World Trade Center site

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WTC New York 1992 Sander Lamme.jpg
The original World Trade Center in 1992
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The site, as it appeared twelve days after 9/11
WTCmemorialJune2012.png
The site as it appeared in 2012: The pools lie on the approximate site of each twin tower. Left is the North Tower and right is the South Tower.

The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. [1] [2] The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land (except for 7 World Trade Center). The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

In terms of nuclear explosions and other large bombs, the term "ground zero" describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation. In the case of an explosion above the ground, ground zero refers to the point on the ground directly below the nuclear detonation and is sometimes called the hypocenter.

September 11 attacks Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

Contents

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) have overseen the reconstruction of the site as part of the new World Trade Center, following a master plan by Studio Daniel Libeskind. [3] Developer Larry Silverstein holds the lease to retail and office space in four of the site's buildings. [4]

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.

Silverstein Properties, Inc. (SPI) is a family held, full-service real estate development, investment and management firm based in New York City. Founded in 1957 by Chairman Larry Silverstein, the company specializes in developing, acquiring, and managing office, residential, hotel, retail, and mixed-use properties. The firm is New York City's fifth-largest commercial landlord.

Lower Manhattan Development Corporation

The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation was formed in November 2001, following the September 11 attacks, to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute nearly $10 billion in federal funds aimed at rebuilding downtown Manhattan. It is a subsidiary of the Empire State Development Corporation, which is a New York state public-benefit corporation.

Before the World Trade Center

The Radio Row in 1936, with the Cortlandt Street station in the background Radio Row-Berenice Abbott.jpg
The Radio Row in 1936, with the Cortlandt Street station in the background

The western portion of the World Trade Center site was originally under the Hudson River, with the shoreline in the vicinity of Greenwich Street. On this shoreline close to the intersection of Greenwich Street and the former Dey Street, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block's ship, the Tyger , burned to the waterline in November 1613, stranding Block and his crew and forcing them to overwinter on the island. The remains of the ship were buried under landfill when the shoreline was extended starting in 1797, and were discovered during excavation work in 1916. The remains of another ship from the eighteenth century were found in 2010 during excavation work at the site. The ship, believed to be a Hudson River sloop, was found just south of where the Twin Towers used to stand, about 20 feet below the surface. [5]

Adriaen Block Dutch explorer

Adriaen (Aerjan) Block was a Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship's captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614, following the 1609 expedition by Henry Hudson. He is noted for possibly having named Block Island, Rhode Island, and establishing early trade with the Native Americans, and for the 1614 map of his last voyage on which many features of the mid-Atlantic region appear for the first time, and on which the term New Netherland is first applied to the region. He is credited with being the first European to enter Long Island Sound and the Connecticut River, and to determine that Manhattan and Long Island are islands.

Tyger was the ship used by the Dutch captain Adriaen Block during his 1613 voyage to explore the East Coast of North America and the present day Hudson River. Its remains were uncovered in 1916 during the construction of the New York City Subway on land that is now part of the World Trade Center complex.

Sloop sail boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig

A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast typically meaning one headsail in front of the mast, and one mainsail aft of (behind) the mast. This is called a fore-and-aft rig, and can be rigged as a Bermuda rig with triangular sails fore and aft, or as a gaff-rig with triangular foresails and a gaff rigged mainsail. Sailboats can be classified according to type of rig, and so a sailboat may be a sloop, catboat, cutter, ketch, yawl, or schooner. A sloop usually has only one headsail, although an exception is the Friendship sloop, which is usually gaff-rigged with a bowsprit and multiple headsails. If the vessel has two or more headsails, the term cutter may be used, especially if the mast is stepped further towards the back of the boat.

The area that was cleared for construction of the original World Trade Center complex was previously occupied by various electronics stores in what was called Radio Row. These streets and stores were demolished in the 1960s to make way for the World Trade Center. [6]

Radio Row former business district in New York City

Radio Row is a nickname for an urban street or district specializing in the sale of radio and electronic equipment and parts. Radio Rows arose in many cities with the 1920s rise of broadcasting and declined after the middle of the 20th century.

Original buildings

The original World Trade Center complex World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001).jpg
The original World Trade Center complex

At the time of their completion the "Twin Towers"—the original 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower), at 1,368 ft (417 metres), and 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower)—were the tallest buildings in the world. The other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC), 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1985, with a construction cost of $400 million (equivalent to $2,500,000,000 in 2018 dollars). [7] The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space. [8] [9]

Marriott World Trade Center architectural structure

The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It was also known as World Trade Center 3, the World Trade Center Hotel, the Vista Hotel and the Marriott Hotel. It opened in July 1981, as the Vista International Hotel and was located at 3 World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City, with the World Trade Center complex having its own zip code of 10048. The hotel was destroyed beyond repair as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, after the collapse of the Twin Towers. The hotel was not replaced as part of the new World Trade Center complex, but does share its name with the new office tower.

