government of Canada and its first prime minister, John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to defend Métis rights and identity as the Northwest Territories came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence.
The North-West Rebellion of 1885, also known as the North-West Resistance, was a rebellion by the Métis people under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the Canadian government. Many Métis felt that Canada was not protecting their rights, their land, and their survival as a distinct people.
The Red River Colony was a colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, on 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) of land in British North America. This land was granted to Douglas by the Hudson's Bay Company in the Selkirk Concession. It included portions of Rupert's Land, or the watershed of Hudson Bay, bounded on the north by the line of 52° N latitude roughly from the Assiniboine River east to Lake Winnipegosis. It then formed a line of 52° 30′ N latitude from Lake Winnipegosis to Lake Winnipeg, and by the Winnipeg River, Lake of the Woods and Rainy River.
Gabriel Dumont (1837–1906) was a Canadian political figure best known for being a prominent leader of the Métis people. Dumont was well known for his movements within the North-West Resistance at the battles of Batoche, Fish Creek, and Duck Lake as well as for his role in the signing of treaties with the Blackfoot tribe, the traditional main enemy of the Métis.
The Red River Rebellion, also known as the Red River Resistance, Red River uprising, or First Riel Rebellion, was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in the early stages of establishing today's Canadian province of Manitoba. It had earlier been a territory called Rupert's Land and been under control of the Hudson's Bay Company before it was sold.
Events from the year 1870 in Canada.
Assiniboia District refers to two historical districts of Canada's Northwest Territories. The name is taken from the Assiniboine First Nation.
The Manitoba Act, 1870 is an act of the Parliament of Canada, and part of the Constitution of Canada, that provided for the admission of Manitoba as the fifth province of Canada.
Thomas Scott was an Irish Protestant who emigrated to Canada in 1863. While working as a labourer on the "Dawson Road Project", he moved on to Winnipeg where he met John Christian Schultz and fell under the influence of the Canadian Party. His political involvement in the Red River Settlement from then on led to his capture at Fort Garry where he was held hostage with others. On 4 March 1870 Scott was marched out of Fort Garry's east gate and was executed on the wall by the provisional government of the Red River Settlement led by Louis Riel.
Sir John Christian Schultz, was a Manitoba politician and businessman. He was a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1871 to 1882, a Senator from 1882 to 1888, and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba from 1888 to 1895.
Simon James Dawson was a Canadian civil engineer and politician.
The Battle of Fish Creek, fought April 24, 1885 at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a major Métis victory over the Canadian forces attempting to quell Louis Riel's North-West Rebellion. Although the reversal was not decisive enough to alter the ultimate outcome of the conflict, it was convincing enough to persuade Major General Frederick Middleton to temporarily halt his advance on Batoche, where the Métis would later make their final stand.
The Battle of Batoche was the decisive battle of the North-West Rebellion, which pitted the Canadian authorities against a force of First Nations and Métis people. Fought from May 9 to 12, 1885, at the ad hoc Provisional Government of Saskatchewan capital of Batoche, the greater numbers and superior firepower of General Frederick Middleton's force eventually overwhelmed the Métis fighters.
St. Norbert is a bilingual neighbourhood and the southernmost suburb of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. While outside the Perimeter Highway, it is still part of the city. As of the 2016 Census, the population of St. Norbert is 5,850.
Pierre Delorme was a Métis fur trader, businessman, farmer and political figure. He represented Provencher in the House of Commons of Canada during the 1st Canadian Parliament as a Conservative member from 1871 to 1872. He also represented St. Norbert South in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1870 to 1874 and St. Norbert from 1878 to 1879.
Thomas Scott was a Canadian military figure, Manitoba Member of the Legislative Assembly, Member of Parliament and the third Mayor of Winnipeg in the 19th century.
Elzéar Goulet was a Métis leader in the Red River Colony, which later became the province of Manitoba, Canada. He was a supporter of Louis Riel's provisional government and was murdered by Canadian troops under the command of Col. Garnet Wolseley, after the suppression of the Red River Resistance.
Ambroise-Dydime Lépine was a Métis politician, farmer, and military leader under the command of Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870. He was tried and sentenced to death for his role in the resistance regarding the execution of Thomas Scott, but his sentence was commuted to five years exile by the Governor General of Canada.
The Old Dawson Trail is the remnant of the first all-Canadian route that linked the Great Lakes with the Canadian prairies. It was a water and land route that began at Port Arthur, Ontario and ended at St. Boniface, Manitoba. The land portions of the trail are usually referred to as Dawson Road.
The Chicora incident was an incident in May 1870 between the American government and an expeditionary force consisting of British and Canadian militia under the command of Colonel Garnet Wolseley in Sault Sainte Marie. US authorities blocked passage of the Chicora for several weeks, delaying Wolseley's response to the Red River Rebellion. The incident ultimately led to the construction of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on the Canadian side of the river, allowing unfettered access to the Lake Superior.