7 World Trade Center Either of two office buildings that have existed at the same location in Manhattan, New York

7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Financial District, Manhattan Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.

The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993 and a robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.

1993 World Trade Center bombing truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,336 lb (606 kg) urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to send the North Tower crashing into the South Tower, bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people. It failed to do so but killed six people and injured over a thousand.

1998 Bank of America robbery

The 1998 Bank of America robbery was a robbery of $1.6 million in cash at the Bank of America in 1 World Trade Center, in New York City, on January 14, 1998.

September 11 attacks

World Trade Center towers following American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 both crashing into North and South Towers respectively WTC smoking on 9-11.jpeg
World Trade Center towers following American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 both crashing into North and South Towers respectively

On the morning of September 11, 2001, Islamic terrorists affiliated with Al-Qaeda hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, both which were en route to Los Angeles, and intentionally crashed them into the two main towers of the World Trade Center. The towers collapsed within two hours of the collisions. [10] 2,606 people, including 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area died in the attacks, as well as 147 civilians and the 10 hijackers aboard the two airliners. After the collapse of the World Trade Center, hospital workers and law enforcement officers began referring to the World Trade Center site as "Ground Zero". [11]

Debris and clean-up

The collapse of the towers spread dust across New York City and left hundreds of thousands of tons of debris at the site. [12] To organize the cleanup and search for survivors and for human remains, the New York City Fire Department divided the disaster site into four sectors, each headed by its own chief. [13] Cleanup workers trucked most of the building materials and debris from Ground Zero to Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island. Some people, such as those affiliated with World Trade Center Families for Proper Burial, were worried that human remains might also have been inadvertently transported to the landfill. [14]

According to NIST, when WTC 1 (the North Tower) collapsed, falling debris struck 7 World Trade Center and ignited fires on multiple floors. The uncontrolled fires ultimately led to the progressive collapse of the structure. [15]

World Trade Center Site After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations.jpg
Satellite image of the World Trade center site after the attacks with the location of the Twin Towers and other buildings in the complex superimposed over the debris field
FEMA - 4235 - Photograph by Andrea Booher taken on 09-28-2001 in New York.jpg
The World Trade Center site 17 days after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Buildings surrounding the site of the collapsed towers are fitted with mesh to prevent further damage and large construction vehicles are being used to clear debris.

Shortly after the attacks, the surrounding buildings were fitted with red mesh to prevent further damage. In November 2001, the remaining portions of Building 4 were leveled.

In December 2001, a temporary viewing platform at Fulton Street, between Church Street and Broadway, was opened to the public. [16] That month, the last standing perimeter columns from the North Tower and the last remaining portions of Building 6 were removed. Early estimates suggested that debris removal would take a year, but cleanup ended in May 2002, under budget and without a single serious injury. [17] [18] The Winter Garden Atrium was reopened to the public on September 17, 2002, the first major structure to be completely restored following the attacks. [19]

Starting March 11, 2002, eighty-eight searchlights were installed and arranged to form two beams of light shooting straight up into the sky. This was called the Tribute in Light , and was originally lit every day at dusk until April 14, 2002. After that, the lights were lit on the two-year anniversary of the attack and have been lit on each subsequent September 11 since then. [20] In February 2005, the New York City Medical Examiner's office ended its process of identifying human remains at the site. [14]

In August 2008, New York City firefighters donated a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center to the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company. [21] The beam, mounted atop a platform shaped like the Pentagon, was erected outside the Shanksville firehouse near the crash site of United Airlines Flight 93. [22]

Portions of the South Tower had also damaged the nearby Deutsche Bank Building, which soon became filled with toxic dust. By 2002, Deutsche Bank determined that its building was unsalvageable and it was scheduled for demolition. [23] In January 2011, the demolition of the Deutsche Bank Building was completed. [24]

Archaeology

In July 2010, a team of archaeologists at the site discovered the remains of a 32-foot (9.8 m)-long boat over 200 years old; it was probably made in the 18th century and dumped there along with wooden beams and trash in about 1810 to make up the land. [25] The boat had been weighted to make it sink as part of foundations for a new pier. Samples of its wood have been taken for dendrochronology.

Ownership status

While the PANYNJ is often identified as the owner of the WTC site, the ownership situation was complicated after the September 11 attacks. The Port Authority did own a "significant" internal portion of the site of 16 acres (6.5 ha) but has acknowledged "ambiguities over ownership of miscellaneous strips of property at the World Trade Center site" going back to the 1960s. It was unclear who owned 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) of the site which is land where streets had been before the World Trade Center was built. [26] In subsequent deals, the Port Authority gave some land to Larry Silverstein, including the land under 2 and 3 WTC in 2008. [27]

Planning for the new World Trade Center

Bush making remarks from "Ground Zero" on September 14, 2001

Soon after the September 11 attacks, Mayor Rudy Giuliani, Governor George Pataki, and President George W. Bush vowed to rebuild the World Trade Center site. On the day of the attacks, Giuliani proclaimed, "We will rebuild. We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again." [28] During a visit to the site on September 14, 2001, Bush spoke to a crowd of cleanup workers through a megaphone. An individual in the crowd shouted, "We can't hear you," to which Bush replied, "I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon." [29]

In a later address before Congress, the president declared, "As a symbol of America's resolve, my administration will work with Congress, and these two leaders, to show the world that we will rebuild New York City." [30] The immediate response from World Trade Center leaseholder Larry Silverstein was that "it would be the tragedy of tragedies not to rebuild this part of New York. It would give the terrorists the victory they seek." [31] However, in 2011, only one building, 7 World Trade Center, had been rebuilt. As of June 2018, the buildings that have been rebuilt so far include 7 World Trade Center, One World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, and 3 World Trade Center. The original twin towers took less than three years from start of construction to be finished and five years from the beginning planning stages. However, given the complexity and highly political nature of the rebuilding efforts, they are often cited as an example of a successful public-private collaboration and are taught as a case study in successful negotiations. [32]

Early proposals for redesign

Lower Manhattan Development Corporation

Governor Pataki established the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) in November 2001, as an official commission to oversee the rebuilding process. [33] The LMDC coordinates federal assistance in the rebuilding process, and works with the PANYNJ, Larry Silverstein, and Studio Daniel Libeskind, the master plan architect for the site's redesign. The corporation also handles communication with the local community, businesses, the city of New York, and relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks. [34] A 16-member board of directors, half appointed by the governor and half by the mayor of New York, governs the LMDC. [35]

The LMDC had questionable legal status regarding the restoration of the World Trade Center site, because the Port Authority owns most of the property and Larry Silverstein leased the World Trade Center's office space in July 2001. But the LMDC, in an April 2002 articulation of its principles for action, asserted its role in revitalizing lower Manhattan. [36]

Directly after the attacks

In the months following the attacks, architects and urban planning experts held meetings and forums to discuss ideas for rebuilding the site. [37] In January 2002, New York City art dealer Max Protetch solicited 50 concepts and renderings from artists and architects, which were put on exhibit in his Chelsea art gallery. [38]

In April 2002, the LMDC sent out requests for proposals to redesign the World Trade Center site to 24 Manhattan architecture firms, but then soon withdrew them. The following month, the LMDC selected Beyer Blinder Belle as planner for the redesign of the World Trade Center site. [39]

On July 16, 2002, Beyer Blinder Belle unveiled six concepts for redesigning the World Trade Center site. [40] All six designs were voted "poor" by the roughly 5,000 New Yorkers that submitted feedback, so the LDMC announced a new, international, open-design study. [41]

2002 World Trade Center site design competition

World Trade Center site layout
WTC Building Arrangement and Site Plan.svg
Above: The World Trade Center site prior to the September 11 attacks.
WTC Building Arrangement in preliminary site plan.svg
Above: Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center rebuild.

In an August 2002 press release, the LMDC announced a design study for the World Trade Center site. [42] The following month, the LMDC, along with New York New Visions – a coalition of 21 architecture, engineering, planning, landscape architecture and design organizations – announced seven semifinalists. The following seven architecture firms were then invited to compete to be the master plan architect for the World Trade Center:

Peterson Littenberg, a small New York architecture firm, had been enlisted by the LMDC earlier that summer as a consultant, and was invited to participate as the seventh semifinalist. [43]

The seven semifinalists presented their entries to the public on December 18, 2002, at the Winter Garden of the World Financial Center. In the following weeks, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill withdrew its entry from the competition. [44]

Days before the announcement of the two finalists in February 2003, Larry Silverstein wrote to LMDC Chair John Whitehead to express his disapproval of all of the semifinalists' designs. As the Twin Towers' insurance money recipient, Silverstein claimed that he had the sole right to decide what would be built. He announced that he had already picked Skidmore, Owings & Merrill as his master planner for the site. [45]

On February 1, 2003, the LMDC selected two finalists, the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind, and planned on picking a single winner by the end of the month. Rafael Viñoly of the THINK Team and Studio Daniel Libeskind presented their designs to the LMDC, which selected the THINK design. Earlier the same day, however, Roland Betts, a member of the LMDC, had called a meeting and the corporation had agreed to vote for the THINK design before hearing the final presentations. Governor Pataki, who had originally commissioned the LMDC, intervened and overruled the LMDC's decision. [45] On February 27, 2003, Studio Daniel Libeskind officially won the competition to be the master planner for the World Trade Center redesign.

Libeskind's original proposal, which is titled Memory Foundations, underwent extensive revisions during collaboration with Larry Silverstein, and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whom Silverstein hired. [46] Though Libeskind designed the site, the individual buildings have been designed by different architects. While not all of Liebeskind's ideas were incorporated into the final design, his design and the public support it garnered did solidify the principle that the original footprints of the Twin Towers should be turned into a memorial and not be used for commercial purposes. As a result, Liebeskind's lawyers at the New York firm of Wachtell Lipton embarked on the multi-year negotiation process to frame a master plan for the rebuilding. [47] The first step in this process, completed in 2003, was the "swap" in which Silverstein gave up his rights to the footprints of the Twin Towers so that they could become a memorial, and in exchange received the right to build five new office towers around the memorial. [48] The "swap" and the ensuing negotiations, which lasted for many years, have been referred to as the most complex real estate transaction in human history because of the complexity of the issues involved, the many stakeholders, and the difficulty of reaching consensus. [49]

Criticism of progress

An episode of CBS's 60 Minutes in 2010 focused on the lack of progress at Ground Zero, particularly on the lack of completion dates for a majority of the buildings, the main tower, One World Trade Center (previously known as the Freedom Tower)'s having undergone three different designs, and the delays and monetary expense involved. Investor Larry Silverstein said the Port Authority's estimated completion date for the entire site was 2037, and billions of dollars had already been spent on the project, even though Ground Zero "is still a hole in the ground". During an interview for the episode, Larry Silverstein said: "I am the most frustrated person in the world...I'm seventy-eight years of age; I want to see this thing done in my lifetime". [50] However, it was noted that in early 2011, all five office towers of the World Trade Center had begun construction.

The social center of the old World Trade Center included a spectacular restaurant on the 107th Floor, called Windows on the World, and its Greatest Bar in the World; these were tourist attractions in their own right, and a social gathering spot for people who worked in the towers. [51] [52] This restaurant also housed one of the most prestigious wine schools in the United States, called "Windows on the World Wine School", run by wine personality Kevin Zraly. [53] Despite numerous assurances that these local landmarks and global attractions would be rebuilt, [54] the Port Authority scrapped plans to rebuild these WTC attractions, which has outraged some observers. [55]

New structures

As of February 2019, the current structures on the site include:

NameImageDate construction startedDate of completionHeight /
(height w/ spire)
Current status
One World Trade Center One WTC from Fulton & Nassau St jeh.jpg April 27, 2006;13 years ago (2006-04-27)November 3, 2014;4 years ago (2014-11-03)1,368 feet (417 m)
(1,776.0 feet (541.32 m))
Completed
2 World Trade Center N/ANovember 10, 2008;10 years ago (2008-11-10)2022;3 years' time (2022)1,322 feet (403 m)Base completed; Tower on hold
3 World Trade Center Three World Trade Center, New York, NY.jpg November 10, 2010;8 years ago (2010-11-10)June 11, 2018;14 months ago (2018-06-11)1,079 feet (329 m)Completed
4 World Trade Center 4 WTC May 17 2013.jpg November 10, 2008;10 years ago (2008-11-10)November 13, 2013;5 years ago (2013-11-13)978 feet (298 m)Completed
5 World Trade Center N/ASeptember 9, 2011;7 years ago (2011-09-09)N/A741 feet (226 m)On hold
7 World Trade Center 7 World Trade Center.jpg May 7, 2002;17 years ago (2002-05-07)May 23, 2006;13 years ago (2006-05-23)745 feet (227 m)Completed
National September 11 Memorial WTCmemorialJune2012.png March 13, 2006;13 years ago (2006-03-13)September 11, 2011;7 years ago (2011-09-11)Completed
National September 11 Museum September 11 Museum Foundation Hall.jpg March 13, 2006;13 years ago (2006-03-13)May 21, 2014;5 years ago (2014-05-21)Completed
World Trade Center Transportation Hub WTC Hub September 2016 vc.png April 26, 2010;9 years ago (2010-04-26)March 3, 2016;3 years ago (2016-03-03)Completed
Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center Performing arts center at the WTC.jpg August 31, 2017;2 years ago (2017-08-31)2021;2 years' time (2021)In progress; Constructing garage
Vehicular Security Center Liberty Park Sep 2018 33.jpg November 10, 2011;7 years ago (2011-11-10)2017;2 years ago (2017)Completed
Liberty Park Liberty Street park NW opening day jeh.jpg November 20, 2013;5 years ago (2013-11-20)June 29, 2016;3 years ago (2016-06-29)Completed
St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church Liberty Park Sep 2018 20.jpg October 18, 2014;4 years ago (2014-10-18)2020;1 year's time (2020)Structurally topped-out; construction halted
Fiterman Hall BMCC Murray Mar 2017.jpg March 2008;11 years ago (2008-03)August 27, 2012;7 years ago (2012-08-27)Completed

Towers

One World Trade Center (previously coined the "Freedom Tower" by Governor Pataki) is the centerpiece of Libeskind's design. The building rises to 1,368 feet (417 m), the height of the original World Trade Center north tower, and its antenna rises to the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m). This height refers to 1776, the year in which the United States Declaration of Independence was signed. The tower was a collaboration between Studio Daniel Libeskind and Skidmore, Owings & Merrill architect David Childs. [56] Childs acted as the design architect and project manager for the tower, and Daniel Libeskind collaborated on the concept and schematic design. [57] The design was finalized in 2004, but was revised extensively after the NYPD raised security concerns, which delayed the start of the construction by two years. [58] In 2006, the Port Authority took over from Silverstein Properties. The project's developer Tishman Construction Corporation was the construction manager at the time. [59] Construction began in April 2006. Digging the foundation and installing tower-foundation steel columns, concrete, and rebar took twice as long as it normally would due to the existence of the subway line under West Broadway nearby. [60] The building reached grade level by 2010, progressed at a pace of one floor a week, topped out in August 2012, and was structurally completed in May 2013. [61] The building opened on November 3, 2014, and the first 170 employees of anchor tenant Conde Nast began their work there. [62] [63]

Danish architect Bjarke Ingels designed Two World Trade Center, also known as 200 Greenwich Street. The building's gardens integrate Tribeca with the Financial District at the World Trade Center. [64] [65] As part of a 2010 lease deal to finance 4 WTC, there were plans to build 2 and 3 World Trade Center to ground level. [66] [67] Construction of everything up to street level was completed in mid-2013. [64] [65] The rest of the building, however, has yet to be built until tenants for Tower 2 can be found. [68] [69]

Richard Rogers Partnership designed Three World Trade Center, or 175 Greenwich Street, which stands across Greenwich Street from the Memorial's two reflecting pools. [70] [71] Groundbreaking occurred in fall 2008, and in May 2009, the Port Authority proposed reducing the tower to four stories. [72] In 2012, with Silverstein still unable to find tenants, construction on the above-ground levels was delayed indefinitely, with plans for only 7 stories. [73] However, work progressed on below-grade foundations and the ground-level podium, which was completed by October 2013. [70] [71] Anchor tenant Group M was finally signed in late 2013, [74] but finance negotiations between Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority dragged, until an agreement was reached in June 2014. Construction resumed in August 2014, [75] and the building opened on June 11, 2018. [76]

Maki and Associates designed Four World Trade Center, also known as 150 Greenwich Street. [77] [78] Construction started in 2008, and the steel skeleton was mostly complete by 2012. [79] The building opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property. [80] The first tenants to move in were two government agencies, [81] and as of July 2015, the building is 62% leased. [82]

Five World Trade Center was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and will stand where the Deutsche Bank Building once stood. On June 22, 2007, the Port Authority announced that JP Morgan Chase will lease the 42-story building for its investment banking headquarters; [83] [84] however, JPMorgan's March 2008 acquisition of Bear Stearns had caused construction to stagnate, as the company changed its plans and relocated its headquarters to 383 Madison Avenue. [85] Construction began on September 9, 2011. [86] Although the foundation was completed, construction on the main structure never commenced. [86]

7 World Trade Center stands off of Port Authority property. David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill designed the tower. [87] Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002 and the building opened on May 23, 2006, achieving LEED gold status and being the first tower in the complex to reopen. [88] The building is 52 stories tall (plus one underground floor), making it the 28th-tallest in New York. [89] [90]

Memorial and museum

The completed South Pool in April 2012 New York - National September 11 Memorial South Pool - April 2012 - 9693C.jpg
The completed South Pool in April 2012

A memorial called Reflecting Absence honors the victims of the September 11 attacks and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. [91] The memorial, designed by Peter Walker and Israeli-American architect Michael Arad, consists of a field of trees interrupted by the footprints of the twin towers. Pools of water fill the footprints, underneath which sits a memorial space whose walls bear the names of the victims. The slurry wall, which holds back the Hudson River in the west and was an integral part of Libeskind's proposal, remains exposed. [92] Walker and Arad were selected from more than 5,000 entrants in the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition in January 2004. [93]

On October 12, 2004, the LMDC announced that Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta, an architectural firm from Norway, would design the site's performing arts and museum complexes, respectively, in the same area as the memorial. [94] [95] The Snøhetta-designed museum [96] will act as a memorial museum and visitors' center, after family members of 9/11 victims objected to the building's original occupant, the International Freedom Center. [97] The Ground Zero Museum Workshop is a privately run 501(c) nonprofit museum that is not connected to the official Ground Zero Memorial or Gehry's museum. [98]

Construction of the memorial was completed by early 2011. [99] [100] The memorial opened on September 11, 2011, coinciding with the 10th anniversary of the attacks. [101] [102] The museum was initially scheduled to open on September 11, 2012, one year after the opening of the memorial. [103] [104] However, construction was halted in December 2011 due to financial disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the National September 11 Memorial and Museum Foundation, deciding on who should be responsible for infrastructure costs. Those disputes were resolved and construction resumed on September 10, 2012. [105] [106] Further delays were caused when Hurricane Sandy significantly damaged the site in November 2012. [107] The museum was completed and opened to families of the victims on May 15, 2014 and opened to the general public on May 21, 2014. [108]

Retail space

In early December 2013, Australian retail corporation Westfield announced that it will invest US$800 million for complete control of the retail space at the rebuilt center. Westfield purchased the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's 50 percent stake in the retail part of the World Trade Center site, increasing its total investment to more than US$1.4 billion. [109]

Westfield World Trade Center opened with its first group of stores on August 16, 2016. [110] [111] It has roughly 365,000 square feet (33,900 m2) of retail space, which once again makes it the largest shopping mall in Manhattan. Although the new mall is only spread over roughly one-half of the original mall's footprint (due to the new space required for the below-grade National September 11 Memorial & Museum), the mall is double-level, whereas the original mall was a single level. Three additional levels will exist above-grade on the lower floors of 2 and 3 World Trade Center, while 4 World Trade Center currently houses four above-grade levels. The World Trade Center station's headhouse, the Oculus, also houses a large amount of retail space. [112]

Transportation Hub

The WTC Hub as seen at night, 2016 WTC PATH station at night 2016.jpg
The WTC Hub as seen at night, 2016

Santiago Calatrava designed the World Trade Center Transportation Hub (its main asset being the PATH station) to replace the old World Trade Center station. [113] The Transport Hub connects the PATH station to the WTC Cortlandt station ( 1 train), the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal, the Brookfield Place, and One World Trade Center on the west; and the 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , A , C , E , J , N , R , W , and Z trains through the Fulton Center on the east. The new station, as well as the September 11 Memorial and Museum, is air-cooled via a heat exchanger fed by four pipes carrying water from the Hudson River. [114] The cost for the transportation hub is estimated at $3.44 billion, a statistic that has seen much controversy given its greatly inflated cost. [115] [116] [117]

A temporary PATH station opened in 2003 and construction on the permanent station was supposed to begin in fall 2004; however, the NYPD raised security concerns on the entire site. Among the revisions effecting the Transportation Hub was doubling the number of support columns. [58] In the original plan, the construction of the 9/11 Memorial and Museum was only supposed to have begun after the Transportation Hub had been completed because the roof of the Transportation Hub provided the foundation on which the Memorial rested upon and the walls of the Museum. [118] Due to the two-year delay and pressure by the victims' families to have the Memorial completed by the 10-year anniversary, it was decided to concentrate on building the Memorial and holding off construction of the Transportation Hub, [119] [120] which increased costs. [121] [120] Construction finally began on the Transportation Hub in 2010. [122] The hub formally opened on March 3, 2016, several years behind schedule and billions of dollars over budget. [123] [124]

Performing Arts Center

The World Trade Center's Performing Arts Center was announced in 2004, with the building to be designed by Gehry Partners LLP and Snøhetta. [125] Gehry's performing arts complex was proposed to house only the Joyce Theater, as the Signature Theater Company dropped out due to space constraints and cost limitations. [97] Construction was to begin in December 2014 when the removal of the temporary PATH station commenced. [126] However, the original plans were shelved in September 2014. [127] After a design was chosen in 2015, it was announced that Joshua Prince-Ramus was awarded the contract to design the building. [128] In June 2016, the center was renamed after billionaire businessman Ronald Perelman, who donated $75 million to the center, [129] and on September 8, 2016, a design was revealed for the new center. [130] The underground parking garage started construction in 2017 and the center proper will begin construction in 2018, [131] The center is planned to open in 2020. [131] [132]

When completed, the Performing Arts Center will include approximately 90,000 square feet across three floors. The public floor will be located at street level and will house a restaurant/bar to provide refreshments during show intermissions. The second floor will consist of rehearsal and dressing rooms for theater actors, and the third floor will house three distinguished theaters. All three theaters are designed so that the walls will be able to rotate and expand to provide extra space for a single theater if needed. The theaters will occupy approximately 1,200 people combined. [133]

Liberty Park and constituent structures

Liberty Park, a new elevated park, was built on top of a parking complex named the Vehicular Security Center at the southwest corner of the site. Construction began in 2013 when the Vehicular Security Center was completed. [134] About $50 million was allocated to the park's construction by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in December 2013. [135] The park opened on June 29, 2016. [136] [137] On August 16, 2017, the Port Authority installed the iconic sculpture The Sphere within the park, overlooking its original location in the old World Trade Center. Previously, the damaged sculpture by Fritz Koenig had been located in Battery Park. [138] The underground complex and the checkpoint of the Vehicular Security Center has not yet opened as of 2014. [126]

The St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church was originally supposed to be relocated, [139] but the most recent plans call for the church to be built in Liberty Park. [140] On July 23, 2008, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached a deal with the leaders of the church for the Port Authority to acquire the 1,200-square-foot (110 m2) lot that the church occupied for $20 million, and relocate the church. [139] [141] Officials reneged in 2009, [141] [142] leading the Greek Orthodox Diocese of America to sue the Port Authority for failing to rebuild the church. [143] On October 14, 2011, an agreement for the reconstruction of the church was signed that ended all legal action. [144] The ground blessing ceremony and symbolic laying of the cornerstone took place in October 2014, with construction expected to be completed within two years. [145] On November 29, 2016, the church structure was ceremoniously topped out with a temporary cross, which will be replaced with a permanent cross after the church dome is completed. [146] The structure was slated to be complete by early 2017, [147] but was later pushed to November 2018. [148]

The 1-acre (0.40 ha) park, measuring 300 feet (91 m) long and located at a height of 20 feet (6.1 m), has a capacity of 750 people. A green wall is located on the Liberty Street facade. A walkway from the pedestrian bridge curves along the park; egresses include three stairways, the pedestrian bridge, and a straight ramp down to Greenwich Street. Of these exits, a wide staircase is located parallel to Greenwich Street and directly behind the church. There are wood benches and a small amphitheater-like elevated space at the West Street end of the park. Finally, there is an observation balcony along much of Liberty Street and another slightly curved balcony at the church's foot. [149]

Fiterman Hall

The original Fiterman Hall opened as an office building in 1959 and occupied a block bounded by Greenwich Street, Barclay Street, West Broadway, and Park Place. [150] It was donated to BMCC in 1993 by Miles and Shirley Fiterman, for whom the building was subsequently named. [151] [152] In 2000, the State of New York Dormitory Authority, which owned the building, began a massive renovation to better adapt the building for classroom use. [153] During the September 11 attacks in 2001, Fiterman Hall's structure was severely damaged by debris from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center. The renovation was never completed, and the building was condemned and demolished in 2008. [153] After a series of delays, a new building designed by the architectural firm Pei Cobb Freed & Partners [154] broke ground in December 2009 [155] and was completed in 2012. [153] [156]

Exclusive ZIP code

US Post Office - Church Street Station Church st post office crop.jpg
US Post Office – Church Street Station

The World Trade Center site used the ZIP code 10048 before the September 11 attacks, and there were eight letter carriers assigned to the buildings to deliver mail to the buildings' tenants. [157] All of the Postal Service employees survived the attacks. [158] In the months following the September 11, 2001 attacks, over 80,000 pieces of mail continued to arrive each day addressed to the World Trade Center, including some items loosely addressed to such recipients as "The Search Dogs" or "The Rescuers". [159] By 2003, 3,600 items of mail per day were still being sent to 10048. [160] These items were processed at the James A. Farley General Post Office, the main facility for New York City, located across from Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan. [161] Mail there was held for pick-up by messenger, forwarded to the intended recipient, returned to its sender, or destroyed. [162]

Following the attacks, the United States Postal Service provided free mail-forwarding service to the WTC's former occupants for three years, rather than the usual one-year period. [162] By the end of 2006, the number of items sent to 10048 had decreased to around 300 items daily, [162] mostly sent from businesses and organizations that had not yet updated their bulk mailing lists. [163]

The 90 Church Street Station Post Office building is located adjacent to the new World Trade Center and the PATH station, and serves the ZIP code of 10007, which is assigned to the surrounding Tribeca neighborhood. The new World Trade Center does not use the ZIP code 10048; rather, it has been integrated within the existing 10007 ZIP code. [164] The 10048 ZIP code was used again after the September 11, 2001 attacks for a pictorial cancellation commemorating the anniversary of the attacks. [165]

See also

Related Research Articles

National September 11 Memorial & Museum Memorial and museum in New York City commemorating the September 11, 2001 attacks

The National September 11 Memorial & Museum is a memorial and museum in New York City commemorating the September 11, 2001 attacks, which killed 2,996 people, and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which killed six. The memorial is located at the World Trade Center site, the former location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11 attacks. It is operated by a non-profit institution whose mission is to raise funds for, program, and operate the memorial and museum at the World Trade Center site.

Memory Foundations

Memory Foundations is the name given by Daniel Libeskind to his site plan for the World Trade Center, which was originally selected by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) to be the master plan for rebuilding at the World Trade Center site in New York City in February 2003.

Larry Silverstein American businessman

Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Among his real estate projects, he is the developer of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in lower Manhattan as well as one of New York's tallest residential towers at 30 Park Place, where he owns a home. His worth has been estimated at $3.5 billion as of 2016.

Deutsche Bank Building Former skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

The Deutsche Bank Building was a 39-story office skyscraper located at 130 Liberty Street in New York City, adjacent to the World Trade Center site. The building opened in 1974 and closed following the September 11 attacks, due to contamination that spread from the collapse of the South Tower. The structure existed from 1974 to 2007, and was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, which also designed the famous Empire State Building.

The International Freedom Center (IFC) was a proposed museum to be located adjacent to the site of Ground Zero at the former World Trade Center in New York City, USA. It was selected in 2004 to comprise a "cultural space" near to the memorial for victims of the September 11 attacks, called Reflecting Absence.

The World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was an open, international memorial contest, initiated by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) according to the specifications of architect Daniel Libeskind, to design a World Trade Center Site Memorial on a portion of the World Trade Center site. The competition began April 28, 2003 and the winner—Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence—was revealed January 14, 2004 in a press conference at Federal Hall National Memorial in New York City. The contest garnered 5,201 entries from 63 nations and 49 U.S. states, out of 13,683 registrants from all 50 U.S. states and 94 nations, making it the largest design competition in history.

World Trade Center station (PATH) Port Authority Trans-Hudson rail station

World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system. It is located in the World Trade Center complex, within the Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line on weekdays and holiday weekends, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.

One World Trade Center Main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City

One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.

Survivors Staircase

The Survivors' Staircase was the last visible remaining original structure above ground level at the World Trade Center site. It was originally two outdoor flights of granite-clad stairs and an escalator that connected Vesey Street to the World Trade Center's Austin J. Tobin Plaza. During the September 11 attacks, the stairs served as an escape route for hundreds of evacuees from 5 World Trade Center, a 9-floor building adjacent to the 110-story towers. The staircase is now an important feature of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.

5 World Trade Center Proposed skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

5 World Trade Center is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses.

4 World Trade Center Office skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

4 World Trade Center is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the 978-foot-tall (298 m) building. It houses the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).

3 World Trade Center Office skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

3 World Trade Center is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The tower is located on the east side of Greenwich Street, on the eastern side of the World Trade Center site.

2 World Trade Center Unfinished skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

2 World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York City. It will replace the original 2 World Trade Center, which was completed in 1972, and subsequently destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001, and it will occupy the position of the original 5 World Trade Center. The foundation work was completed in 2013.

Twin Towers 2 Proposed complex of buildings

The Twin Towers II was a proposed twin-towered skyscraper complex which would have been located at the World Trade Center site in Manhattan, New York City. The proposed complex would have replaced the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center destroyed in the September 11 attacks, restoring the skyline of the city to its former state. The main design for the proposed complex would feature new landmark twin towers, nearly identical to the originals designed by Minoru Yamasaki, though it would feature 115 stories—5 floors taller than the originals, among other differences. Beside the towers, an above-ground memorial would have occupied the footprints of the original towers. The new site would also have featured three 12-story buildings, replacing the original 3, 4 and 5 World Trade Center. The complex was designed and developed by American architect Herbert Belton and American engineer Kenneth Gardner, and sponsored by Donald Trump.

Liberty Park

Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. It is located above the Vehicular Security Center and opened on June 29, 2016. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.

Performing Arts Center (Manhattan) performing arts center at the World Trade Center in New York City

The Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center at the World Trade Center (PACWTC), also called the Performing Arts Center for short, is a multi-space, 150 to 800-seat performing arts center under construction at the northeast corner of the World Trade Center complex. The site is located at the intersection of Vesey, Fulton and Greenwich Streets in Manhattan, New York City.

World Trade Center (1973–2001) Former skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

World Trade Center (2001–present) Skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.

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Organizations:

Coordinates: 40°42′42″N74°00′44″W / 40.711641°N 74.012253°W / 40.711641; -74.012253